Main article: Photosynthetic picoplankton
Main article: Heterotrophic picoplankton
Some species can also be mixotrophic. Picoplankton are responsible for the most primary productivity in oligotrophic gyres, and are distinguished from nanoplankton and microplankton. Because they are small, they have a greater surface to volume ratio, enabling them to obtain the scarce nutrients in these ecosystems. Note that the SI prefix pico- is used quite loosely here, as nanoplankton and microplankton are only 10 and 100 times larger, respectively, although it is somewhat more accurate when considered in terms of volume rather than length.
- Alexander Vershinin. "Phytoplankton in the Black Sea". Russian Federal Children Center Orlyonok.
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