Multiple-vehicle collision

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Pile-up)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Pileup" redirects here. For other uses, see Pileup (disambiguation).

A multi-vehicle collision (colloquially known as a pile-up or chain-reaction crash[1]) is a road traffic accident involving many vehicles. Generally occurring on high-capacity and high-speed routes such as freeways, they are one of the deadliest forms of traffic accidents. The most disastrous pile-ups have involved more than a hundred vehicles.

Causes[edit]

Pile-ups generally occur in low-visibility conditions as drivers on freeways are sometimes caught out by driving too close to the vehicle in front and not adjusting to the road conditions.

Chain-reaction crashes can also occur in conditions of good visibility, when black ice or other road hazards are encountered unexpectedly as drivers round a curve or crest a hill.[1]

Due to the high traffic speeds on the road, if one car develops a problem and suddenly halts, those behind it cannot stop in time and may hit it. Considering that these roads often have high traffic volumes, more cars are forced into braking and skidding, darting into other lanes and in front of oncoming traffic and so more vehicles become involved, creating a chain reaction effect.

Determining the cause of such accidents is difficult for investigators and it is often impossible to tell if negligence caused the crash.

Effects[edit]

Multiple-vehicle collisions are particularly deadly as the mass of crumpled vehicles makes escape for survivors difficult. Even if survivors are able to exit their vehicles, other cars may strike them. Individual vehicles in a multiple-vehicle collision are often hit multiple times at high speed, increasing the risk of injury to passengers who may have survived the first impact with the benefit of now-discharged protective airbags. Collisions after the initial collision may occur from the side of the vehicle, where the passenger compartment is more vulnerable.

A fire in one part of the accident can quickly spread via spilled gasoline and cover the entire crash area. Multiple-vehicle collisions can also overwhelm local firefighting, ambulance, and police services making speedy rescues more difficult. If the accident takes place in a remote area, getting medical help to the scene can be a daunting task.

The destruction and intense heat of fires can also damage roadways, particularly by melting and burning the asphalt or spalling concrete surfaces. The structural steel of bridges and overpasses can also be weakened by the heat. A fiery pileup inside a tunnel is the most serious, as there is little means to escape the poisonous fumes, and the confined heat may damage structural supports.

The large scale of these accidents can close important highway routes for several days, or even longer if highway support structures are damaged.

Major pileups[edit]

Date Killed Injured Vehicles Details
March 12, 1990 3 30 52 Interstate 43 in Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States, on the Tower Drive Bridge over the Fox River, due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 52 vehicles; 3 deaths and more than 30 injuries. A fog warning system was immediately installed, and bridge lighting was installed in the mid 2000s, after more fog related issues.
December 11, 1990 12 42 99 Interstate 75 in Calhoun, Tennessee, United States, between Chattanooga and Knoxville near the Hiwassee River, due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 99 vehicles; 12 deaths and 42 injuries. A fog warning system has since been installed, and the highway patrol enforces speed limits aggressively.[2]
March 13, 1991 10 51 51 M4 in Hungerford, Berkshire, United Kingdom, between Membury and Hungerford due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 51 vehicles; 10 deaths. A van driver either fell asleep or swerved to miss a pigeon, in the outside lane. Huge pile-up ensured.
April 1992 2 dozens 60 Interstate 64 in Virginia near Afton Mountain, due to fog, 60 vehicles, 2 deaths, dozens injured.[3]
October 1991 1 64 150 A15 Motorway near Ochten, Netherlands, due to fog, 150 vehicles, 1 death, 64 injuries.[4]
December 2, 1994 67 127 Interstate 35 in San Antonio, Texas, United States, 127 car pile-up caused by blinding glare and rain-slicked roads, 67 injuries.[5]
March 20, 1995 1 90 200 Interstate 10 in Mobile, Alabama, United States, due to fog, 200 vehicles, 1 death, 90 injuries.[6]
February 27, 1996 10 80 200 E17 motorway near Nazareth, Belgium, due to fog.[7]
March 10, 1997 3 60 160 M42 motorway in the United Kingdom, due to fog – 160 vehicles involved, 3 deaths, 60 injuries.[8][9]
December 31, 1998 1 39 114 114 cars crashed during whiteout conditions and [10] a snow-slicked section of N/B Interstate-75 in central Michigan, just north of Grayling, killing one and injuring 39.[11]
September 3, 1999 8 33 87 Highway 401 in Essex County, Ontario, Canada, just east of Windsor. Very dense fog and tailgating causes an 87-vehicle pile-up, killing 8, and injuring 33 more.[12][13]
November 22, 1999 2 29 83 Interstate 70 in Golden, Colorado, United States, when a car spun out in the westbound lanes in heavy snow and fog, then was hit by other vehicles as it attempted to resume westbound travel.[14]
February 2001 131 Interstate 95 in Stafford County, Virginia, United States, 131 vehicles plus two others nearby totaling 80 more, due to a snowstorm whiteout.[15]
March 2002 125 Interstate 75 in Catoosa County, Georgia, United States, due to one-time sudden fog, about 125 vehicles[16]
October 11, 2002 10 36 50 Interstate 43 in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States, just north of the Ozaukee-Sheboygan county line. Involved 50 vehicles due to dense fog. Considered the worst multiple-vehicle collision in Wisconsin history.[17]
November 3, 2002 0 41 216 Interstate 710 in Los Angeles County, California, United States, around 200 vehicles, due to dense fog.[18]
February 7, 2003 1 47 80 Interstate 94 in Berrien County, Michigan, United States, 80 vehicles (initially reported as 75), due to lake-effect snow.[19][20]
May 23, 2003 2 64 90 Interstate 68 in Garrett County, Maryland, United States, approximately 90 vehicles involved in accident near the I-68 cut on Big Savage Mountain. Heavy fog was blamed for the accident.[21]
January 6, 2004 6 17 50 Interstate 80 in Centre County, Pennsylvania, United States, around 50 vehicles, due to poor visibility during a white out snow squall, leaving 6 dead and 17 injured.[22]
January 12, 2005 2 35 200 Interstate 96 in Ingham County, Michigan, United States, around 200 vehicles, due to dense fog leaving 2 dead and 35 injured.[23][24]
November 5, 2007 2 dozens 100 Highway 99 south of Fresno, California, United States, due to the tule fog that occurs frequently in fall and winter; involved more than 100 vehicles, killed at least 2 and injured dozens of others.[25]
January 6, 2008 2 100 Two people are killed as 100 cars pile up on Interstate 90 near Madison, Wisconsin.[26]
January 9, 2008 4 38 70 Four people were killed and as many as 38 injured in a major pileup on Interstate 4 in north central Florida involving 70 vehicles, as fog mixed with smoke from a controlled fire that reached out-of-control proportions combined to make it almost impossible for motorists to see.[27]
January 20, 2008 100 More than 100 vehicles crashed into each other on Highway 400 near Toronto due to bad weather conditions.[28]
March 11, 2008 3 277 60 Around 6.39 am UAE time a series of vehicle crashes occurred, involving cars, SUVs, buses and trucks, because of heavy fog on the Abu Dhabi-Dubai highway near Ghantoot, Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, leading to the worst ever crash and multi-vehicle pileup in the country’s history. According to Dubai-based Gulf News and Reuters, the incident killed 3 people and injured 277, involving 60 vehicles from which 25 caught fire according to Abu Dhabi Police.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]
March 20, 2008 0 33 231 231 vehicles round about number of foci crashed at highway D1 in Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic. About 30 people were injured, 3 of them seriously. Nobody was killed.[37][38][39][40][41][42][43]
March 25, 2008 1 6 60 A near 60 vehicle pile-up in heavy snow on Austria's main east-west highway causes one death with six injuries.[44]
January 11, 2009 50+ "More than 50 cars..." in Derry, New Hampshire[45]
January 19, 2009 35 A 35-car pileup occurs during a snowstorm on Interstate 70 in Myersville, Maryland.
July 19, 2009 Dozens 259 Dozens of people injured, 10 critically, when 259 vehicles were involved in a pile-up due to heavy rain on the German Autobahn A2 near Braunschweig in Lower Saxony.[46]
December 13, 2009 52 56 56 cars involved in a pile-up on Route 110 in Shelton, Connecticut due to black ice resulting in 46 injuries and six hospitalizations, but no deaths or life-threatening injuries.[47]
December 23, 2009 36 43 M27 motorway 20 vehicles involved in a pile up westbound at Rownhams services and another 23 eastbound between J7 for Hedge End and Botley and J8 for Bursledon and Netley due to severe black ice, freezing fog and deep snow. 36 people injured.
February 10, 2010 7 50 Near Williamsburg, Virginia, whiteout conditions during the morning around 9:00 am EST 10 February led to a fifty-car pileup on a stretch of westbound I-64. The accident took hours to clear, and seven people suffered minor injuries requiring hospitalization.[48]
February 14, 2010 13 140 In the Kansas City area, several pileups involving 140[49] vehicles, including two Greyhound buses[50] was caused by whiteout conditions. The largest pileup, involving 40 vehicles along I-70 and K-7 near the city of Bonner Springs, Kansas.[49][50][51] No fatalities or critical injuries were reported. The accident closed I-70 for several hours so emergency workers and crews could clean up the area. The same day, also in the Kansas City metro area, a separate pileup caused by whiteout conditions, involving at least 20 vehicles closed parts of I-35 near 87th Street.[50] No fatalities or serious injuries were reported there as well.[50] The accident sent 13 people to area hospitals.[51]
November 16, 2010 2 16 75 Interstate 77 in Carroll County, Virginia-Virginia State Police determined that a total of 75 vehicles were involved in crashes in both the northbound and southbound lanes of I-77 between the 4 and 7 mile markers in the area of Fancy Gap, Virginia. Heavy fog resulting in zero visibility was determined to be the cause of the accidents.[52]
April 8, 2011 8 131 80+ An 80-car pileup occurs during a sandstorm on Autobahn 19 near Rostock, Germany (both directions). 8 death and 131 injured people.[53]
September 15, 2011 1 49 300 Rodovia dos Imigrantes at São Paulo, Brazil. around 300 vehicles involved in an accident due to heavy fog. Several injuries and one person dead.[54]
November 4, 2011 7 51 34 Near Taunton, Somerset, England. 34 vehicles involved in an accident near Junction 25 on the M5 motorway near Taunton due to fog and heavy rain. 7 confirmed deaths reported and 51 injured.[55]
December 1, 2011 1 16–18 176 Tennessee State Route 386 (Vietnam Veterans Boulevard) and Saundersville Road near Hendersonville in Sumner County, Tennessee, United States, north of Nashville, due to "heavy, heavy fog"; three separate chain-reaction crashes involving 176 vehicles; 1 death and 16–18 injuries. A fog advisory was not in effect for the area at the time of the crashes.[56][57][58][59]
December 3, 2011 1 14 134 Istanbul Trans European Motorway 134 cars involved with 1 dead, 14 injured, due to heavy fog and slippery road.
February 3, 2012 - +40 +100 European route E75 Helsinki, Finland more than 100 cars involved with more than 40 injured (1 critically), due to heavy snow and slippery road.[60][61]
December 29, 2011 2 59 40 I-10 in New Orleans, Louisiana; About 40 vehicles involved with at least 50 injuries (22 serious), due to heavy fog and smoke from a nearby ongoing marsh fire in New Orleans East.[62]
October 5, 2012 0 52 47 Interstate I-75 Southbound Sarasota/Manatee County line, Florida. On University Blvd. overpass 47 vehicles in 12 separate crashes, due to white-out rain.
November 22, 2012 2 100 100+ Interstate I-10 – Both directions – Jefferson County line, Texas. 150-vehicle pileup on foggy Texas highway leaves 2 dead, 100 hurt.[63]
January 15, 2013 1 46 100 European route E4 Helsingborg. On University Blvd. One person died and more than 40 were injured on the E4 motorway near Helsingborg, southwestern Sweden, after an estimated 100 vehicles crashed into one another due to dense fog and slippery road conditions.[64]
January 21, 2013 1 27 103 Interstate 275 – Cincinnati, Ohio. Flash snowburst caused a large pileup with many injuries. A 12-year-old girl was killed.[65][66][67]
January 21, 2013 0 9 52 Interstate 75 – Middletown, Ohio. Flash snowburst caused a large pileup. Same storm as Cincinnati 103-vehicle accident that killed a 12-year-old girl.[68]
January 25, 2013 0 5 80 Highway 401 east of Oshawa – Ontario, Canada.[69]
January 31, 2013 3 20+ 35+ Interstate 75 - Detroit, Michigan. Flash snowburst caused a pile-up along an urbanized section of Interstate 75 in Detroit, killing a 46-year-old Allen Park man, and two children from nearby Windsor, Ontario.[70]
March 31, 2013 3 25 95 Interstate 77 in Carroll County, Virginia approximately 95 vehicles were involved in an accident on the southbound lane of I-77 near the base of Fancy Gap Mountain near Fancy Gap, Virginia. Virginia State Police say that excessive fog could be to blame for the accident. Three people were killed.[71]
September 5, 2013 0 60 130+ 60 people were injured as more than 130 vehicles were involved in a series of crashes in thick fog on the A249 Sheppey crossing in Kent, UK.[72]
December 3, 2013 2 67 132 One person was killed and 67 injured as 132 vehicles were involved in a triple chain collision in thick fog on the A19 in Zonnebeke, Belgium.[73] A second person died four days later.[74]
January 23, 2014 3 20+ ~46 Interstate 94 in LaPorte County, Indiana, United States, more than 40 vehicles, due to lake-effect snow.[75]
February 14, 2014 0 30 100 Up to 105 vehicles were involved in multiple accidents on the eastbound lanes of the Pennsylvania Turnpike between Willow Grove and Bensalem. One accident involved about 75 vehicles while another incident further east involved about 30 vehicles. There were a total of 30 injuries. The accidents were a result of icy conditions from a winter storm.[76]
February 27, 2014 0 96 Ontario Highway 400 south of Barrie, 96 vehicles were involved in collisions at about 9am during a snow squall, reducing visibility to "a few feet". The incident resulted in the closure of Highway 400 between Highway 89 and Mapleview Drive. Both lanes on that stretch of highway were closed for most of the day until early evening.[77]
March 1, 2014 1 30 104 Interstate 25 in Denver, Colorado, United States, 104 vehicles, due to heavy snow.[78]
March 12, 2014 3 "numerous" 90 Ninety vehicles between two crashes on the Ohio Turnpike (Interstate 80/90) in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States, due to heavy snow.[79][80]

Motorsports[edit]

Multiple vehicle collisions can occur in the restricted courses used in motorsports as well, most commonly after a green flag (on road courses) being waved following a warm-up lap during the start of the race. Reporters and fans apply subjective guidelines as to what threshold needs to be crossed before a simple on-track incident can be described as such. NASCAR fans, for example, talk about 'The Big One', where many cars can be involved in a wreck while running close together.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Abel, David (December 2, 2013). "On busy travel day, black ice led to massive pileup in Worcester". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2013-12-03. 
  2. ^ "HAR-92/02". Ntsb.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "VDOT looks to boost 1-64 safety over Afton - Richmond News, Crime & Politics". TimesDispatch.com. 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2014-02-17. 
  4. ^ (Dutch) http://www.rtl.nl/(/actueel/rtlnieuws/dossiers/dossier_paginas/jaaroverzicht_2005/)/components/actueel/rtlnieuws/2005/03_maart/04/binnenland/0304_1600_overzicht_kettingbotsingen.xml
  5. ^ Newsbank http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_action=doc&p_docid=0F2232DF8880DAB7&p_docnum=27 |url= missing title (help). 
  6. ^ "Performance of Satellite Fog Detection Techniques" (PDF). "National Weather Association". Retrieved 28 December 2007. 
  7. ^ (Dutch) http://www.standaard.be/artikel/detail.aspx?artikelid=DST14082004_005
  8. ^ "M42 death crash driver wins back his licence". Archive.worcesternews.co.uk. 10 November 2001. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  9. ^ Option or Necessity?
  10. ^ "The Spokesman-Review". Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  11. ^ CNN http://www.cnn.com/US/9812/31/michigan.pileup/ |url= missing title (help). [dead link]
  12. ^ "401 Pileup Disaster". CBC News. 3 September 1999. 
  13. ^ "Top Ten Weather Stories of 1999 – Top Ten Weather Stories – [Meteorological Service of Canada – The Green Lane]". Msc-smc.ec.gc.ca. 23 April 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  14. ^ "2 Killed, 29 Injured in Pileup on I-70 in Colorado". Los Angeles Times. 23 November 1999. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "Wrecks close interstates during snowstorm". USA Today. 23 February 2001. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  16. ^ "Massive pileup near Ga.-Tenn. line kills 4". CNN. 14 March 2002. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  17. ^ "At least 10 killed in multi-car crash in Wisconsin". USA Today. 11 October 2002. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  18. ^ Gottlieb, Jeff; Hernandez, Daniel (4 November 2002). "41 Hurt in 198-Vehicle Smashup". Los Angeles Times. 
  19. ^ "Intense Lake Effect Snow Band Causes 75-Vehicle Chain Reaction Pile-Up". Northern Indiana Weather Forecast Office, National Weather Service. 
  20. ^ Aiken, Scott (7 February 2004). "I-94 Pileup Memories Are Vivid a Year Later". The Herald-Palladium. Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
  21. ^ "I-68 Fog Detection System Planning Report". Sabra, Wang & Associates. 7 November 2003. 
  22. ^ "The Story of the Keystone Shortway". They Keystone Shortway Association. n.d. 
  23. ^ Macomb Daily : More than 100 vehicles pile up on I-96 01/13/05[dead link]
  24. ^ "Chain-Reaction Crashes In 2 States". CBS News. 13 January 2005. 
  25. ^ [1][dead link]
  26. ^ "2 Killed, Dozens Hurt After 100-Vehicle Pileup On Interstate 90 – Madison News Story – WISC Madison". Channel3000.com. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  27. ^ The Associated Press: Fog Causes 70-Car Pileup in Fla.; 4 Dead[dead link]
  28. ^ "Whiteout causes 100-vehicle pile-up near Toronto". Reuters. 20 January 2008. 
  29. ^ "Horrific accident on Abu Dhabi-Dubai highway near Ghantoot". GulfNews.com. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  30. ^ "Five killed, 277 injured in Ghantoot accident". Xpress4me. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  31. ^ "Photo Gallery – Five killed, 277 injured in Ghantoot accident". Xpress4me. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  32. ^ "Reuters Video report – Hundreds hurt in UAE horror crash". Reuters.com. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  33. ^ "REFILE-UAE's biggest traffic accident kills 3, injures 277". Reuters. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  34. ^ Yahoo! News India – Eight killed in horrific 200-car pileup on Dubai-Abu Dhabi highway[dead link]
  35. ^ Reuters (3 November 2008). "Traffic pileup leaves 3 dead, 300 hurt – Some of the 60 cars burst into flames on Dubai-Abu Dhabi highway". MSNBC. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  36. ^ "YouTube Video – Dubai – Abu Dhabi Crash – the Aftermath". Youtube.com. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  37. ^ Na Vysočině je D1 po hromadné nehodě průjezdná oběma směry, web ČT24, 21 March 2008
  38. ^ Největší hromadná nehoda zablokovala dálnici D1 na 11 hodin, Novinky.cz, 20 March 2008
  39. ^ D1: Největší nehoda všech dob, Z Jihlavy, nezávislý infoserver, 21 March 2008
  40. ^ Nehodu na D1 zavinili řidiči, jeli rychle, Lidové noviny, 22 April 2008
  41. ^ Tomáš Blažek: Sníh umrtvil D1 za 4 minuty, MF Dnes, 22 March 2008, supplement Vysočina, p. 1
  42. ^ Jan Vaca: Policie pozná, kdo jel rychle, MF Dnes, 22 March 2008. str. 2
  43. ^ Michal Pavec: Škoda za havárii desetiletí na D1 činí 28 milionů, Aktuálně.cz, 21 April 2008
  44. ^ "Whiteout One dead in 60-vehicle pile-up on Austrian motorway | Reuters". Mobile.alertnet.org. 25 March 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  45. ^ "More than 50 vehicles involved in I-93 crash". Theunionleader.com. 12 January 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  46. ^ "Dozens injured in 259-car autobahn pileup – The Local". Thelocal.de. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  47. ^ "50 car pile-up in Shelton closes Rt 110". Wtnh.com. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  48. ^ "Winter weather causes 50 car pile-up". WAVY (LIN Television Corporation). Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  49. ^ a b [2][dead link]
  50. ^ a b c d Font size Print E-mail Share 14 Comments (14 February 2010). "Weather Causes Massive Crashes in Midwest". CBS News. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  51. ^ a b [3][dead link]
  52. ^ "Two die in 75-car pileup on I-77". thecarrollnews.com. 16 November 2010. 
  53. ^ "Germany: Freak sandstorm causes deadly motorway pile-up". BBC News. 9 April 2011. 
  54. ^ "Folha.com – Cotidiano – Engavetamento mata 1 e envolve 300 carros, diz PM; pista da Imigrantes é liberada – 15/09/2011". .folha.uol.com.br. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-05. 
  55. ^ John Maguire (5 November 2011). "BBC News – M5 crash: Fears 'more than 10 killed'". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-05. 
  56. ^ Dave Alsup (1 December 2011). "1 dead, 16 injured in Tennessee crashes involving 176 cars". CNN.com. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  57. ^ "One Killed, 18 Injured In 55-Car Pileup On Vietnam Vets Blvd.". NewsChannel5.com. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  58. ^ Scott Sutton (1 December 2011). "1 killed, 16 injured after 50-car pileup on Vietnam Vets Blvd.". WSMV.com. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  59. ^ "100-plus vehicles involved in pileup, 1 dead, several injured". WRKN.com. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  60. ^ "The Day Helsinki Stood Still – Snow Chaos With Video". hooniverse.com. Retrieved 2012-02-18. 
  61. ^ "More than 40 injured in multiple accidents and massive delays to Helsinki public transport as snow and ice compound the chilly conditions". www.hs.fi. Retrieved 2012-02-18. 
  62. ^ "After massive I-10 pileup, New Orleans East residents point to poor lighting". wwltv.com. Retrieved 2012-11-26. 
  63. ^ Pearce, Matt (22 November 2012). "150-vehicle pileup on foggy Texas highway leaves 2 dead, 100 hurt". www.latimes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-22. 
  64. ^ "100-car pile-up kills one, leaves dozens injured - The Local". Thelocal.se. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  65. ^ "Scores of vehicles snared in Ohio highway pileups". Huffingtonpost.com. 2013-01-21. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  66. ^ "I-275 accident grows to 96 cars". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  67. ^ "IN-DEPTH: I-275 pile-up leads to piles of paperwork". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  68. ^ "‘White-out’ conditions lead to 52-vehicle pileup on I-75". www.middletownjournal.com. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  69. ^ Posted: Jan 25, 2013 4:11 PM ET (2013-01-26). "Hwy. 401 reopens after 80-vehicle pileup - Ottawa - CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  70. ^ "3 die in United States road accident". Russia Today. 31 January 2013. 
  71. ^ "UPDATED: 95 cars involved in I-77 crash in Carroll County". WDBJ7 Web Staff. 31 March 2013. 
  72. ^ "Sheppey crossing crash: Dozens hurt as 130 vehicles crash". BBC News. 5 September 2013. 
  73. ^ "Drievoudige kettingbotsing op A19 bij Zonnebeke". VRT News. 3 December 2013. 
  74. ^ "Kettingbotsing A19 eist tweede mensenleven". VRT News. 7 December 2013. 
  75. ^ Keagle, Lauri Harvey (24 January 2014). "Westbound I-94 Reopens after Fatal Michigan City Pileup". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  76. ^ "UPDATE: Pa. Turnpike Reopened After Massive Crash, All-Day Closure". Philadelphia, PA: KYW-TV. February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Highway 400 south of Barrie reopens after 96-vehicle pileup". CBC News. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  78. ^ Mitchell, Kirk; Alison Noon (1 March 2014). "I-25 Pileup: 104 Vehicles Involved, 1 Killed, 30 Hospitalized after Snowy Disaster". The Denver Post. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  79. ^ McCray, Vanessa (15 March 2014). "Debris Cleared from Turnpike Fatal Crash Site". The Blade. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  80. ^ Astolfi, Courtney (14 March 2014). "Turnpike Open, But Slow Going". Sandusky Register. Retrieved 15 March 2014.