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Not to be confused with the Amarna period nobleman Panehesy.

Pinehesy, Panehesy or Panehasy, depending on the transliteration, was Viceroy of Kush[1] during the reign of Ramesses XI, the last king of the Egyptian 20th Dynasty.

Sometime during the reign of Ramesses XI, Pinehesy succeeded in temporarily suppressing the Theban High Priest of Amun, Amenhotep. Although this “suppression of the High Priest of Amun” used to be dated quite early in the reign (prior to year 9 of the reign),[2] recently the communis opinio has changed to the view that it took place only shortly before the start of the Whm Mswt or Renaissance, an era which was inaugurated in regnal Year 19, probably to stress the return of normal conditions following the coup of Pinehesy.

Following this suppression, Pinehesy was chased out of the Thebais, although it is not entirely clear who ended this anarchic period. It seems that Pinehesy more or less maintained his position in Nubia for over a decade. Some ten years after the suppression, in year 10 of the Whm Mswt, the then High Priest of Amun and Viceroy of Kush, Piankh went on an expedition to "meet Pinehesy". Although this is seen by many Egyptologists as an expedition to attack Pinehesy, this is little more than speculation. Other Egyptologists have suggested that Piankh may have rather gone south to negotiate with Pinehesy. Of the outcome of this undertaking very little is known. It seems, however, that Pinehesy died of old age while still in control of Lower Nubia.[3]


  • Lynn Meskell, Private Life in New Kingdom Egypt, Princeton University Press 2002
  • László Török, The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization, Brill Academic Publishers 1997
  • Kees, Hermann. Die Hohenpriester des Amun von Karnak von Herihor bis zum Ende der Äthiopenzeit (1964). Leiden: E. J. Brill
  • Morales, A. J. (2001). The suppression of the high priest Amenhotep: A suggestion to the role of Panhesi. Göttinger Miszellen, 181, 59-76.
  • Černỷ, J. (1975). Egypt: From the death of Ramesses III to the end of the Twenty-First Dynasty. In I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond, & E. Sollberger (Eds.) Cambridge Ancient History: Volume II Part 2: History of the Middle East and the Aegean region c. 1380-1000 BC (pp. 606–657). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.


  1. ^ Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge. pp. p.145. 
  2. ^ Cyril Aldred, More Light on the Ramesside Tomb Robberies, in: J. Ruffle, G.A. Gaballa & K.A.. Kitchen (eds), Glimpses of Ancient Egypt, (Festschrift Fairman), Warminster 1979, 92-99
  3. ^ Lázlo Török, The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic Civilization, pp.105ff.