Pierre Paradis

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Pierre Paradis
MNA for Brome-Missisquoi
Incumbent
Assumed office
November 17, 1980
Preceded by Armand Russell
Minister of the Environment
Styled as Minister of the Environment and Wilderness in 1994.
In office
1989–1994
Preceded by Lise Bacon
Succeeded by Jacques Brassard
Government House Leader
In office
1992–1994
Preceded by Michel Pagé
Succeeded by Guy Chevrette
Minister of Municipal Affairs and Minister responsible for Housing
In office
1988–1989
Preceded by André Bourbeau
Succeeded by Yvon Picotte
Minister of Labour
In office
1985–1988
Preceded by Raynald Fréchette
Succeeded by Yves Séguin
Minister of Manpower and Income Security
In office
1985–1988
Preceded by Pauline Marois
Succeeded by André Bourbeau
Personal details
Born (1950-07-16) 16 July 1950 (age 64)
Bedford, Quebec
Political party Quebec Liberal Party
Profession politician, lawyer

Pierre Paradis (born 16 July 1950) is a politician in the Canadian province of Quebec. He has represented Brome-Missisquoi in the National Assembly of Quebec since 1980 as a member of the Liberal Party. Paradis was a cabinet minister in the governments of Robert Bourassa and Daniel Johnson, Jr., but was never a member of Jean Charest's cabinet.

Paradis's brother, Denis Paradis, is a federal politician who served in the governments of Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin. The Paradis brothers are political allies.[1]

Early life and career[edit]

Paradis was born in Bedford in Quebec's Eastern Townships. He earned a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Ottawa (1973) and later took graduate studies in bills of exchange and business law at the same institution.[2] He was called to the Quebec Bar in 1975 and worked as a lawyer before entering politics, specializing in constitutional and administrative cases. At age twenty-seven, he won a case before the Supreme Court of Canada against proposed limits on egg marketing.[3]

Before joining the Liberal Party, Paradis was a member of the Union Nationale. He was a riding association president in the 1976 provincial election and later served on the party's provincial executive.[4] He left when he learned that Union Nationale leader Rodrigue Biron was planning to support the "Oui" side in Quebec's 1980 referendum on sovereignty.[5]

Member of the legislature[edit]

Paradis was elected to the National Assembly in a by-election held shortly after the 1980 referendum.[6] He was re-elected in the 1981 general election. The Parti Québécois was in government during this period, and Paradis sat as a member of the official opposition.

Paradis was appointed as his party's labour critic in October 1982.[7] He increased his profile in early 1983 by asking rigorous questions of Parti Québécois members during a televised hearing into the role played by Quebec Premier René Lévesque's office in approving a contentious out-of-court settlement.[8]

There were rumours that Paradis would run for the Progressive Conservative Party in the 1984 Canadian federal election, although these ultimately came to nothing.[9]

Leadership candidate[edit]

Claude Ryan resigned as Liberal leader after his party's loss in the 1981 provincial election. A leadership convention was scheduled for 1983. Despite having a low public profile, Paradis declared himself a candidate.

Paradis centred his campaign around three principles: "respect for individual rights and freedoms", "the leading role of private enterprise in our economy", and "a firm commitment to [Canadian] federalism."[10] He also called for the Liberal Party to change its image and identify more with the province's regions.[11] He favoured the sale of some crown corporations and was considered the most right-wing of the leadership candidates.[12] This notwithstanding, he also supported Quebec's universal medicare policy; one newspaper article described him as ideologically closer to Brian Mulroney than to Ronald Reagan.[13]

Several reports from the campaign described Paradis as a natural politician with effective organizational skills. One article referred to him as being "from the meat-cleaver school of oratory" with "no shadings of ambiguity."[14]

Robert Bourassa won the 1983 Quebec Liberal Party leadership election with seventy-five per cent of delegate support at the convention. Paradis finished a distant second, narrowly ahead of third-place candidate Daniel Johnson Jr. Despite his loss, Paradis won the respect of other Liberals and improved his public standing through the campaign.[15] In November 1983, Bourassa appointed him as the party's social affairs critic.[16]

Cabinet minister[edit]

Minister of Labour, Manpower and Income Security[edit]

The Liberals won a majority government in the 1985 provincial election, and Bourassa became premier of Quebec for a second time. There were early rumours that he would appoint Paradis as Minister of Agriculture, but this idea was opposed by the Union des producteurs agricoles.[17] Instead, Bourassa appointed Paradis as Minister of Labour and Minister of Manpower and Income Security on 12 December 1985.[18]

Social assistance policy

Paradis revived a dormant government policy of sending inspectors to the homes of people receiving social assistance in 1986. He said this would reduce the number of erroneous files and likely save the province sixty-eight million dollars in one year.[19] Critics charged that the inspections would lead to invasions of privacy and intimidation.[20] The Ligue des droits et libertés and the Quebec Human Rights Commission strongly opposed the practice, and the Quebec Legal Services Commission argued that mandatory visits were unconstitutional.[21] Paradis responded that the Justice Ministry had determined the visits were legal and that a provincial code of ethics would prevent abuses.[22] Following extensive criticism, the city of Montreal quietly stopped the inspections in January 1988.[23]

Paradis also announced in 1986 that social assistance recipients who owned cottages, boats, second cars, snowmobiles, or houses with more than $50,000 equity would have their rates reduced. While acknowledging that out-of-work adults who had exhausted their unemployment insurance had the right to keep some of their possessions, he added that the government had to set limits on luxury items and that this reform would allow greater payments to the "truly needy."[24]

In late 1987, Paradis introduced further reforms that increased payments for those unfit to work, provided financial assistance to low-paid parents of young children, introduced a tax credit allowing welfare recipients to take minor jobs without jeopardizing their payments, and ended a policy of paying older recipients more than younger recipients. The reforms also required that able-bodied recipients take training, do community work, or accept minor, low-paid jobs; failure to do any of these would result in payment cuts. Paradis argued that the new policy would allow more recipients to enter the workforce; critics argued it would provide a supply of cheap labour for Quebec businesses. A Globe and Mail summary noted that the bill had both progressive and conservative elements.[25]

Construction sector

Paradis introduced legislation in 1986 to create the Commission de la construction du Québec (CCQ) to oversee Quebec's construction sector. The commission was overseen by representatives from labour, management, and the government and was mandated to issue certificates based on competency. Access to the construction trade had previously been determined by work experience, and Paradis said the new system would provide opportunities for younger workers.[26]

Other

Paradis initiated a back-to-work order in March 1986 that ended a strike of 4,200 blue-collar workers in Montreal. The strike affected garbage collection and road repair, and Paradis argued it had created a safety concern; he also charged that the union neglected its responsibility to provide essential services.[27] In June of the same year, he introduced emergency legislation to end a one-day strike of 100,000 construction workers across the province.[28] In 1987, Paradis led cabinet in suspending the right to strike of maintenance workers in Montreal Transit.[29]

Paradis increased the provincial minimum wage from four dollars to $4.75 per hour between 1986 and 1988.[30] He worked to prevent layoffs at the Steinberg grocery chain in 1988.[31]

Minister of Municipal Affairs[edit]

Paradis was appointed as Minister of Municipal Affairs and Minister responsible for Housing in July 1988. In this capacity, he oversaw the province's response to unusual developments in the city of Saint-Laurent. Following a complex dispute over municipal development, four opposition councillors decided to boycott council meetings and deny quorum. Paradis said in April 1989 that the situation had "sufficiently exhausted the patience of government", although he resisted calls to impose trusteeship before a key municipal by-election.[32]

In July 1989, Paradis initiated legislation that saved the city of Montreal from paying $228 million in business tax refunds. A Quebec Superior Court decision earlier in the year had struck down parts of a municipal taxation bylaw; this decision prompted a flood of lawsuits, and Paradis reluctantly intervened to protect city's credit rating.[33]

Minister of the Environment[edit]

Paradis was re-elected in the 1989 provincial election and was promoted to Minister of the Environment in October 1989. When Daniel Johnson succeeded Bourassa in January 1994, he changed Paradis's title to minister of the Environment and Wildlife.[34] He also served as the Government House Leader from 1992 to 1994.

Ministry reforms

At the time of Paradis's appointment, the Quebec environment ministry was known for being disorganized and bureaucratic.[35] In November 1989, he introduced restructuring changes directed toward fighting industrial pollution. The most notable change was the appointment of a deputy minister for sustainable development, charged with ensuring that new industrial projects would be environmentally sound.[36] The following year, Paradis expressed disappointment that his department received only fifteen million dollars for restructuring rather than the expected fifty million.[37]

Great Whale River project

As Environment Minister, Paradis was responsible for overseeing Quebec's environmental assessment of the proposed Great Whale River project. As such, he became involved in separate but overlapping controversies with one of his cabinet colleagues, the government of Canada, and the Cree of northern Quebec.

Paradis and provincial Energy Minister Lise Bacon engaged in a public dispute over Great Whale's schedule in 1990. Bacon wanted a two-stage environmental assessment that would allow access roads and airports to be constructed as quickly as possible. Paradis initially agreed, but he later called for a single comprehensive assessment when the Cree warned that a two-stage process would violate a prior agreement. He also stressed that Great Whale could be shut down if it was found to be environmentally unsound, while Bacon argued that it was necessary for Quebec's energy needs.[38] The government ultimately approved the two-stage approach over Paradis's objections.[39]

Paradis also opposed the federal government's bid to conduct an independent environmental assessment, on the grounds that Great Whale was within Quebec's jurisdiction.[40] He reached an agreement with federal Environment Minister Robert de Cotret in January 1991 to conduct a shared review of the project's dams, but not of its roads and other infrastructure.[41] This agreement later fell through due to differences between the parties.[42] De Cotret's successor, Jean Charest, tried to establish a single, comprehensive assessment involving both levels of government; although Paradis still supported the idea of a single assessment, he opposed what he described as Charest's encroachment into the provincial domain.[43]

The Cree of northern Quebec opposed the Great Whale project on the grounds that it would cause massive flooding in their traditional territories. Under Matthew Coon Come's leadership, the Cree used lawsuits and an international publicity campaign to draw attention to their concerns. Paradis expressed support for their position, although he criticized tactical decisions made by the Cree leadership.[44]

The Bourassa government curtailed its development plans in August 1991, and Paradis announced that construction would not begin until a thorough environmental review had taken place.[45] The following month, the Federal Court of Appeal ruled that the federal government was legally bound to undertake a comprehensive study of the project's effects on the environment and indigenous communities, and that it therefore had final authority over the project.[46] The court also ruled that the federal and provincial governments could not undertake a joint review without agreement from the Cree and Inuit.[47] The Great Whale project was ultimately cancelled by the Quebec government 1994.[48]

Federal–provincial relations

In 1989, Paradis and Ontario Environment Minister Jim Bradley successfully pressured the federal government to increase standards for motor vehicle emissions.[49] Paradis and Bradley also worked to harmonize their respective environmental laws, to ensure that companies would not be able to leave one province for the other to avoid regulation.[50]

The Parliament of Canada passed a law in 1992 to increase federal oversight of projects such as dams and paper mills. Paradis described the law as "totalitarian", arguing that it encroached on Quebec's jurisdiction.[51] The bill was not proclaimed into law until late 1994, by which time the Quebec Liberal Party was out of office.[52]

In early 1994, Paradis reached an agreement with new federal Environment Minister Sheila Copps for a six-year program to clean up the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River.[53] In the same year, the Quebec Environment Ministry was given sole responsibility for enforcing pulp and paper environmental regulations.[54]

Other environmental concerns

In October 1991, Paradis approved a gas processing and storage project by Soligaz in Varennes. The initial provincial review recommended that the project be rejected due to safety concerns, although two subsequent reviews called for the government to approve it.[55]

Paradis ordered the closure of a Tioxide plant in Tracy, Quebec in 1992, saying that the company had repeatedly broken its promise to improve environmental standards. The plant had long been regarded as one of Quebec's worst polluters.[56] The company initially challenged the ruling, but shut down part of the operation in 1993.[57]

A Montreal Gazette report in late 1991 noted that Paradis had "injected new vigor into the enforcement of anti-pollution laws" but added that he had not succeeding in making the environment a priority of the Bourassa government.[58]

Canadian federalism

As a vocal supporter of Canadian federalism, Paradis had little involvement in the Bourassa government's turn to Quebec nationalism after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord.[59] He opposed the nationalist Allaire Report and promoted changes to Quebec's Charter of the French Language to permit an increased use of languages other than French on public signs.[60] In 1994, however, Paradis said that his party would need to reach out to Quebec nationalists for the "Non" side to win the next referendum on sovereignty.[61]

Paradis chose not to run for the Liberal Party leadership when Robert Bourassa resigned for health reasons in 1993.[62] Daniel Johnson won the leadership without opposition.[63]

House Leader of the Official Opposition[edit]

The Parti Québécois defeated the Liberals in the 1994 provincial election. Paradis, who was re-elected in his own riding without difficulty, served as opposition house leader after the election.

He campaigned for the "non" side in the 1995 Quebec referendum on sovereignty. Shortly before election day, he warned that Quebecers would vote for sovereignty unless the federal government and other provincial premiers gave the province "a signal" that Quebecers could expect favourable changes in a united Canada.[64] After a last-minute rally, the federalist side won a narrow victory.

Paradis initially supported Daniel Johnson against challenges to his leadership in early 1997.[65] Relations between the two men later became tense, however, and Paradis did not support Johnson against similar challenges in 1998.[66]

When Johnson announced his resignation in March 1998, Paradis was again rumoured as a possible leadership candidate. He was known in this period as a strong parliamentary tactician whose fiscal conservative still put him on the right wing of the party. Some questioned whether he had the public profile to lead his party to victory.[67] In the buildup to a possible leadership contest, Paradis criticized the federal government's Millennium Fund and a new program for the elderly as encroachments on Quebec's jurisdiction.[68] He ultimately decided not to seek the leadership, and Jean Charest was chosen as Liberal leader without opposition.[69] Charest kept Paradis as the party's house leader.[70]

The Liberals were again defeated in the 1998 provincial election, despite winning a plurality of the popular vote. Paradis remained as opposition house leader for the next five years, and it was expected that he would be included in cabinet if and when his party returned to power.[71]

Government backbencher[edit]

The Liberals won a majority government under Charest's leadership in the 2003 provincial election. When Charest announced his first cabinet, there was general surprise that Paradis was excluded.[72] When asked about the decision, Charest said that he wanted to highlight a new tone and a change of generation.

Paradis said that his exclusion marked a shift in the Liberal Party from the values of Robert Bourassa and Claude Ryan to a more right-wing approach. Despite his own right-wing background, Paradis was by this period regarded as a moderate who supported a role for the state in Quebec life and opposed Charest's labour policies and funding cuts.[73]

In the months that followed, Paradis speculated about quitting provincial politics. He considered running as a Liberal for Saint-Jean in the next federal election and there were rumours that he would be appointed as a judge.[74] He eventually chose to take his seat on the government backbenches in November 2003.[75] In 2006, he voted against Charest's decision to sell part of the Mont Orford provincial park to private interests.[76]

The Liberals were reduced to a minority government in the 2007 provincial election, and Paradis was re-elected by the narrowest margin of his career against a candidate from the upstart Action démocratique du Québec party. There was some speculation that he would be returned to cabinet, but this did not occur.[77] He considered running for speaker of the assembly in 2008, but he declined after meeting with opposition from others in his party. He instead supported Yvon Vallières for the position.[78]

Paradis was returned again by an increased margin in the 2008 election as the Liberals returned to a majority government. As before, he was excluded from Charest's cabinet.[79]

Federal politics[edit]

Paradis's local organization supported Progressive Conservative incumbent Gabrielle Bertrand in the 1988 federal election.[80] He later aligned with the federal Liberal Party and was rumoured as a candidate for a 1995 by-election in Brome—Missisquoi (the federal electoral district of the same name).[81] After deciding not to run, he supported his brother Denis Paradis for the position.[82] Denis Paradis won the election and was later a cabinet minister in the governments of Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin.

Electoral record[edit]

Quebec general election, 2012: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 13,841 33.02 -16.22
Coalition Avenir Québec Benoit Legault 13,538 32.30 +15.65*
Parti Québécois Richard Leclerc 10,670 25.46 -1.86
Québec solidaire Benoit Van Caloen 1,944 4.64 +1.74
Green Louise Martineau 724 1.73 -1.59
Option nationale Patrick Melchior 490 1.17
Conservative Jacques Pipon 253 0.60
Coalition pour la constituante Dominique Favreau 184 0.44
Independent Jean-Pierre Dufault 141 0.34
Independent Gilles Alarie 127 0.30
Total valid votes 41,912 99.00
Total rejected ballots 425 1.00
Turnout 42,337 76.55 +16.16
Electors on the lists 55,304

* Result compared to Action démocratique

Quebec general election, 2008: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 15,006 49.24 +9.39
     Parti Québécois Richard Leclerc 8,325 27.32 +6.98
     Action démocratique Mario Charpentier 5,073 16.65 -14.88
Green Louise Martineau 1,012 3.32 -2.07
     Québec Solidaire Diane Cormier 884 2.90 -
     Independent Jacques-Antoine Normandin 173 0.57
Total valid votes 30,473 98.45
Rejected and declined votes 480 1.55
Turnout 30,953 60.39 -11.49
Electors on the lists 51,255
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec general election, 2007: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 14,182 39.85 -15.79
     Action démocratique Jean L'Écuyer 11,221 31.53 +13.48
     Parti Québécois Richard Leclerc 7,238 20.34 -3.94
Green Vanessa Thibodeau 1,917 5.39
     Québec Solidaire Lorraine Lasnier 1,032 2.90 +1.37
Total valid votes 35,590 99.17
Rejected and declined votes 298 0.83
Turnout 35,888 71.88 +1.44
Electors on the lists 49,928
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec general election, 2003: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberal Pierre Paradis 18,546 55.64
Parti Québécois Lina Le Blanc 8,093 24.28
Action démocratique Pierre Plante 6,018 18.05
UFP Simon Gnocchini 509 1.53
Equality Lionel Albert 167 0.50
Total valid votes 33,333 98.67
Rejected and declined votes 448 1.33
Turnout 33,781 70.44
Electors on the lists 47,955
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec general election, 1998: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 18,127 57.17 -3.95
     Parti Québécois Raôul Duguay 9,789 30.87 +1.07
     Action démocratique Eric Larivière 3,599 11.35 +4.58
     Natural Law Jean-Charles Rouleau 194 0.61 -0.30
Total valid votes 31,709 99.19
Rejected and declined votes 258 0.82
Turnout 31,967 80.56 -3.51
Electors on the lists 39,680
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec general election, 1994: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 18,402 61.12 +6.94
Parti Québécois Marie-Paul Bourassa-Marois 8,972 29.80 +4.77
Action démocratique Benoit Trudeau 2,037 6.77
Equality Ross K. Ladd 423 1.40 -9.66
Natural Law Jean Cérigo 274 0.91
Total valid votes 30,108 98.51
Rejected and declined votes 456 1.49
Turnout 30,564 84.07 +8.15
Electors on the lists 36,354
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec general election, 1989: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberal Pierre Paradis 13,502 54.18
Parti Québécois Daniel Lavoie 6,238 25.03
Unity Graham Neil 2,756 11.06
Independent Heather Keith-Ryan 1,936 7.77
Parti 51 Jean-Guy Péloquin 269 1.08
Independent Robin Lawrance 137 0.55
Commonwealth of Canada Maurice Boisclair 84 0.34
Total valid votes 24,922 98.01
Rejected and declined votes 507 1.99
Turnout 25,429 75.92
Electors on the lists 33,496
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec general election, 1985: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 16,500 68.83 +6.26
     Parti Québécois Wilfrid Laroche 6,456 26.93 -4.71
     New Democratic Party Ron Marchand 880 3.67
     Christian Socialist André Paré 136 0.57
Total valid votes 23,972 99.11
Rejected and declined votes 216 0.89
Turnout 24,188 74.47 -6.85
Electors on the lists 32,479
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec general election, 1981: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 15,832 62.57
     Parti Québécois Marie Harvey 8,005 31.63
Union Nationale Jean-Guy Péloquin 1,178 4.66
     Freedom of Choice Blair McIntosh 289 1.14
Total valid votes 25,304 99.34
Rejected and declined votes 168 0.66
Turnout 25,472 81.32
Electors on the lists 31,325
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Quebec provincial by-election, November 17, 1980: Brome-Missisquoi
Party Candidate Votes % ∆%
Liberal Pierre Paradis 13,271 62.45 +38.85
     Parti Québécois Gérard Comptois 5,962 28.06 +7.40
Union Nationale Pierre-Paul Ravenelle 1,909 8.98 -40.29
     Crédit social uni Joseph Ranger 107 0.50
Total valid votes 21,249 100.00
Rejected and declined votes 154
Turnout 21,403 68.29 -14.64
Electors on the lists 31,342
Source: Official Results, Le Directeur général des élections du Québec.
Leadership contests
Candidate Votes %
Quebec Liberal Party leadership convention
16 October 1983
First Ballot
Robert Bourassa 2,138 75.44
Pierre Paradis 353 12.46
Daniel Johnson 343 12.10
Total valid votes 2,834 100.00

Source: Margot Gibb-Clark, "Bourassa team had thought of everything", Globe and Mail, 17 October 1983, p. 8.

References[edit]

  1. ^ This point is not as self-evident as it may seem. Some prominent Quebec siblings, including Daniel Johnson and Pierre-Marc Johnson, have been political rivals.
  2. ^ "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours (in French). National Assembly of Quebec. 
  3. ^ Margot Gibb-Clark, "Paradis behind but not quitting", Globe and Mail, 24 September 1983, p. 14.
  4. ^ "Liberal sweep likely in Monday's four Quebec by-elections", Globe and Mail, 15 November 1980, p. 4; Margot Gibb-Clark, "Bourassa tries comeback, joins Quebec Liberal race", Globe and Mail, 20 August 1983, p. 12.
  5. ^ Margot Gibb-Clark, "Paradis behind but not quitting", Globe and Mail, 24 September 1983, p. 14.
  6. ^ He won the Liberal Party nomination over Rosaire Raymond, who served as the mayor of Cowansville from 1975 to 1983 and has owned several transportation companies. See Jennifer Robinson, "Down-to-earth Paradis wows Bourassa", Montreal Gazette, 28 March 1987, B4. For information on Raymond, see Paul Delean, "Wheels of fortune: Trucker's three daughters play a key role in firm's success", Montreal Gazette, 26 April 1999, F1, and Les entités municipales: Cowansville, Généalogie Québec. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  7. ^ "Quebec Liberals shuffle critics", Globe and Mail, 6 October 1982, p. 9.
  8. ^ Margot Gibb-Clark, "Levesque won't seek Liberal leadership", 21 July 1983, p. 11. The settlement produced a mini-scandal known in the local press as "Hydrogate".
  9. ^ Lawrence Martin, "Quebec seat for Mulroney in next election, Tories say", Globe and Mail, 13 January 1984, p. 8; "'French power' in PM's Cabinet is Quebec aim", Globe and Mail, 6 July 1984, p. 8.
  10. ^ Joyce Napier, "Paradis seeks to lead Liberals in Quebec", Globe and Mail, 10 August 1983, p. 10.
  11. ^ Margot Gibb-Clark, "Experience, youth seen as choices in Quebec contest", Globe and Mail, 5 September 1983, p. 1.
  12. ^ Margot Gibb-Clark, "Bourassa tries comeback, joins Quebec Liberal race", 16 August 1983, p. 1; Margot Gibb-Clark, "Voter majority seen tonight Bourassa leadership win close", Globe and Mail, 13 September 1983, p. 19.
  13. ^ Margot Gibb-Clark, "Paradis behind but not quitting", Globe and Mail, 24 September 1983, p. 14.
  14. ^ Margot Gibb-Clark, "Bourassa tries comeback, joins Quebec Liberal race", Globe and Mail, 20 August 1983, p. 12. Gibb-Clark quoted the "meat-cleaver school" line from another, unnamed journalist.
  15. ^ Victor Maralek, "Losers got no second chance in vote", Globe and Mail, 17 October 1983, p. 19.
  16. ^ "Bourassa keeping 2 leadership rivals in shadow cabinet", Globe and Mail, 15 November 1983, N4.
  17. ^ Graham Fraser, "Bourassa likely to pick former justice minister for finance portfolio", Globe and Mail, 12 December 1985, A4.
  18. ^ "Quebec Cabinet is sworn in", Globe and Mail, 13 December 1985, A10.
  19. ^ "Welfare recipients to be checked", Globe and Mail, 19 May 1986, A5.
  20. ^ Bertrand Marotte, "Quebec inspectors seek welfare fraud", Globe and Mail, 13 June 1986, A8. The inspectors were nicknamed the Bou-bou Macoutes, a reference to both François Duvalier's notorious Tonton Macoutes and a diminutive nickname for Robert Bourassa.
  21. ^ "Welfare inspections 'unconstitutional,' commission says", Globe and Mail, 16 June 1986, A5; Francois Shalom, "Quebec groups denounce province's 'welfare-police' tactics", Globe and Mail, 18 June 1986, N5.
  22. ^ Bertrand Marotte, "Welfare's home visits criticized", Globe and Mail, 26 June 1986, A9.
  23. ^ Sarah Scott, "Welfare officials rein in the 'bou-bou macoutes'", Montreal Gazette, 9 July 1988, B6.
  24. ^ Robert McKenzie, "Welfare cut for Quebecers with cottages, boats", Toronto Star, 30 May 1986, A3.
  25. ^ Benoit Aubin, "Quebec introduces sweeping reform of welfare program", Globe and Mail, 11 December 1987, A13; Lise Bissonnette, "Paradis is determined to make welfare work", Globe and Mail, 19 December 1987, D2.
  26. ^ Robert McKenzie, "Quebec plans to overhaul construction industry", Toronto Star, 13 November 1986, A3. Some objected that the new regulations would allow more out-of-province workers to access the market, although Paradis denied this.
  27. ^ "Quebec set to halt Montreal strike", Toronto Star, 14 March 1986, A8; Graham Fraser, "Montreal outside workers are ordered to end strike", Globe and Mail, 19 March 1986, A8.
  28. ^ "Quebec construction at a standstill", Globe and Mail, 17 June 1986, A11.
  29. ^ "Transit workers lose strike right", Globe and Mail, 4 May 1987, A5.
  30. ^ "Minimum wage in Quebec to rise to $4.75 an hour", Globe and Mail, 3 June 1988, B4.
  31. ^ "Quebec puts conditions on aid to curtail layoffs at Steinberg", Toronto Star, 11 June 1988, SA2; Harvey Enchin, "Steinberg and union still seek a consensus", Globe and Mail, 18 June 1988, B3. The chain was Quebec's third-largest employer.
  32. ^ Andre Picard, "Bizarre standoff leaves City of St. Laurent without government", Globe and Mail, 27 April 1989, A20.
  33. ^ Andre Picard, "Quebec bill absolves Montreal from paying business tax refunds", Globe and Mail, 4 July 1989, B4. Technically, the change was enacted through a Private Member's Bill. In reality, Paradis authorized the legislation.
  34. ^ "Leaner look for cabinet", Globe and Mail, 12 January 1994, A4.
  35. ^ Philip Authier, "Paradis pulls on his green jeans; Environment minister finds closet full of horrors in his new portfolio", Montreal Gazette, 23 December 1989, B4; Graeme Hamilton, "For Pierre Paradis, 1990 has been the year of living environmentally", Montreal Gazette, 27 October 1990, A5.
  36. ^ Andre Picard, "Shakeup to gear Quebec ministry for attack on industrial pollution", Globe and Mail, 25 November 1989, N18.
  37. ^ "Won't leave the cabinet, Paradis says", Globe and Mail, 2 May 1990, N9.
  38. ^ Philip Authier, "Bacon challenges Paradis on his James Bay reversal", Montreal Gazette, 21 September 1990, A1; Barrie McKenna, "Ministers at odds over James Bay project", Globe and Mail, 26 September 1990, B6; Rhéal Séguin, "James Bay warning issue Battle likely in Quebec cabinet", Globe and Mail, 11 October 1990, A6; Robert McKenzie, "James Bay plan in jeopardy, ministers say", Toronto Star, 11 October 1990, A14; Eloise Morin, "Even $1 billion wouldn't save hydro project, Cree insist", Toronto Star, 8 November 1990, A3.
  39. ^ Barrie McKenna, "Great Whale may be killed by delays, supporters say", Globe and Mail, 12 April 1991, B3.
  40. ^ William Walker, "Reassassing impact of megaprojects", Toronto Star, 22 April 1990, B4.
  41. ^ Dennis Bueckert, "Agreement set on review of hydro project", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 8 January 1991, A10.
  42. ^ Andre Picard, "Three named to review panel on power project Academics to examine full impact of Great Whale development", Globe and Mail, 16 August 1991, A4.
  43. ^ Kevin Dougherty, "New James Bay Snag?", Financial Post, 23 May 1991, p. 44; Andre Picard, "Hearings ordered on power project", Globe and Mail, 11 July 1991, A1.
  44. ^ Patricia Poirier, "Crees seek to halt Quebec project", Globe and Mail, 26 October 1990, A7; Eloise Morin, "Even $1 billion wouldn't save hydro project, Cree insist", Toronto Star, 8 November 1990, A3; Andre Picard, "Great Whale lawsuits to continue, Crees say", 23 August 1991, A4; Rhéal Séguin, "Quebec proceeds gingerly in dealing with Cree unrest", Globe and Mail, 27 June 1991, N4.
  45. ^ "Great Whale project on hold Environmental review planned", Globe and Mail, 22 August 1991, A5; Andre Picard, "Great Whale lawsuits to continue, Crees say", Globe and Mail, 23 August 1991, A4.
  46. ^ Robert McKenzie, "Quebec, Ottawa may both appeal hydro dam ruling", Toronto Star, 12 September 1991, A15.
  47. ^ Rhéal Séguin and Andre Picard, "Quebec gives in to Great Whale review", Globe and Mail, 3 October 1991, A4.
  48. ^ Charles Trueheart, "Quebec Turns Off Giant Hydroelectric Project", Washington Post, 20 November 1994, A34.
  49. ^ David Israelson, "Observers gasp at toughness of exhaust rules", Toronto Star, 29 October 1989, B4.
  50. ^ Andre Picard, "Quebec, Ontario agree to unify pollution laws", Globe and Mail, 25 November 1989, B3.
  51. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Ottawa being totalitarian, Quebec says", Globe and Mail, 18 March 1992, A4; Geoffrey York, "Quebec enraged by bill's approval", Globe and Mail, 20 March 1992, A6.
  52. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Action on environment bill renews PQ fire on Ottawa", Globe and Mail, 7 October 1994, A5.
  53. ^ "Ottawa to kick in $150M for Lakes, river cleanup", Financial Post, 19 April 1994, p. 59.
  54. ^ "Enforcement transferred", Globe and Mail, 7 May 1994, B2.
  55. ^ "Paradis backs Soligaz", Globe and Mail, 12 October 1991, B2; "Quebec sees Soligaz project as revitalization of industry", Toronto Star, 21 October 1991, B4.
  56. ^ Andre Picard, "Plant to shut down for ignoring clean-up orders", Globe and Mail, 30 May 1992, A6.
  57. ^ Barrie McKenna, "St. Lawrence's worst polluter closing part of Quebec plant", 2 February 1993, B7.
  58. ^ "Paradis suffers a blow", Montreal Gazette, 30 December 1991, B2.
  59. ^ Robert McKenzie, "Quebec cabinet looks united as federalist ministers lie low", Toronto Star, 31 January 1991, A11.
  60. ^ David Olive, "Independence movement ruled by limo separatists who still want the income to shop on Rue Sherbooke", Globe and Mail, 16 February 1991, D4; "Darts and Laurels", Toronto Star, 23 February 1991, D2; Eloise Morin, "Canada must woo Quebec top Bourassa aide says", Toronto Star, 27 March 1991, A1; Rhéal Séguin, "Cabinet ministers back away from official Liberal platform", Globe and Mail, 28 May 1992, A9; Daniel Sanger, "Environmental law approved by Senate 'Judicial warfare' promised in Quebec", Hamilton Spectator, 2 January 1993, A12; "Quebec plans end to 15-year ban on English signs", Reuters News, 6 May 1993.
  61. ^ Rhéal Séguin and John Gray, "Parizeau pleads for civil debate", Globe and Mail, 15 September 1994, A1.
  62. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Johnson backers try to place him in front", Globe and Mail, 23 September 1993, A4. Before Bourassa's resignation, a report in the Montreal Gazette indicated that Paradis was popular in the countryside but not in urban centres and that party insiders regarded his management style as erratic. See Sarah Scott, "Liberals eye Pierre Marc Johnson as leader", Montreal Gazette, 29 May 1993, A1.
  63. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Johnson to replace Bourassa by default", Globe and Mail, 14 December 1993, A1.
  64. ^ Sandro Contenta, "Federalist sends distress call", Toronto Star, 24 October 1995, A10.
  65. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Embattled Johnson assumes nationalist mantle", Globe and Mail, 5 March 1997, A4.
  66. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Charest focuses on election as he names caucus leaders", Globe and Mail, 14 May 1998, A8.
  67. ^ Andre Picard, "Power of a kingmaker", Globe and Mail, 3 March 1998, A4; "Canada's Charest best hope for Quebec Liberals-poll", Reuters News, 7 March 1998.
  68. ^ Rhéal Séguin, Graham Fraser, and Kevin Cox, "Drop hard-line stand, Quebec Grits tell Ottawa", Globe and Mail, 10 March 1998, A7.
  69. ^ "Quebec Liberal candidates do shuffle", Globe and Mail, 17 March 1998, A1; Rhéal Séguin, "Paradis drops out of Quebec race", Globe and Mail, 17 March 1998, A3.
  70. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Charest focuses on election as he names caucus leaders", Globe and Mail, 14 May 1998, A8.
  71. ^ Maurice Crossfield, "Paradis ends nine years in opposition", Sherbrooke Record, 15 April 2005, p. 5.
  72. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Charest sworn in as Quebec Premier", Globe and Mail, 30 April 2003, A7; Maurice Crossfield, "B-M shocked at Paradis snub", Sherbrooke Record, 1 May 2003, p. 1.
  73. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Paradis suddenly yesterday's man", Globe and Mail (breaking news), 8 June 2003; "Prominent Quebec Liberal returns to backbench, promises to guard party values", Canadian Press, 25 November 2003, 14:47; Josee Legault, "Charest needs the new, gentler Pierre Paradis", Montreal Gazette, 28 November 2003, A23.
  74. ^ "Snubbed by Charest, MNA ponders quitting", Globe and Mail, 3 June 2003, A10; "Quebec legislature member says he's being courted by federal Liberals", Canadian Press, 5 September 2003, 13:28.
  75. ^ "Phone call from Charest helps keep former cabinet minister in politics", National Post, 26 November 2003, A7.
  76. ^ Hubert Bauch, "Charest can't avoid the storm", Montreal Gazette, 2 April 2006, A1; Don McPherson, "Loyalty's issue for Charest", Montreal Gazette, 4 May 2006, A1; Rhéal Séguin, "Quebec pushes through bill privatizing Orford park", Globe and Mail, 14 June 2006, A14.
  77. ^ Rhéal Séguin, "Fragile win puts pressure on Charest's leadership", Globe and Mail (breaking news), 27 March 2007; Rhéal Séguin, "Woman fill half of cabinet in Quebec", Globe and Mail, 19 April 2007, A12.
  78. ^ Rita Legault, "The next speaker?", Sherbrooke Record, 18 July 2008, p. 1; Rita Legault, "Assembly sees side swipe", Sherbrooke Record, 22 October 2008, p. 3; Rita Legault, "Vallières is Liberal choice for speaker", Sherbrooke Record, 15 August 2008, p. 1.
  79. ^ Rita Legault, "Charest's cabinet named", Sherbrooke Record, 19 December 2008, p. 4.
  80. ^ Robert McKenzie, "Key Quebec Liberal organisers back Mulroney", Toronto Star, 14 October 1988, A24.
  81. ^ "National Notebook", Globe and Mail, 27 September 1994, A4. See also Rosemary Speirs, "Caucus highlights PM's isolation in Quebec", Toronto Star, 28 January 1997, A17, which notes that Paradis was one of only two Quebec Liberal legislators to attend a gathering of the federal Liberal Party caucus.
  82. ^ Sandro Contenta, "'Local guy' in tough fight for Bloc", Toronto Star, 16 January 1995, A1.

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