Pierre Auger Observatory
|Pierre Auger Observatory|
Province of Mendoza, Argentina
|Altitude||1330 m–1620 m, average ~1400 m|
|Wavelength||330–380 nm UV (Fluorescence detector), 1017–1021 eV cosmic rays (Surface detector)|
|Built||2004–2008 (and taking data during construction)|
|Telescope style||Hybrid (Surface + Fluorescence detectors)|
The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international cosmic ray observatory designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: sub-atomic particles traveling at the speed of light and each with energies beyond 1018 eV. In Earth atmosphere, such particle interacts with air nuclei and produces various other particles. These effect particles (called an "air shower") can be detected and measured. But since these high energy particles have an estimated arrival rate of just 1 per km2 per century, the Auger Observatory has created a detection area of 3,000 km2 (1,200 sq mi) — the size of Rhode Island, or Luxembourg — in order to record a large number of these events. It is located in the western Mendoza Province, Argentina, near the Andes.
The observatory was named after the French physicist Pierre Victor Auger. The project was proposed by Jim Cronin and Alan Watson in 1992. Today, more than 500 physicists from nearly 100 institutions around the world are collaborating to maintain and upgrade the site in Argentina and collect and analyse the measured data. The 15 participating countries shared the $50 million construction budget, each providing a small portion of the total cost.
From outer space, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays reach Earth. These consist of single sub-atomic particles (protons or atomic nuclei), each with an energy with energies beyond 1018 eV (about the energy of a tennis ball traveling at 80 km/h). When such a single particle reaches Earth atmosphere, it has its energy is dissipated by creating billions of other particles: electrons, photons and muons, all near the speed of light. These particles spread longitudinal (perpendicular to the single particle incoming route), creating a forward moving plane of particles, with higher intensities near the axis. Such an incident is called a "air shower". Passing through the atmosphere, this plane of particles creates UV light, invisible to the human eye, called the fuorescing effect, more or less in the pattern of straight lightning traces. These traces can be photographed at high speed by specialised telescopes, called Fluorescence Detectors, overlooking an area with at a slight elevation. Then, when the particles reach the Earth surface, they can be detected when they arrive in a water tank, where they cause Cherenkov effect: visible blue light. A sensitive fotoelectric tube, can catch these impacts. Such a station is called a called water Cherenkov Detector or 'tank'. The Augen Observatory has both type of detectors covering the same area, which allows for very precise measurements.
When a air shower hits multiple Cherenkov Detectors on the ground, the direction of the ray can be calculated using basic geometrics. The longitudinal axis point can be determined from the densities in each affected ground station. Depending on the time difference of impact places, the angle of the axis can be determined. Only when the axis would be vertical, all groiund detectors register at the the very same moment in time, and any tilting of the axis will cause a time difference between earlierst and latest touchdown.
Cosmic rays were discovered in 1912 by Victor Hess. He measured a difference in ionisation at different heights (using the Eiffel tower and a Hess-manned hot air balloon), an indication of the atmospheric thinning (so spreading) of a single ray. Influence of the Sun was ruled out by measuring during an eclipse. Many scientists researched the phenomenon, sometimes independently, and in 1937 Pierre Auger could conclude in detail that it was a single ray that interacted with air nuclei, causing an electron and photon air shower. At the same time, the third particle muon was discovered (behaving like an very heavy electron).
In 1967 University of Leeds had developed the water Cherkov detector (basins of stainless steel, 1.2 m deep) and created a 12 km2 detection area Haverah Park using 200 such 'tanks'. They were arranged in groups of four in a triangular Y-shape, each triangle with different dimensions. The observatory worked for 20 years, and produced the main design parameters for the ground detection system at Auger Obeservatory. It was Alan Watson who in the later years lead the research team and subsequently co-initiated Auger Observatory Collaboration.
Meanwhile, from the Volcano Ranch (New Mexico, 1959–1978), the Fly's Eye (Dugway, Utah) and its successor the High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector called "HiRes" or "Fly's Eye" (University of Utah), the technique of the Fluorescence Detector was developed. These are optical telescopes, adjusted to picture UV light rays when looking over a surface area. It uses faceted observation (hence the fly's eye reference), to produce pixeled pictures at high speed. In 1992, James Cronin lead the research and co-initiated the Auger Observation Collaboration.
Designing and building
In 1995 at the Fermilab, Chicago, the basic design was made for the ambitious Auger observatory. For half a year, many scientists produced the main requirements, and a cost estimation, for the projected Auger. While the area had to be reduced from 5000 km2 to 3000 km2.
When construction began, a full scale prototype was set up first: the Engineering Array. this array consisted of the first 40 ground detectors and a single fluorescence detector. All were fully equipped. The engineering array operated for 6 months in 2001 as a prototype; it was later integrated into the main setup. It was used to make more detailed design choices (like which type of PMT to use, and tank water quality requirements) and to calibrate.
In 2003, it became the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray detector in the world. It is located on the vast plain of Pampa Amarilla, near the town of Malargüe in Mendoza Province, Argentina. The basic set-up consists of 1600 water Cherenkov Detectors or 'tanks', (similar to the Haverah Park experiment) distributed over 3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi), along with 24 atmospheric Fluorescence Detector telescopes (FD; similar to the High Resolution Fly's Eye) overseeing the surface array.
The Pierre Auger Observatory is unique in that it is the first experiment that combines both ground detectors and fluorescence detectors at the same site thus allowing cross-calibration and reduction of systematic effects that may be peculiar to each technique. The Cherenkov detectors use three large photomultiplier tubes to detect the Cherenkov radiation produced by high-energy particles passing through water in the tank. The time of arrival of high-energy particles from the same shower at several tanks is used to calculate the direction of travel of the original particle. The fluorescence detectors are used to track the particle air shower's glow on cloudless moonless nights, as it descends through the atmosphere.
To support the atmospheric measurements (FD measurements), supporting stations are added to the site:
- Central Laser Facility station (CLF)
- eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF)
- The four fluorescence detector stations also operate: Lidar, infrare cloud detection (IR camera), a weather station, aerosol phase function monitors (APF; 2 out of four), optical telescopes HAM (one) and FRAM (one)
- Balloon launch station (BLS): until December 2010, wihtin hours after a notable shower a meteorologic balloon was launched to record atmospheric data up to 23 km heigth.
|Ground station array||1600 ground stations
(centerpoint of area)
|Los Leones||6 fluorescence detectors|
|Morados||6 fluorescence detectors|
|Loma Amarilla||6 fluorescence detectors|
|Coihueco||6 fluorescence detectors|
|Observatory campus||central office|
Work is ongoing on upgrades to the observatory, including:
- three additional fluorescence detecting telescopes, capable of covering higher altitudes (HEAT — High Elevation Auger Telescopes)
- two higher-density nested arrays of surface detectors combined with underground muon counters (AMIGA — Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array)
- a prototype radiotelescope array (AERA — Auger Engineering Radio Array) for detecting radioemission from the shower cascade, in the frequency range 30-80 MHz
- R&D on detecting microwave emission from shower electrons (frequencies around 4 GHz)
The observatory has been taking production-grade data since 2005 and was officially completed in 2008.
In November 2007, the Auger Project team announced some preliminary results. These showed that the directions of origin of the 27 highest-energy events were strongly correlated with the locations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The results support the theory that at the centre of each AGN is a large black hole exerting a magnetic field strong enough to accelerate a bare proton to energies of 1020 eV and higher.
The Pierre Auger Collaboration has made available (for outreach purposes) 1 out of 100 of the ground array "showers" incidents that do not exceed 50 EeV. Higher energy incidents require more physical analysis and are not published this way. The data can be explored at the Public Event Display web site.
In November 2007, it was announced that the observatory had found a correlation between the 27 highest energy events and nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN). This would suggest that these events are triggered by protons that were emitted by objects correlated with the AGN distribution of matter. Acceleration by the large magnetic fields associated with the massive central black holes that form the AGNs is one possibility.
In popular culture
Argentina issued 100,000 postage stamps honouring the observatory on 14 July 2007. The stamp shows a surface detector tank in the foreground, a building of fluorescence detectors in the background, and the expression "1020 eV" in large lettering.
- The Pierre Auger Collaboration: collaborators by institution
- The Auger Collaboration (1995-9-31). "The Pierre Auger Project Design Report". Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Retrieved 2013-6-13.
- Abraham, J. et al. (2004). "Properties and performance of the prototype instrument for the Pierre Auger Observatory". Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2003.12.012. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- Ouedec, Karim L. (2011). "Atmospheric Monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory – Status and Update". Retrieved 2013-06-12.
- Riesselmann, Kurt (October/November 2007). "On the trail of cosmic bullets". Symmetry 4 (8-9): 16–23.
- Science Magazine; 9 November 2007; The Pierre Auger Collaboration et al., pp. 938 - 943
- Analía Giménez (21 July 2007). "El laboratorio de rayos viaja al mundo en una estampilla". Diario UNO de MENDOZA. Retrieved 2011-06-16. (Spanish)
- "Observatorio Pierre Auger". Foro de Filatelia Argentina. 29 July 2007. Retrieved 2011-06-16. (Spanish)
- November 2007 AGN Press Release
- Correlation of the Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Extragalactic Objects: Science 2007 (subscription required). Arxiv preprint (free but not official).
- Let It Rain Symmetry February 2005
- Official website
- Public Event Display
- Southern site website (Spanish and English)
- COSMUS – visuals for the PAO: includes movies, animated 3d models of cosmic ray showers over the Malargüe site, and stereo photographs.
- ASPERA European astroparticle physics network
- Astroparticle.org – European astroparticle physics portal
- Detecting Cosmic Rays: The Auger Observatory and Frontier Science – Interview with Angela Olinto (video)