The order Pilosa is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas. It includes the anteaters and sloths, including the recently extinct ground sloths. The name comes from the Latin word for "hairy".
Together with the armadillos, Pilosa is part of the larger group Xenarthra. In the past, Pilosa was regarded as a suborder of the order Xenarthra, while some more recent classifications regard Pilosa as an order within the superorder Xenarthra. Earlier still, both armadillos and pilosans were classified together with pangolins and the aardvark as the order Edentata (meaning toothless, because the members do not have front incisor teeth or molars, or have poorly developed molars). It was subsequently realized that Edentata was polyphyletic—that it contained unrelated families and was thus invalid.