Pinard horn

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Wooden Pinard Horn
A U.S. Army Reserve nurse using a Pinard horn in Uganda.

A Pinard horn is a tool used to listen the heart rate of a fetus during pregnancy. It is a type of stethoscope, formerly called a "fetoscope",[1] but the term is still sometimes associated with the Pinard stethoscope. The horn is often made of wood or metal and is hollow. It is about 8 inches long. It functions similarly to an ear trumpet by amplifying sound. The wide end of the horn is held against the pregnant woman's belly, while the doctor, nurse, midwife or partner listens through the other end.[2]

History[edit]

The Pinard horn was invented by Dr. Adolphe Pinard, a French obstetrician, during the 19th century.[3] Pinard was an early supporter of advancements in prenatal care, including closer fetal health monitoring.[4]

Current use[edit]

Pinard horns continue to be used around the world, particularly by midwives, but also by doctors and nurses. Pinard horns are the most common fetal stethoscopes in much of Europe, even today, which surprises some doctors from the United States, where a Doppler fetal monitor is standard.[5] It is still considered a practical device. It provides a safe alternative to more expensive and risky technology, such as a Doppler device. A midwife in Mexico describes using the Pinard horn:

Sometimes we listen to the fetal heart rate with the Pinard, but if the woman is very sensitive, and it bothers her to push into her belly with the Pinard horn, then we use the Doppler. But the Doppler often transmits a lot of noise; it gets confusing. So better with the Pinard.[6]

A Pinard horn may be used to determine the position of the fetus. A Pinard horn is more precise than a Doppler device for this purpose. A Doppler device detects a heart tone farther away from the location of origin. A Pinard horn must be pressed to a location very close to the fetal heart in order to detect it, providing a more accurate indication of fetal position. A doctor, nurse, or midwife can also use palpation and auscultation to determine fetal position.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The term "fetoscope" now refers to the fetal endoscope used in fetoscopy.
  2. ^ Robbie Davis-Floyd, Carolyn Fishel Sargent (1997). Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. University of California Press. p. 360. ISBN 9780520207851. 
  3. ^ Robbie Davis-Floyd, Carolyn Fishel Sargent (1997). Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. University of California Press. p. 360. ISBN 9780520207851. 
  4. ^ Baker, Jeffrey P. (1996). The Machine in the Nursery: Incubator Technology and the Origins of Newborn Intensive Care. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780801851735. 
  5. ^ Ina May Gaskin, Ani DiFranco (2011). Birth Matters: A Midwife's Manifesta. Seven Stories Press. pp. 112–3. ISBN 9781583229279. 
  6. ^ Robbie Davis-Floyd, Lesley Barclay, Jan Tritten (2009). Birth Models that Work. University of California Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780520248632. 
  7. ^ Penny Simkin, Ruth Ancheta (2011). The Labor Progress Handbook: Early Interventions to Prevent and Treat Dystocia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 61. ISBN 9781444337716.