|Other names||Pinkuyllu, Pinkullo, Pingullo, Pinkillu, Pincuyllo, Pincollo|
(end blown duct flute)
|Developed||c.1400 (pre-Columbian Incan instrument)|
A Pinkillo is a flute found throughout the Andes, used primarily in Peru, Chile, Argentina and Bolivia. It is usually played with one hand, leaving the other one free to accompany oneself on a tambor (drum). It is used in a variety of public festivals, and other kinds of communal ceremonies.
Construction and Materials
The Pinkillo can measure in length up to 1 meter 20 cm, and has six finger holes. It is most commonly made out of cane; but can be made out of bamboo, bone, or tree branches as well. In Peru and Bolivia, sheep and llama nerves are used to tie the instrument together. Since the word "Pinkillo" means "Flute"; it is often specifically referred to by the material it is made out of  for example:
cchacca pinkillo (Bone Flute)
quina quina pinkillo (Cane flute)
tupa pinkillo (Made from thicker tocoro cane)
Cultural Uses and Significance
The Pinkillo has great cultural significance. In the Andes, the instrument is played during the early rainy season to celebrate cattle and farming. Pinkillos are often played in pairs or ensembles during the rainy season and at festivals. In Bolivia, it is believed that Pinkillo's made from cane attract rainfall. The Pinkillos are moistened with alcohol or water before playing, and are associated with fertility.
- l Photo of a Pinkillo taken by Fumio Koizumi as part of the Catalog of Musical Instrument Collection of the Tokyo Geijutsu Daigaku.
- Video of a pinkillo builder demonstrating the range of the instrument
- Romero, Raul (2001). "Peru". In Koskoff, Ellen. Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Vol. 3. Taylor & Francis. pp. 466–502. ISBN 978-0-8240-4947-8. Retrieved 25 Sep 2011.
- Baumann, Max (2004). "Music and Worldview of Indian Societies in the Bolivian Andes". In Kuss, Marlena. Music in Latin America and the Caribbean. Volume One. University Of Texas Press. pp. 300–303. ISBN 978-0-292-70298-1. Retrieved 25 Sep 2011.