Pocock, 1887 
Armadillomorpha Verhoeff, 1915
Pill millipedes make up two living orders (and one extinct order) of millipedes, often grouped together into a single superorder, Oniscomorpha. The name Oniscomorpha refers to the resemblance of pill millipedes to certain woodlice, namely the pillbugs of the family Armadillidiidae, also called "potato bugs", or "roly-polies". However, woodlice are for practical purposes unrelated to millipedes of any type, not being in the subphylum Myriapoda, together with millipedes, but in the subphylum Crustacea.
Pill millipedes are short compared to other millipedes, with only eleven to thirteen body segments, and are capable of rolling into a ball when disturbed. This ability evolved separately in each of the two orders, making it a case of convergent evolution, rather than homology. Pill millipedes are detritivorous, feeding on decomposing plant matter, usually in woodlands.
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (January 2014)|
The order Glomerida is predominantly found in the Northern Hemisphere and includes species such as Glomeris marginata, the common European pill millipede. They have from eleven to twelve body segments, and possess dorsal ozopores (openings of the repugnatorial glands) rather than the lateral ozopores found on many other millipedes. The order contains approximately 450 species found in Europe, South-east Asia and the Americas from California to Guatemala. Three species are present in the British Isles.
The Order Sphaerotheriida is a Gondwana-distribution taxon, with around 100 species in southern Africa, Madagascar, Australasia and South East Asia. They have thirteen body segments, and do not possess repugnatorial glands. Five species, all in the genus Procyliosoma are present in New Zealand, and around thirty species in three or more genera are present in Australia.
Oniscomorpha also includes the extinct order Amynilyspedida from the upper Carboniferous of North America. Amynilyspedida differs from the other Oniscomorpph orders in having 14-15 segments. The order contains the genus Amynilyspes with unique spines on the tergites and provisionally the genus Glomeropsis.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Oniscomorpha|
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