Haliotis kamtschatkana

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Haliotis kamtschatkana
Haliotis kamtschatkana 001.jpg
View of a shell of Haliotis kamtschatkana
Conservation status
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Clade: Vetigastropoda
Family: Haliotidae
Genus: Haliotis
Species: H. kamtschatkana
Binomial name
Haliotis kamtschatkana
(Jonas, 1845) [2]
Synonyms

Haliotis gigantea var. kamtschatkana Jonas, 1845

Haliotis kamtschatkana, common name the northern abalone or pinto abalone, is a species of large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Haliotidae, the abalones.[3]

It has been listed as "Endangered" by the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species since 2006.[1]

Subspecies
  • Haliotis kamtschatkana assimilis Dall, 1878
  • Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana Jonas, 1845

Shell description[edit]

The pinto abalone has an adult shell size of approximately 80 mm but it can rarely grow as large as 150 mm. The rather thin shell is flattened and ear-shaped. The surface is covered with uneven spiral cords, often almost obsolete, and strongly elevated undulations or lumps. The columellar shelf is narrow, flattened,and sloping inward. The shell has 3 to 6 elevated respiratory holes. These holes collectively make up what is known as the selenizone which form as the shell grows. The silvery interior of the shell is iridescent. The shell is generally green-brown but can have white or blue coloration and has a somewhat scalloped edge. The epipodium is lacy and green-brown in color. Tentacles surrounding the foot and extending out of the shell sense food and predators.[4]

Distribution[edit]

Pinto abalone are found in kelp beds along outer well-exposed coasts from Sitka, Alaska along the coast of Canada to Point Conception, California.

The distribution of this species also includes Korea.[5]

Status by location[edit]

California-Pinto abalone were never a major component of recreational or commercial catch. There was however a 10-fold decline in abundance in northern California. (156,00 in 1971 to 18,000 in 1999-2001)

Alaska-Peak harvest was between 1978 and 1981 (260,000 lbs); average harvest declined to 50,000 lbs in 1994. The commercial fishery was closed in 1996; recreational free-diving fishery remains.

Washington-There was no historical commercial fishing; the recreational fishing closed in 1994 due to declines in abundance. Surveys in the San Juan Islands indicate a decline in density at many sites.[6] Densities at all but one site are below or within the minimum range for successful fertilization. Abalone size has increased between 1996 and 2006 but abundance has not.

Canada-The fishery began in the early 1970s and the peak fishery was in 1977-1978 (400t). Subsequently there was a population decline and quotas were instituted. As populations did not recover there were continuing quota reductions through 1989 (47.2t) without population response. The fishery was closed in 1990 to all user groups but since closure the population decline has continued.

Habitat[edit]

This species lives on rocky shores. These abalones are found intertidally or subtidally near kelp to 30 feet (9 m) depth, but they can be found to 330 feet (100 m) depth. Like all abalones, they are herbivorous.

Reproduction[edit]

They broadcast spawn from April to June. Larval dispersal is limited.[6] Lifespan is about 15 years.

Conservation[edit]

Population size has declined due to overharvesting, illegal harvesting, predation by recovering sea otters, and disease. Because of concerns about its status the Northern Abalone is a U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern. Species of Concern are those species about which the U.S. Government’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), has some concerns regarding status and threats, but for which insufficient information has been available to indicate a need to list the species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The species is called pinto abalone by NMFS. The National Marine Fisheries Service announced in November 2013 that it will conduct a status review for pinto abalone. The Natural Resources Defense Council and the Center for Biological Diversity filed petitions over the summer calling for the status review that could lead to added protections for the species.[7] The Center for Biological Diversity filed its petition August 1, 2013.[8]

This species is now endangered according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, mainly due to uncontrolled harvesting and poaching of the species for food. The state of Washington never permitted commercial harvest and recreation take was outlawed in 1994.[6] Alaska outlawed commercial harvest in 1996.

Harvest has been illegal in Canada since 1990.[9] The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) has listed it as a threatened species. The Canadian Species at Risk Act listed it in the List of Wildlife Species at Risk as being threatened in Canada.[10]

Factors for decline include: over harvest, illegal, unregulated, unreported harvest, predation by the recovering sea otter population, and disease.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c McDougall, P.T., Ploss, J. & Tuthill, J. (2005). Haliotis kamtschatkana. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 August 2007.
  2. ^ Jonas, Zeitschr.f. Mal. 1845, p. 168.
  3. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2014). Haliotis kamtschatkana Jonas, 1845. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=405014 on 2014-10-20
  4. ^ H.A. Pilsbry (1890) Manual of Conchology XII; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1890
  5. ^ (Japanese) Uichida K. & Yamamoto T. (1942). "朝鮮近海に於けるアハビの分布 On the distribution of Haliotis species in the Korean waters". ヴヰナス The Venus 11(4): 119-125. abstract
  6. ^ a b c Hester, JB; Walker, JM; Dinnel, PA; Schwarck, NT (2011). "Survey of Previously Outplanted Pinto (Northern) Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) in the San Juan Island Archipelago, Washington State". In: Pollock NW, ed. Diving for Science 2011. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences 30th Symposium. Dauphin Island, AL: AAUS; 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
  7. ^ Dan Joling, "Agency considers pinto abalone for endangered list", Anchorage Daily News (November 19 2013)
  8. ^ PETITION TO LIST THE PINTO ABALONE (HALIOTIS KAMTSCHATKANA) UNDER THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT
  9. ^ DFO. (2006). [1]. Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
  10. ^ COSEWIC. (2005). Canadian Species at Risk. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 64 pp., page 20.

Resources[edit]

  • Rosenberg, G. 1992. Encyclopedia of Seashells. Dorset: New York. 224 pp.
  • Turgeon, D.D., et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26 page(s): 57
  • Geiger D.L. & Poppe G.T. (2000). A Conchological Iconography: The family Haliotidae. Conchbooks, Hackenheim Germany. 135pp 83pls.
  • Geiger D.L. & Owen B. (2012) Abalone: Worldwide Haliotidae. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. viii + 361 pp.

External links[edit]