Pinkernes (Greek: πιγκέρνης, sometimes also ἐπιγκέρνης) was a high Byzantine court position. The term, deriving from the Greek verb ἐπικεράννυμι ("to mix [wine]"), signified the Byzantine emperor's cup-bearer. The position is attested in Philotheos's Kletorologion of 899, where a pinkernes of the Byzantine emperor (Greek: πιγκέρνης τοῦ δεσπότου) and of the Augusta (Greek: πιγκέρνης τῆς Αὐγούστης) are listed amongst the eunuchs of the palace staff. The position was also imitated in the staff of the Patriarch of Constantinople and in the households of great magnates. In literary sources, the more descriptive terms oinochoos ("wine-pourer") and kylikiphoros ("bearer of the kylix") are often used instead. In the Komnenian period, the post ceased to be restricted to eunuchs, and gradually became a title of distinction, even awarded to the Byzantine emperor's relatives. Several senior generals of the Palaiologan period, such as Michael Tarchaneiotes Glabas, Alexios Philanthropenos and Syrgiannes Palaiologos, were awarded the title.
- Bury, John B. (1911). The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century: With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. London, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
- Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
Further reading 
- Guilland, Rodolphe (1967). Recherches sur les Institutions Byzantines, Tome I (in French). Berlin, Germany: Akademie-Verlag.