|Classification and external resources|
Pigeon toe (also known as metatarsus varus, metatarsus adductus, in-toe gait, intoeing or false clubfoot) is a condition which causes the toes to point inward when walking. It is most common in infants and children under two years of age and, when not the result of simple muscle weakness, normally arises from one of three underlying conditions, a twisted shin bone, an excessive anteversion (femoral head is more than 15° from the angle of torsion) resulting in the twisting of the thigh bone when the front part of a person's foot is turned in.
- Curved foot (metatarsus adductus)
- Twisted shin (tibial torsion)
- Twisted thighbone (femoral anteversion)
The most common form of being pigeon toed, when the feet bend inward from the middle part of the foot to the toes.
The tibia or lower leg slightly or severely twists inward when walking.
The femur or thigh bone turns inward when walking.
Most of these conditions are self-correcting during childhood. In the worst cases surgery may be needed. Most of the time this involves lengthening the achilles tendon. Less severe treatment options for pigeon toe include keeping a child from crossing his or her legs, use of corrective shoes and casting of the foot and lower legs, which is normally done before the child reaches 12 months of age or older.
If the pigeon toe is mild and close to the center, treatment may not be necessary. Ballet has been used as a treatment for mild cases. Dance exercises can help to bend the legs outward.
- "Pigeon toe (in-toeing)". University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
- Glenn Copeland, Stan Solomon and Mark Myerson (2005). The Good Foot Book. New York: Hunter House. pp. 96–97. ISBN 0-89793-448-2.
- "pigeon toe" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- "Intoeing". American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved 6 July 2013. "Reviewed by members of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America"
- Clifford R. Wheeless III (ed.). "Internal Tibial Torsion". Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Lee Mancini, MD., CSCS (2005-11-02). "Pigeon Toe". Fairview Health Services African American Have A 75% Higher Rate Of It Then Cacashion. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- UK information from Oxford Hospitals NHS Trust
- Metatarsus Adductus on POSNA—The Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America
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