Pilatus PC-9

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PC-9
RAAF PC-9.png
A RAAF PC-9 of 2FTS
Role Basic/Advanced Trainer aircraft
National origin Switzerland, Australia
Manufacturer Pilatus Aircraft
First flight 7 May 1984
Status Active service in production
Primary users Swiss Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
Royal Thai Air Force
Produced 1984–present
Number built 250
Developed from Pilatus PC-7
Developed into T-6 Texan II

The Pilatus PC-9 is a single-engine, low-wing tandem-seat turboprop training aircraft manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland.

Design and development[edit]

The PC-9 is a more powerful evolution of the PC-7. It retains the overall layout of its predecessor, but it has very little structural commonality with it. Amongst other improvements, the PC-9 features a larger cockpit with stepped ejection seats and also has a ventral airbrake.

The PC-9 program officially started in 1982. Although some aerodynamic elements were tested on a PC-7 during 1982 and 1983, the first flight of the first PC-9 prototype took place on 7 May 1984. A second prototype flew on 20 July of the same year; this prototype had all the standard electronic flight instrumentation and environmental control systems installed and was thus almost fully representative of the production version.

Certification was achieved in September 1985. By this time, the PC-9 had lost the RAF trainer competition to the Short Tucano. However, the marketing links that Pilatus built up with British Aerospace during the competition stood them in good stead, as it soon led to their first order from Saudi Arabia.

As of 2004, more than 250 aircraft of this type have been built.

Operational history[edit]

The first production aircraft for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) flew on 19 May 1987, under the Australian designation PC-9/A.

Condor of Germany uses 10 examples of the target-towing variant.

Variants[edit]

PC-9
Two-seat basic trainer aircraft.
PC-9/A
Two-seat basic trainer for the Royal Australian Air Force. Built under licence in Australia by Hawker de Havilland. Croatia ordered three second-hand examples from the RAAF in 1997.
PC-9B
Two-seat target-towing aircraft for the German Luftwaffe. This target-towing version has an increased fuel capacity enabling flight for up to 3 hours and 20 minutes as well as two Southwest RM-24 winches under the wings. These winches can reel out a target up to 3.5 kilometres.
PC-9M
This version was introduced in 1997 as the new standard model. It has an enlarged dorsal fin in order to improve longitudinal stability, modified wingroot fairings, stall strips on the leading edges as well as new engine and propeller controls. Croatia bought 17 new examples in 1997; Slovenia placed an order for nine (nicknamed Hudournik – "Swift") in December of the same year; Oman ordered 12 examples in January 1999; and Ireland signed a contract for eight in January 2003. Bulgaria purchased 12 aircraft in 2004. The last order was made by Mexico, which received at least two in September 2006.
Beech Pilatus PC-9 Mk.2
In order to compete in the United States JPATS competition, Pilatus and Beechcraft developed an extensively modified version of the PC-9, initially called the Beech Pilatus PC-9 Mk. II which won out over seven other contenders.[1] It was later renamed the Beechcraft T-6A Texan II and is now built and marketed independently by Beechcraft. Over 700 are to be built for the United States Air Force and United States Navy, with Pilatus receiving royalties.

Operators[edit]

RAAF PC-9 operated by 2FTS
Bulgarian Air Force Pilatus PC-9M
Croatian Air Force aerobatic team Wings of Storm
Pilatus PC-9M of the Slovenian Armed Forces
Pilatus PC-9 at Bern-Belp Airport
Pilatus PC-9
Current operators in dark blue, former in light blue and civil in red.

Military operators[edit]

 Australia
 Bulgaria
 Croatia
  • Croatian Air Force operates 20 aircraft – 17 PC-9M delivered new from 1997, as well as three second-hand examples. PC-9s are used for advanced pilot training and as a national aerobatic aircraft in a group called Wings of Storm.
 Chad
  • Chad's Air Force operates three PC-7s and one PC-9. The latter was delivered to Chad to replace a PC-7 which it had purchased from France.[3]
 Cyprus
 Ireland
  • Irish Air Corps operates seven PC-9Ms delivered in late 2004. In 2005, the aircraft were upgraded and each aircraft is now equipped with two rocket pods and two machine gun pods. On 12 October 2009, a PC-9M was involved in a fatal crash near Cornamona, in County Galway, which killed both pilots.[4]
 Mexico
 Burma
 Oman
 Saudi Arabia
 Slovenia
  Switzerland
  • Swiss Air Force operates 14 aircraft delivered from 1987. Two returned to Pilatus after evaluation.
 Thailand

Former Military operators[edit]

 Angola
 Germany
 United States

Civil operators[edit]

 Germany
 United Kingdom

Accidents and incidents[edit]

In 2004, a Slovenian air force PC-9 crashed in Lenart, resulting in the death of Maj. Drago Svetina. It was later determined that the pilot suffered a heart attack before the accident.

In 2008, a pilot candidate accidentally ejected from a Slovenian air force PC-9, the aircraft was not damaged and returned safely at Cerklje ob Krki Airbase.

On 12 October 2009, a PC-9M belonging to the Irish Air Corps was involved in a fatal crash near Connemara, in County Galway, which killed both pilots.[6] The accident report stated that the accident was probably caused by controlled flight into terrain following the loss of situational awareness.[7]

A PC-9/A flown by the RAAF Roulettes crashed at RAAF Base East Sale on 18 May 2011 after suffering engine failure. Both occupants were able to eject prior to the aircraft impacting the ground. The incident resulted in the RAAF suspending all flights of the PC-9/A while it carried out an investigation.[8] The aircraft were cleared to fly again at the end of June 2011.[9]

Specifications (PC-9M)[edit]

A view of the interior of the cockpit of a Pilatus PC-9 aircraft.

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004[10]

General characteristics

  • Crew: one or two pilots
  • Length: 10.14 m (33 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 10.125 m (33 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 3.26 m (10 ft 8 in)
  • Wing area: 16.29 m2 (175.3 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 1,725 kg (3,803 lb)
  • Gross weight: 2,350 kg (5,181 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 3,200 kg (7,055 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-62 turboprop, 857 kW (1,149 hp) flat-rated at 708 kW (950 shp)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 593 km/h (368 mph; 320 kn)
  • Cruising speed: 556 km/h (345 mph; 300 kn) at 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
  • Stall speed: 143 km/h (89 mph; 77 kn) EAS flaps and gear up, 128 km/h (80 mph; 69 kn) flaps and gear down
  • Range: 1,537 km (955 mi; 830 nmi)
  • Endurance: 4 hr 30 min
  • Service ceiling: 11,580 m (37,992 ft)
  • g limits: + 7.0 g to −3.5 g
  • Rate of climb: 20.8 m/s (4,090 ft/min)
  • Take-off distance over 50 ft (15 m) obstacle at sea level: 1,280 ft (391 m)
  • Landing distance over 50 ft (15 m) obstacle at sea level: 2,295 ft (700 m)

Armament

  • Hardpoints: Three hardpoints under each wing, inner two rated at 250 kg (550 lb), outer rated at 110 kg (240 lb)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Eddie Torson (March 1993). "Beech's J-PATS Candidate Reaches The Final Phase of Testing". Air Progress. 
  2. ^ "RAAF Aircraft PC-9." airforce.gov.au. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  3. ^ Goebel, Greg. "Pilatus Turbo-Trainers." airvectors.net. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  4. ^ "Two pilots die in Air Corps crash." RTÉ News. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  5. ^ Harding 1997, p. 202.
  6. ^ "Bodies of Air Corps pilots removed from scene." rte.ie, 13 October 2009.
  7. ^ "Accident Report No 2011-016: Pilatus Aircraft Ltd, PC-9(M), 265, Crumlin East, Cornamona, Connemara, Co. Galway, 12 October 2009." aaiu.ie. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  8. ^ "Air Force plane crashes at Victorian airbase." ABC News. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  9. ^ "Air Force planes cleared to fly again." ABC News. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  10. ^ Jackson 2003, pp. 455–456.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Harding, Stephen. U.S. Army Aircraft Since 1947. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1997. ISBN 978-0-76430-190-2.
  • Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.

External links[edit]