Pioneer 10

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Pioneer 10
Pioneer 10-11 spacecraft.jpg
Depiction of Pioneer 10 in deep space
Mission type Planetary and heliosphere exploration
Operator NASA / ARC
COSPAR ID 1972-012A
SATCAT № 5860
Website Pioneer Project website(archived)
NASA Archive page
Mission duration 30 years, 10 months, 22 days
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer TRW
Launch mass 258.8 kilograms (571 lb)
Power 155 watts (at launch)
Start of mission
Launch date March 3, 1972, 01:49:04 (1972-03-03UTC01:49:04Z) UTC
Rocket Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Star-37E
Launch site Cape Canaveral LC-36A
End of mission
Last contact January 23, 2003 (2003-01-24)
Flyby of Jupiter
Closest approach December 3, 1973
Distance 132,252 kilometers (82,178 miles)

Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, weighing 258 kilograms, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.[1] Thereafter, Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity from the Solar System. This space exploration project was conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center in California, and the space probe was manufactured by TRW.

Pioneer 10 was assembled around a hexagonal bus with a 2.74 meter diameter parabolic dish high-gain antenna, and the spacecraft was spin stabilized around the axis of the antenna. Its electric power was supplied by four radioisotope thermoelectric generators that provided a combined 155 watts at launch.

Pioneer 10 was launched on March 3, 1972, by an Atlas-Centaur expendable vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Between July 15, 1972, and February 15, 1973, it became the first spacecraft to traverse the asteroid belt. Photography of Jupiter began November 6, 1973, at a range of 25,000,000 km, and a total of about 500 images were transmitted. The closest approach to the planet was on December 4, 1973, at a range of 132,252 km. During the mission, the on-board instruments were used to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter, the solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the solar system and heliosphere.[1] Radio communications were lost with Pioneer 10 on January 23, 2003, because of the loss of electric power for its radio transmitter, with the probe at a distance of 12 billion kilometers (80 AU) from Earth.

Mission background[edit]

History[edit]

Pioneer 10 in the final stages of construction
Pioneer 10 on a Star-37E kick motor just prior to being encapsulated for launch

In the 1960s, American aerospace engineer Gary Flandro of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory conceived of a mission, known as the Planetary Grand Tour, that would exploit a rare alignment of the outer planets of the Solar System. This mission would ultimately be accomplished in the late 1970s by the two Voyager probes, but in order to prepare for it, NASA decided in 1964 to experiment with launching a pair of probes to the outer Solar System.[2] An advocacy group named the Outer Space Panel and chaired by American space scientist James A. Van Allen, worked out the scientific rationale for exploring the outer planets.[3][4] NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center put together a proposal for a pair of "Galactic Jupiter Probes" that would pass through the asteroid belt and visit Jupiter. These were to be launched in 1972 and 1973 during favorable windows that occurred only a few weeks every 13 months. Launch during other time intervals would have been more costly in terms of propellant requirements.[5]

Approved by NASA in February 1969,[5] the twin spacecraft were designated Pioneer F and Pioneer G before launch; later they were named Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11. They formed part of the Pioneer program,[6] a series of United States unmanned space missions launched between 1958 and 1978. This model was the first in the series to be designed for exploring the outer solar system. Based on multiple proposals issued throughout the 1960s, the early mission objectives were to explore the interplanetary medium past the orbit of Mars, study the asteroid belt and assess the possible hazard to spacecraft traveling through the belt, and explore Jupiter and its environment.[7] Later development-stage objectives included the probe closely approaching Jupiter to provide data on the effect the environmental radiation surrounding Jupiter would have on the spacecraft instruments.

More than 150 scientific experiments were proposed for the missions.[8] The experiments to be carried on the spacecraft were selected in a series of planning sessions during the 1960s, then were finalized by early 1970. These would be to perform imaging and polarimetry of Jupiter and several of its satellites, make infrared and ultraviolet observations of Jupiter, detect asteroids and meteoroids, determine the composition of charged particles, and to measure magnetic fields, plasma, cosmic rays and the Zodiacal Light.[7] Observation of the spacecraft communications as it passed behind Jupiter would allow measurements of the planetary atmosphere, while tracking data would improve estimates of the mass of Jupiter and its moons.[7]

NASA Ames Research Center, rather than Goddard, was selected to manage the project as part of the Pioneer program.[5] The Ames Research Center, under the direction of Charles F. Hall, was chosen because of its previous experience with spin-stabilized spacecraft. The requirements called for a small, lightweight spacecraft which was magnetically clean and which could perform an interplanetary mission. It was to use spacecraft modules that had already been proven in the Pioneer 6 through 9 missions.[7]

In February 1970, Ames awarded a combined $380 million contract to TRW for building both of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 vehicles, bypassing the usual bidding process to save time. B. J. O'Brien and Herb Lassen led the TRW team that assembled the spacecraft.[9] Design and construction of the spacecraft required an estimated 25 million man-hours.[10]

To meet the schedule, the first launch would need to take place between February 29 and March 17 so that it could arrive at Jupiter in November 1974. This was later revised to an arrival date of December 1973 in order to avoid conflicts with other missions over the use of the Deep Space Network for communications, and to miss the period when Earth and Jupiter would be at opposite sides of the Sun. The encounter trajectory for Pioneer 10 was selected to maximize the information returned about the radiation environment around Jupiter, even if this caused damage to some systems. It would come within about three times the radius of the planet, which was thought to be the closest it could approach and still survive the radiation. The trajectory chosen would give the spacecraft a good view of the sunlit side.[11]

Spacecraft design[edit]

Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft diagram

The Pioneer 10 bus measured 36 centimeters (14 in) deep and with six 76-centimeter (30 in) long panels forming the hexagonal structure. The bus housed propellant to control the orientation of the probe and eight of the eleven scientific instruments. The equipment compartment lay within an aluminum honeycomb structure to provide protection from meteoroids. A layer of insulation, consisting of aluminized mylar and kapton blankets, provided passive thermal control. Heat was generated by the dissipation of 70 to 120 watts (W) from the electrical components inside the compartment. The heat range was maintained within the operating limits of the equipment by means of louvers located below the mounting platform.[12] The spacecraft had a launch mass of about 260 kilograms (570 lb).[1]:42

At launch, the spacecraft carried 36 kilograms (79 lb) of liquid hydrazine monopropellant in a 42-centimeter (17 in) diameter spherical tank.[12] Orientation of the spacecraft was maintained with six 4.5 N,[13] hydrazine thrusters mounted in three pairs. Pair one maintained a constant spin-rate of 4.8 rpm, pair two controlled the forward thrust, and pair three controlled the attitude. The attitude pair were used in conical scanning maneuvers to track Earth in its orbit.[14] Orientation information was also provided by a star sensor able to reference Canopus, and two Sun sensors.[15]

Power and communications[edit]

Two of the SNAP-19 RTGs mounted on an extension boom
Testing spin rotation centered along the main communication dish axis

Pioneer 10 used four SNAP-19 radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). They were positioned on two three-rod trusses, each 3 meters (9.8 ft) in length and 120 degrees apart. This was expected to be a safe distance from the sensitive scientific experiments carried on board. Combined, the RTGs provided 155 W at launch, and decayed to 140 W in transit to Jupiter. The spacecraft required 100 W to power all systems.[1]:44–45 The generators were powered by the radioisotope fuel plutonium-238, which was housed in a multi-layer capsule protected by a graphite heat shield.[16]

The pre-launch requirement for the SNAP-19 was to provide power for two years in space; this was greatly exceeded during the mission.[17] The plutonium-238 has a half-life of 87.74 years, so that after 29 years the radiation being generated by the RTGs was at 80% of its intensity at launch. However, steady deterioration of the thermocouple junctions led to a more rapid decay in electrical power generation, and by 2005 the total power output was 65 W. As a result, later in the mission only selected instruments could be operated at any one time.[12]

The space probe included a redundant system of transceivers, one attached to the narrow-beam, high-gain antenna, the other to an omni-antenna and medium-gain antenna. The parabolic dish for the high-gain antenna was 2.74 meters (9.0 ft) in diameter and made from an aluminum honeycomb sandwich material. The spacecraft was spun about an axis that was parallel to the axis of this antenna so that it could remain oriented toward the Earth.[12] Each transceiver was 8 W and transmitted data across the S-band using 2110 MHz for the uplink from Earth and 2292 MHz for the downlink to Earth with the Deep Space Network tracking the signal. Data to be transmitted was passed through a convolutional encoder so that most communication errors could be corrected by the receiving equipment on Earth.[1]:43 The data transmission rate at launch was 256 bit/s, with the rate degrading by about −1.27 millibit/s for each day during the mission.[12]

Much of the computation for the mission was performed on Earth and transmitted to the probe, where it was able to retain in memory up to five commands of the 222 possible entries by ground controllers. The spacecraft included two command decoders and a command distribution unit, a very limited form of processor, to direct operations on the spacecraft. This system required that mission operators prepare commands long in advance of transmitting them to the probe. A data storage unit was included to record up to 6,144 bytes of information gathered by the instruments. The digital telemetry unit was used to prepare the collected data in one of the thirteen possible formats before transmitting it back to Earth.[1]:38

Scientific instruments[edit]

Helium Vector Magnetometer (HVM)
Pioneer 10-11 - P50 - fx.jpg

This instrument measured the fine structure of the interplanetary magnetic field, mapped the Jovian magnetic field, and provided magnetic field measurements to evaluate solar wind interaction with Jupiter. The magnetometer consisted of a helium-filled cell mounted on a 6.6–m boom to partly isolate the instrument from the spacecraft's magnetic field.[18]


Quadrispherical Plasma Analyzer
Pioneer 10-11 - P51b - fx.jpg

Peered through a hole in the large dish-shaped antenna to detect particles of the solar wind originating from the Sun.[19]


Charged Particle Instrument (CPI)
Pioneer 10-11 - P52a - fx.jpg

Detected cosmic rays in the Solar System.[21]


Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT)
Pioneer 10-11 - P52b - fx.jpg

Collected data on the composition of the cosmic ray particles and their energy ranges.[22]


Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT)
Pioneer 10-11 - p53 - fx.jpg

Surveyed the intensities, energy spectra, and angular distributions of electrons and protons along the spacecraft's path through the radiation belts of Jupiter.[23]


Trapped Radiation Detector (TRD)
Pioneer 10-11 - P54 - fx.jpg

Included an unfocused Cerenkov counter that detected the light emitted in a particular direction as particles passed through it recording electrons of energy, 0.5 to 12 MeV, an electron scatter detector for electrons of energy, 100 to 400 keV, and a minimum ionizing detector consisting of a solid-state diode that measured minimum ionizing particles (<3 MeV) and protons in the range of 50 to 350 MeV.[24]


Meteoroid Detectors
Pioneer 10-11 - P56 - fx.jpg

Twelve panels of pressurized cell detectors mounted on the back of the main dish antenna recorded penetrating impacts of small meteoroids.[25]


Asteroid/Meteoroid Detector (AMD)
Pioneer 10-11 - P55b - fx.jpg

Meteoroid-asteroid detector looked into space with four non-imaging telescopes to track particles ranging from close-by bits of dust to distant large asteroids.[26]


Ultraviolet Photometer
Pioneer 10-11 - P57a - fx.jpg

Ultraviolet light was sensed to determine the quantities of hydrogen and helium in space and on Jupiter.[27]


Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP)
Pioneer 10-11 - P60 - fx.jpg

The imaging experiment relied upon the spin of the spacecraft to sweep a small telescope across the planet in narrow strips only 0.03 degrees wide, looking at the planet in red and blue light. These strips were then processed to build up a visual image of the planet.[28]


Infrared Radiometer
P58 - fx.jpg

Provided information on cloud temperature and the output of heat from Jupiter.[29]

  • Principal investigator: Andrew Ingersoll / California Institute of Technology[20]

Pioneer plaque[edit]

Main article: Pioneer plaque
Pioneer Plaque

At the behest of Carl Sagan,[9] Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 carry a 152 by 229 mm (6.0 by 9.0 in) gold-anodized aluminum plaque in case either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life-forms from another planetary system. The plaques feature the nude figures of a human male and female along with several symbols that are designed to provide information about the origin of the spacecraft.[30] The plaque is attached to the antenna support struts to provide some shielding from interstellar dust.

Mission profile[edit]

Launch and trajectory[edit]

The launch of Pioneer 10
Pioneer 10 interplanetary trajectory
Map comparing locations and trajectories of the Pioneer 10 (blue), Pioneer 11 (green), Voyager 1 (red) and Voyager 2 (purple) spacecraft, as of 2007

Pioneer 10 was launched on March 3, 1972 at 01:49:00 UTC (March 2 local time) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration from Space Launch Complex 36A in Florida, aboard an Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle. The third stage consisted of a solid fuel TE364-4 developed specifically for the Pioneer missions. This stage provided about 15,000 pounds of thrust and spun up the spacecraft.[31] The spacecraft had an initial spin rate of 30 rpm. Twenty minutes following the launch, the vehicle's three booms were extended, which slowed the rotation rate to 4.8 rpm. This rate was maintained throughout the voyage. The launch vehicle accelerated the probe for net interval of 17 minutes, reaching a velocity of 51,682 km/h (32,114 mph).[32]

After the high-gain antenna was contacted, several of the instruments were activated for testing while the spacecraft was moving through the Earth's radiation belts. Ninety minutes after launch, the spacecraft reached interplanetary space.[32] Pioneer 10 passed by the Moon in 11 hours[33] and became the fastest man-made object at that time.[34] Two days after launch, the scientific instruments were turned on, beginning with the cosmic ray telescope. After ten days, all of the instruments were active.[33]

During the first seven months of the journey, the spacecraft made three course corrections. The on-board instruments underwent checkouts, with the photometers examining Jupiter and the Zodiacal light, and experiment packages being used to measure cosmic rays, magnetic fields and the solar wind. The only anomaly during this interval was the failure of the Canopus sensor, which instead required the spacecraft to maintain its orientation using the two Sun sensors.[32]

While passing through interplanetary medium, Pioneer 10 became the first mission to detect interplanetary atoms of helium. It also observed high-energy ions of aluminum and sodium in the solar wind. On July 15, 1972, Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to enter the asteroid belt, located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The project planners expected a safe passage through the belt, and the closest the trajectory would take Pioneer 10 to any of the known asteroids was 8.8 × 106 km (5.5 × 106 mi). One of the nearest approaches was to the asteroid 307 Nike on December 2, 1972.[35]

The on-board experiments demonstrated a deficiency of particles below a micrometer (μm) in the belt, as compared to the vicinity of the Earth. The density of dust particles between 10–100 μm did not vary significantly during the trip from the Earth to the outer edge of the belt. Only for particles with a diameter of 100 μm to 1.0 mm did the density show an increase, by a factor of three in the region of the belt. No fragments larger than a millimeter were observed in the belt, indicating these are likely rare; certainly much less common than anticipated. As the spacecraft did not collide with any particles of substantial size, it passed safely through the belt, emerging on the other side about February 15, 1973.[36][37]

Encounter with Jupiter[edit]

Pioneer 10's trajectory through the Jovian system
Pioneer 10 image of Jupiter showing the Great Red Spot near the right limb
The moon Ganymede as imaged by Pioneer 10

On November 6, 1973, the Pioneer 10 spacecraft was at a distance of 25 million km from Jupiter. Testing of the imaging system began, and the data was successfully received back at the Deep Space Network. A series of 16,000 commands were then uploaded to the spacecraft to control the flyby operations during the next 60 days. The orbit of the outer moon Sinope was crossed on November 8. The bow shock of Jupiter's magnetosphere was reached on November 16, as indicated by a drop in the velocity of the solar wind from 451 km/s to 225 km/s. The magnetopause was passed through a day later. The spacecraft instruments confirmed that the magnetic field of Jupiter was inverted compared to that of Earth. By the 29th, the orbits of all of the outermost moons had been passed and the spacecraft was operating flawlessly.[38]

Red and blue pictures of Jupiter were being generated by the imaging photopolarimeter as the rotation of the spacecraft carried the instrument's field of view past the planet. These red and blue colors were combined to produce a synthetic green image, allowing a three-color combination to produce the rendered image. On November 26, a total of twelve such images were received back on Earth. By December 2, the image quality exceeded the best images made from Earth. These were being displayed in real-time back on Earth, and the Pioneer program would later receive an Emmy award for this presentation to the media. The motion of the spacecraft produced geometric distortions that later had to be corrected by computer processing.[38] During the encounter, a total of more than 500 images were transmitted.[39]

The trajectory of the spacecraft took it along the magnetic equator of Jupiter, where the ion radiation was concentrated.[40] Peak flux for this electron radiation is 10,000 times stronger than the maximum radiation around the Earth.[41] Starting on December 3, the radiation around Jupiter caused false commands to be generated. Most of these were corrected by contingency commands, but an image of Io and a few close ups of Jupiter were lost. Similar false commands would be generated on the way out from the planet. [38] Nonetheless, Pioneer 10 did succeed in obtaining images of the moons Ganymede and Europa. The image of Ganymede showed low albedo features in the center and near the south pole, while the north pole appeared brighter. Europa was too far away to obtain a detailed image, although some albedo features were apparent.[42]

The trajectory of Pioneer 10 was chosen to take it behind Io, allowing the refractive effect of the moon's atmosphere on the radio transmissions to be measured. This demonstrated that the ionosphere of the moon was about 700 km above the surface on the day side, and the density ranged from 60,000 electrons per cubic centimeter on the day side, down to 9,000 on the night face. An unexpected discovery was that Io was orbiting within a cloud of hydrogen that extended for about 805,000 km, with a width and height of 402,000 km. A smaller, 110,000 km cloud was believed to have been detected near Europa.[42]

At the closest approach, the velocity of the spacecraft reached 132,000 km/h.[43] The spacecraft came within 132,252 km of the outer atmosphere of Jupiter. Close-up images of the Great Red Spot and the terminator were obtained. Communication with the spacecraft then ceased as it passed behind the planet.[40] The radio occultation data allowed the temperature structure of the outer atmosphere to be measured, showing a temperature inversion between the altitudes with 10 and 100 mbar pressures. Temperatures at the 10 mbar level ranged from -133° to -113 °C, while temperatures at the 100 mbar level were -183° to -163 °C.[44] The spacecraft generated an infrared map of the planet, which confirmed the idea that the planet radiated more heat than it received from the Sun.[45]

Crescent images of the planet were then returned as Pioneer 10 moved away from the planet.[46] As the spacecraft headed outward, it again passed the bow shock of Jupiter's magnetosphere. As this front is constantly shifting in space because of dynamic interaction with the solar wind, the vehicle crossed the bow shock a total of 17 times before it escaped completely.[47]

Deep space[edit]

Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Saturn in 1976 and the orbit of Uranus in 1979.[48] On June 13, 1983, Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Neptune, the outermost planet at the time, and so became the first man-made object to leave the proximity of the major planets of the solar system. The mission came to an official end on March 31, 1997, when it had reached a distance of 67 AU from the Sun, though the spacecraft was still able to transmit coherent data after this date.[12]

Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft at distances between 20–70 AU from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of a small but anomalous Doppler frequency drift. The drift can be interpreted as due to a constant acceleration of (8.74 ± 1.33) × 10−10 m/s2 directed towards the Sun. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, none was found. As a result, there is sustained interest in the nature of this so-called "Pioneer anomaly".[49] Extended analysis of mission data by Slava Turyshev and colleagues has determined the source of the anomaly to be asymmetric thermal radiation.[50] In July 2012, the Pioneer anomaly was explained as a thermal recoil force (heat escaping) acting on the face of the Pioneers away from the Sun.[51]

After March 31, 1997, Pioneer 10's weak signal continued to be tracked by the Deep Space Network to aid the training of flight controllers in the process of acquiring deep space radio signals. There was an Advanced Concepts study applying chaos theory to extract coherent data from the fading signal.[52]

The last successful reception of telemetry was received from Pioneer 10 on April 27, 2002; subsequent signals were barely strong enough to detect, and provided no usable data. The final, very weak signal from Pioneer 10 was received on January 23, 2003 when it was 12 billion kilometers (80 AU) from Earth.[53] Further attempts to contact the spacecraft were unsuccessful. A final attempt was made on the evening of March 4, 2006, the last time the antenna would be correctly aligned with Earth. No response was received from Pioneer 10.[54] NASA decided that the RTG units had probably fallen below the power threshold needed to operate the transmitter. Hence, no further attempts at contact were made.[55]

Timeline[edit]

Timeline of travel
Date Event
1972-03-03
Spacecraft launched
1972-06-
Crossed orbit of Mars.
1972-07-15
Entered the asteroid belt.
1972-07-15
Start Jupiter observation phase.
Time Event
1973-12-03
Encounter with Jovian system
12:26:00
Callisto flyby at 1,392,300 km
13:56:00
Ganymede flyby at 446,250 km
19:26:00
Europa flyby at 321,000 km
22:56:00
Io flyby at 357,000 km
1973-12-04
02:26:00
Jupiter closest approach at 200,000 km
02:36:00
Jupiter equator plane crossing
02:41:45
Io occultation entry
02:43:16
Io occultation exit
03:42:25
Jupiter occultation entry
03:42:25
Jupiter shadow entry
04:15:35
Jupiter occultation exit
04:47:21
Jupiter shadow exit
1974-01-01
Phase stop.
1974-01-01
Begin Pioneer Interstellar Mission.
More
1975-02-10
The US Post Office issued a commemorative stamp featuring the Pioneer 10 space probe (See image).
1983-04-25
Crossed orbit of Pluto, still defined as a planet at the time (Pluto's irregular orbit meant it was closer to the Sun than Neptune).[56]
1983-06-13
Crossed orbit of Neptune, the furthest planet away from the Sun at the time, to become the first man-made object to depart the solar system.[57] By dialing 1-900-410-4111, one could access a recording provided by TRW that was made by slowing down and converting Pioneer 10's data feed to analog sounds.[58]
1997-03-31
End of mission. Contact is maintained with spacecraft to record telemetry.[59]
1998-02-17
Voyager 1 overtakes Pioneer 10 as the most distant man-made object from the Sun, at 69.419 AU. Voyager 1 is moving away from the Sun over 1 AU per year faster than Pioneer 10.[59]
2002-03-02
Successful reception of telemetry. 39 minutes of clean data received from a distance of 79.83 AU[60]
2002-04-27
Last successful reception of telemetry. 33 minutes of clean data received from a distance of 80.22 AU[60]
2003-01-23
Final signal received from the spacecraft. Reception was very weak and subsequent signals were barely strong enough to detect.[60]
2003-02-07
Unsuccessful attempt to contact spacecraft[60]
2005-12-30
Pioneer 10 was projected to be 89.7 AU, traveling at a velocity of 12.51 kilometers/second (28,000 miles/hour), which is approximately 0.000041 the speed of light.
2009-10-
Projections indicate that Pioneer 10 reached 100 AU. At this point, the spacecraft is approximately 271,000 AU from the nearest star, Proxima Centauri.[61]
[1]:61–94[62][63]

Current status[edit]

Position of Pioneer 10 on the 8th of February 2012

On September 9, 2012, Pioneer 10 was predicted to be 106.696 AU (1.59615×1010 km; 9.9180×109 mi) from the Earth and 106.676 AU (1.59585×1010 km; 9.9162×109 mi) from the Sun (about 10 billion miles); and traveling at 12.037 km/s (26,930 mph) (relative to the Sun) and traveling outward at about 2.539 AU per year.[64] Sunlight takes 14.79 hours to reach Pioneer 10. The brightness of the Sun from the spacecraft is magnitude −16.6.[64] Pioneer 10 is heading in the direction of the constellation Taurus.[64]

If left undisturbed, Pioneer 10 and its sister craft Pioneer 11 will join the two Voyager spacecraft and the New Horizons spacecraft in leaving the Solar System to wander the interstellar medium. The trajectory is expected to take it in the general direction of the star Aldebaran, currently located at a distance of about 68 light years. If Aldebaran had zero relative velocity, it would require more than two million years for the spacecraft to reach it.[12][65]

A backup unit, Pioneer H, is currently on display in the "Milestones of Flight" gallery at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.[66] Many elements of the mission proved to be critical in the planning of the Voyager program.[67]

Official mission film[edit]

"Jupiter Odyssey," the official Ames Research Center mission film for Pioneers 10 and 11, was produced by George Van Valkenburg Productions, and earned several international awards, including a Golden Eagle from the "Council on International Nontheatrical Events" in 1975.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Fimmel, R. O.; W. Swindell; E. Burgess (1974). SP-349/396 PIONEER ODYSSEY. NASA-Ames Research Center. SP-349/396. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  2. ^ Launius 2004, p. 36.
  3. ^ Van Allen 2001, p. 155.
  4. ^ Burrows 1990, pp. 16.
  5. ^ a b c Burrows 1999, p. 476.
  6. ^ Burgess 1982, p. 16.
  7. ^ a b c d Mark, Hans (August 1974). "The Pioneer Jupiter Mission". SP-349/396 Pioneer Odyssey. NASA. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  8. ^ Simpson 2001, p. 144.
  9. ^ a b Dyer 1998, p. 302.
  10. ^ Wolverton 2004, p. 124.
  11. ^ Burrows 1990, pp. 16–19.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Anderson, John D.; et al (April 2002). "Study of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11". Physical Review D 65 (8). arXiv:gr-qc/0104064. Bibcode:2002PhRvD..65h2004A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.65.082004. 
  13. ^ Wade, Mark. "Pioneer 10-11". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  14. ^ "Weebau Spaceflight Encyclopedia". 9 November 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  15. ^ Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, pp. 46–47.
  16. ^ Skrabek, E. A.; McGrew, John W. (January 12–16, 1987). "Transactions of the Fourth Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems". Albuquerque, New Mexico. pp. 201–204. Bibcode:1987snps.symp..201S.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  17. ^ Bennett, G.L.; Skrabek, E.A. (March 26–29, 1996). "Fifteenth International Conference on Thermoelectrics". Pasadena, CA. pp. 357–372. doi:10.1109/ICT.1996.553506.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  18. ^ Smith, Edward J. "Magnetic Fields". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  19. ^ "Quadrispherical Plasma Analyzer". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Simpson 2001, p. 146.
  21. ^ "Charged Particle Instrument (CPI)". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  22. ^ "Cosmic-Ray Spectra". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  23. ^ "Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT)". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  24. ^ "Jovian Trapped Radiation". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  25. ^ "Meteoroid Detectors". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  26. ^ "Asteroid/Meteoroid Astronomy". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  27. ^ "Ultraviolet Photometry". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  28. ^ "Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP)". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  29. ^ "Infrared Radiometers". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  30. ^ Carl Sagan, Linda Salzman Sagan and Frank Drake (1972-02-25). "A Message from Earth". Science 175 (4024): 881–884. Bibcode:1972Sci...175..881S. doi:10.1126/science.175.4024.881. PMID 17781060.  Paper on the background of the plaque. Pages available online: 1, 2, 3, 4
  31. ^ "NASA Glenn Pioneer Launch History". NASA/Glenn Research Center. March 7, 2003. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  32. ^ a b c Rogers 1995, p. 23.
  33. ^ a b Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, p. 73.
  34. ^ Burrows 1990, pp. 17.
  35. ^ Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, p. 75.
  36. ^ Staff (March 1, 1973). "Pioneer 10 beats the asteroid belt". New Scientist (New Scientist Publications) 57 (835): 470. 
  37. ^ Burgess 1982, p. 32.
  38. ^ a b c Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, pp. 79–93.
  39. ^ Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, p. 170.
  40. ^ a b Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, p. 93.
  41. ^ Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, p. 126.
  42. ^ a b Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, p. 121.
  43. ^ Fimmel, van_Allen & Burgess 1980, p. 79.
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