Piasecki X-49

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X-49A "SpeedHawk"
Piasecki X-49-3.jpg
X-49A SpeedHawk VTDP Technology Demonstrator in flight
Role Experimental high-speed compound helicopter
Manufacturer Sikorsky (original airframe)
Piasecki Aircraft (modifications and testing)
First flight June 29, 2007
Status Under development
Primary user United States Army
Number built 1 prototype
Developed from SH-60 Seahawk

The Piasecki X-49 "SpeedHawk" is a four-bladed, twin-engined, experimental compound helicopter under development by Piasecki Aircraft. The X-49A is based on the airframe of a Sikorsky YSH-60F Seahawk, but utilizes Piasecki's proprietary vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP) design and includes the addition of lifting wings. The concept of the experimental program is to apply the VTDP technology to a production military helicopter to determine any benefit gained through increases in performance or useful load.

"SpeedHawk" is a concept aircraft[1] based on applying X-49A compounding concepts to a production UH-60 Black Hawk offering better performance, range, and increases in useful load. The "SpeedHawk" aircraft includes an SPU (third engine), high forward-swept wing concept, a 45-inch "fuselage plug" cabin extension, and several other drag reducing and performance-oriented improvements, including a rotor hub fairing, landing gear streamlining, and a fly-by-wire flight control system.

Development[edit]

The U.S. Navy-sponsored project worth US$26.1 million consists of a Sikorsky YSH-60F helicopter modified by Piasecki as a testbed to validate the "Vectored Thrust Ducted Propeller" (VTDP) system. One YSH-60F was converted to test the feasibility of VTDP under an advanced technology demonstration program. The YSH-60F is powered by two General Electric T700-GE-701C engines.

The demonstration contract was awarded on by the Naval Air Systems Command to Piasecki Aircraft. Piasecki installed a lifting wing with flaperons and a vectored-thrust ducted propeller (VTDP) to a U.S. Navy Sikorsky YSH-60F.[2]

The compound helicopter technology added to the YSH-60F was first demonstrated in trials of the Piasecki 16H-1 and 16H-1A in the early 1960s, when the helicopters were flown at speeds up to 225 mph (360 km/h). The success of the Pathfinder inspired others to experiment with compounding, resulting in programs such as the AH-56 Cheyenne.

In May 2003, the YSH-60F/VTDP demonstrator was redesignated the X-49A'.[3] During 2004, the X-49A VTDP program was transitioned from the U.S. Navy to the U.S. Army.[4]

Piasecki planned to use the vectored-thrust ducted propeller design of the X-49 for their entry in the Future Vertical Lift program,[5] but were not chosen to take part in the Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator (JMR-TD) phase.[6]

Design[edit]

The X-49A flight demonstrator is being developed with funding from the U.S. Army's Aviation Applied Technology Directorate to demonstrate the ability to increase the speed of existing helicopters to 200 kt (360 km/h) or more.[7] The flight demonstrator has been updated with a lifting wing taken from an Aerostar FJ-100 business jet. A ring tail has been added and the helicopter drive train modified to accommodate VTDP. Piasecki conducted integrated tests of the modified drive train at the Navy's helicopter transmission test facility. The wings are intended to produce lift to offload the rotor so the rotor can be slowed down and produce less drag, allowing for higher speed.[8]

The cockpit controls are modified with the addition of a manual propeller pitch override on the collective lever for the ring tail. This is the only visible change to the aircraft's existing mechanical controls in the cockpit. The other controls needed to operate the compound helicopter's systems are integrated into the aircraft's existing mechanical controls to reduce pilot workload. The weight added to the X-49A demonstrator aircraft is estimated at about 1,600 lb (725 kg) due to the requirement[citation needed] to not modify the existing mechanical control system.

Operational history[edit]

The X-49A made its first flight on June 29, 2007[9] for 15 minutes at Boeing’s New Castle County (KILG) flight test center.[10] This flight included hovering, pedal turns, and slow forward and sideways flight using the VTDP for anti-torque, directional and trim control. The X-49A has completed its initial testing phase, and is continuing with further testing of the technology.[citation needed] Since then, it has flown over 80 flight events with more than 80 total hours logged.[citation needed]

Operators[edit]

 United States

Specifications[edit]

X-49A on a snowy day

X-49A[edit]

  • Crew: Two[citation needed]
  • Powerplant: Two General Electric T700-GE-701C engines

SH-60B (for comparison)[edit]

Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory[11]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Capacity: 8 passengers or slung load of 6,000 lb or internal load of 4,100 lb for -B, -F and -H models and 11 passengers or slung load of 9,000 lb for -S
  • Length: 64 ft 10 in (19.76 m)
  • Rotor diameter: 53 ft 8 in (16.36 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 2 in (5.23 m)
  • Disc area: 2,262 ft² (210 m²)
  • Empty weight: 13,648 lb (6,190 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 20,110 lb (9,575 kg) (ASW mission)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 21,884 lb (9,927 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric T700-GE-401C turboshaft, 1,620 hp (1,208 kW) continuous each

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.aviationtoday.com/rw/issue/cover/17380.html
  2. ^ "Piasecki X-49 SpeedHawk (United States)", Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems. Jane's Information Group, 9 May 2008.
  3. ^ DOD 4120.15-L - Addendum, Designation-Systems.Net, 8 July 2008.
  4. ^ Graham Warwick (2006-01-03). "Funding may block X-49 progress". FlightGlobal.com. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  5. ^ The Other JMR/FVL Contenders - Aviationweek.com, April 12, 2013
  6. ^ AVX joins Bell, Sikorsky/Boeing for Army's JMR-TD development - Flightglobal.com, 6 June 2013
  7. ^ Graham Warwick (2007-07-03). "Piasecki flies X-49A SpeedHawk compound helicopter". FlightGlobal.com. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  8. ^ Croft, John. Hyper Helos: Prototypes coming off the drawing board and into the race Flight Global, 2008. Accessed: 17 February 2011.
  9. ^ "Piasecki Achieves First Flight of the X-49A VTDP Compound Helicopter Technology Demonstrator", Piasecki Aircraft, June 29, 2007.
  10. ^ "Rotorcraft Report: Piasecki SpeedHawk Starts Flight Tests", Rotor & Wing Magazine, August 1, 2007.
  11. ^ Taylor, M J H (editor) (1999). Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000 Edition. Brassey's. ISBN 1-85753-245-7. 

External links[edit]