Pidcock's Canal

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Pidcock's Canal
The Cut Lydney - geograph.co.uk - 3834849.jpg
The remains of the Cut, to the north of Hill Street, Lydney
Specifications
Locks 3
Status parts extant
History
Date of first use 1780's
Date closed 1840
Geography
Start point Middle Forge
End point Lydney
Connects to originally Lydney Pill; Lydney Canal from 1813
Pidcocks Canal (1880)
The Lyd
Pond
Sluice and weir
Upper forge
The Lyd
Sluice and pond
New Mills forge
The Lyd
Sluice and pond
Weir and Sluice
Middle forge and wharf
The Cut
Lydney - Chepstow road
Lydney Town
site of lock
site of lock
site of lock
St Mary's Halt
The Cut (Canal)
The Lyd
Reservoir
Lower forge/Tin Works
Station Cottages branch
Lydney Great Western Railway
basin
Swing bridge
Lydney Harbour Dock
Lydney Canal

Pidcock's Canal was a canal in Gloucestershire, England, which connected ironworks at Upper Forge and Lower Forge, and also ran to an inlet from the River Severn called Lydney Pill. It was constructed from 1778 onwards,[1] and there were three locks below Middle Forge. Following the construction of the Lydney Canal in 1813, the canal connected to that, rather than Lydney Pill, and it was disused after 1840, by which time a railway had been built up the valley of The Lyd. The railway is now preserved as the Dean Forest Railway, and most of the canal, called The Cut, still exists below Middle Forge.

History[edit]

Large parts of the parish of Lydney were organised as an estate, which had been managed by the Bathurst family since 1723. The estate contained mineral reserves, and they profited from this by building ironworks. The Lower Forge ironworks were supplied with water by several streams, which were augmented by a long leat which left the Newerne stream near the Chepstow road.[2]

In 1775, David Tanner from Tintern was granted a lease of the Upper Forge, on the northern borders of Lydney. A new 99-year lease was negotiated in 1778, which included powers to construct a canal from there to the Lower Forge. It is known that the canal had been built by 1790, although the precise date of construction is unknown. Tanner sold his lease in 1789, and in 1790 it was sold to members of the Pidcock family, who were glassmasters from Staffordshire. The Pidcocks managed the forges until 1813, when the lease was sold back to the Bathursts. They also had coal mining rights, and transported coal to Lydney Pill using the canal. On surrender, the lease covered the Upper and Middle Forges, the Lower Forge and rolling mill, the White Cross furnace, and the canal, which had by then been extended to Lydney Pill. John James took on the lease from 1814, building another forge at New Mills in the 1820s, and using the Lower Forge as a tinplate works from 1844. In 1889, Richard Thomas, who had leased the works from 1876, made improvements to the Lower Forge tinplate works, and the remaining works were stripped and abandoned.[2]

Railways arrived in the area from 1809, when the Lydney and Lydbrook Railway was authorised by an Act of Parliament. It ran parallel to the canal as it followed the course of the Newerne Valley. This became the Severn and Wye Railway and Canal in 1810, when a new Act of Parliament authorised the construction of a tramway and the canal to Lydney Harbour.[2] Pidcock's Canal fell into disuse in the 1840s.[3]

Route[edit]

The canal started at the Upper Forge, and ran close to the Newerne stream, also called The Lyd. The lower section took a more direct route to the Lower Forge, using the course of the leat which had supplied the works with water.[2] There were three locks near the Middle works.[4] The canal crossed the Chepstow road between Lydney and Newerne, and the branch from the Lower Forge to Lydney Pill was quite short.[2]

The route diagram shows the waterways as they existed in 1880. The Upper Forge, New Mills and Middle Forge all had extensive ponds upstream of the works, contained by stone dams. Once the canal closed, the ponds covered its route between Upper Forge and Middle Forge. Ordnance Survey maps for the period show weirs and sluices at the downstream ends of the ponds, and the central one at Middle Forge appears to feed the canal. By 1880 there was no obvious route around the dams, and there is no mention of locks to allow boats to move between levels. As on modern maps, the canal was known as The Cut at the time. From the Lower Mill, the canal formerly ran to Lydney Pill, but the waterways were altered as a result of the construction of the Lydney Canal. The 1880 map shows two channels below the Lower Mill, one clearly joining the bottom of The Lyd, before it discharges into the Lydney Canal, and the other running from the reservoir on the upstream side of the works to a wide basin near the Lydney Canal, but with no obvious connection between them. Halfway along this section is a small branch which ends just to the south of Station Road Cottages.[2][5]

Points of interest[edit]


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