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Pierre Jaquet-Droz (1721–1790) was a Swiss-born watchmaker of the late eighteenth century. He lived in Paris, London, and Geneva, where he designed and built animated dolls, or automata, to help his firm sell watches and mechanical birds.
Constructed between 1768 and 1774 by Pierre Jaquet-Droz, his son Henri-Louis (1752-1791), and Jean-Frederic Leschot (1746-1824) were The Writer (made of 6000 pieces), The Musician (2500 pieces) and The Draughtsman (2000 pieces).
His astonishing mechanisms fascinated the world's most important people: the kings and emperors of Europe, China, India and Japan.
Some consider these devices to be the oldest examples of the computer. The Writer has an input device to set tabs that form a programmable memory, 40 cams that represents the read only program, and a quill pen for output. The work of Pierre Jaquet-Droz predates that of Charles Babbage by decades.
The automata of Jaquet-Droz are also considered to be some of the finest examples of human mechanical problem solving. Three particularly complex, and still working and functional dolls are housed at the art and history museum in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, now known as the Jaquet-Droz automata.
He once constructed a clock which was capable of the following surprising movements:—There were seen on it a negro, a dog, and a shepherd; when the clock struck, the shepherd played six tunes on his flute, and the dog approached and fawned upon him. This clock was exhibited to the King of Spain, who was delighted with it. "The gentleness of my dog," said Droz, "is his least merit; if your Majesty touch one of the apples, which you see in the shepherd's basket, you will admire the fidelity of this animal." The King took an apple, and the dog flew at his hand, and barked so loud, that the King's dog, which was in the room, began also to bark; at this the Courtiers, not doubting that it was an affair of witchcraft, hastily left the room, crossing themselves as they went out. The minister of Marine was the only one that ventured to stay. The king having desired him to ask the negro what o'clock it was, the minister obeyed, but he obtained no reply. Droz then observed that the negro had not yet learned Spanish.
Perregaux, Charles, Les Jaquet-Droz et leurs automates, Neuchâtel, 1906
Perregaux, Charles et Perrot, François-Louis, Les Jaquet-Droz et Leschot, Neuchâtel, 1916
Chapuis, Alfred et Gélis, Edouard, Le monde des automates, Paris, 1928
Chapuis, Alfred et Droz, Edmond, Les automates, figures artificielles d'hommes et d'animaux, Neuchâtel, 1949
Maingot, Eliane, Les automates, Paris, 1959
Carrera, Roland, Loiseau, Dominique et Olivier Roux, Androïdes. Les automates Jaquet-Droz, Lausanne, 1979
Beaune, Jean-Claude, L'automate et ses mobiles, Paris, 1980
Tissot, André, Voyage de Pierre Jaquet-Droz à la Cour du Roi d'Espagne 1758-1759, Neuchâtel, 1982
Beyer, Annette, Faszienierende Welt der Automaten, Munich, 1983
Collectif, The Cyborg Handbook, London, 1995
Vanden Berghe, Marc, Henri-Louis Jaquet-Droz et Pierre Jaquet-Droz in Biographies Neuchâteloises, tome I, Hauterive, Attinger, 1996
Collectif, Die Androïden : zur Poetologie des Automaten, Bern, Peter Lang, 1996 (contributions in German en French. English summaries)
See also 
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