GOQ MD LLB
|24th Premier of Quebec|
October 3, 1985 – December 12, 1985
|Lieutenant Governor||Gilles Lamontagne|
|Preceded by||René Lévesque|
|Succeeded by||Robert Bourassa|
July 5, 1946 |
|Political party||Parti Québécois|
Pierre-Marc Johnson, GOQ, (born July 5, 1946 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Quebec lawyer, physician and politician. He was the 24th Premier of Quebec from October 3 to December 12, 1985, making him the province's shortest-serving premier.
Born in Montreal, Quebec, on July 5, 1946, Johnson is of French-Canadian and Irish descent and is a Roman Catholic. He received a degree in law from the Université de Montréal in 1970 and a medical degree from the Université de Sherbrooke in 1976.
Each of the Johnsons led different political parties:
- Daniel, Sr., was leader of the conservative Union Nationale party, and had an ambiguous position on the question of independence for Quebec;
- Pierre-Marc joined the sovereigntist PQ in the aftermath of the 1970 October Crisis;
- Daniel, Jr. backed the federalist Liberals by 1977.
Member of the Cabinet
Johnson served as Minister of Labour from 1977 to 1980, Minister to Consumers, Cooperatives and Financial Institutions from 1980 to 1981, Minister of Social Affairs from 1981 to 1984 and Attorney General from 1984 to 1985.
Premier of Quebec
Johnson was generally considered to be soft on the sovereignty of Quebec issue. He put independence on the back burner, as Lévesque had begun to do under the so-called "Beau risque" approach and eventually made this approach the official constitutional policy of his party, calling it "National Affirmation".
Leader of the Official Opposition
His leadership was contested by more radical PQ supporters, such as Gérald Godin. In December 1987, he resigned as head of the party, Leader of the Opposition and member of the National Assembly. He was succeeded as head of the PQ by Jacques Parizeau, who again made independence a primary goal.
Life after leaving politics
Both a lawyer and a physician, he is a former Professor of Law at McGill University in Montreal and was Counsel at the firm of Heenan Blaikie LLP in Montreal, Quebec until 2014. He is now Counsel at the firm of Lavery, also in Montreal. In 2001 he was appointed as chief advisor and negotiator of the Quebec government in the Softwood Lumber dispute between Canada and the United States by then Premier Bernard Landry.
In October 2006, he was chosen by the Charest government to preside over a public inquiry into the collapse of a viaduct over Autoroute 19 in Laval, Quebec, leaving five dead and six injured. The choice of Johnson was criticized by both leaders in opposition André Boisclair (PQ) and Mario Dumont (Action démocratique du Québec) because of the possibility of conflict of interest. As president, he was invested with the responsibility of investigating government administration while being a former Minister of the Quebec Government, a former Premier of Quebec, and, until shortly after this nomination, member of the board of directors of Ciment Saint-Laurent, a cement company.
Attitude about sovereignty
Johnson refused to take a stance regarding the 1995 Quebec referendum on independence.
Elections as party leader
Johnson lost in December 1985 election after becoming leader in October. Johnson became as opposition leader and stepped down as party leader in 1987 (with next election in 1989).
- Johnson, Pierre Marc & Karel Mayrand. "Beyond Trade: Broadening the Globalization Governance Agenda." Guiding Global Order: G8 Governance in the Twenty First Century. (Ashgate: Aldershot, 2000). Link to item
- "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours (in French). National Assembly of Quebec.
|National Assembly of Quebec|
Yves Tardif (Liberal)
|MNA, District of Anjou
René Serge Larouche (Liberal)
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Parti Québécois
René Lévesque (Parti Québécois)
|Premier of Quebec
Robert Bourassa (Liberal)
Robert Bourassa (Liberal)
|Leader of the Opposition in Quebec
Guy Chevrette (Parti Québécois)