Pipe ramming

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Pipe ramming (or pipe jacking in British English) is a trenchless method for installation of steel pipes and casings. Distances up to 30m (150 ft) long and up to 1,500mm (60-inches) in diameter are feasible, although the method can be used for much longer and larger installations. [1][2] The method is the most useful for shallow installations under railway lines and roads, where other trenchless methods could cause surface settling or heaving. The majority of installations are horizontal, although the method can be used for vertical installations.[3]

The method uses pneumatic percussive blows to drive the pipe through the ground. The leading edge of the pipe is almost always open, and is typically closed only when smaller pipes are being installed. Its shape allows a small overcut (to reduce friction between the pipe and soil and improve load conditions on the pipe) and to direct the soil into the pipe interior instead of compacting it outside the pipe. These objectives are usually achieved by attaching a soil-cutting shoe or special bands to the pipe.

Further reduction of friction is typically achieved with lubrication, and different types of bentonite and/or polymers can be used (as in horizontal directional boring) for this purpose. [4] Spoil removal from the pipe can be done after the entire pipe is in place (shorter installations). If the pipe containing the spoil becomes too heavy before the installation s complete, the ramming can be interrupted and the pipe cleaned (longer installations). Spoil can be removed by auger, compressed air or water jetting.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "United Kingdom Society for Trenchless Technology: UKSTT - Pipe-Cables Installation Techniques". UKSTT. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 
  2. ^ Najafi, Mohammad; Gokhale, Sanjiv B. (2005). Trenchless technology: pipeline and utility design, construction, and renewal. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-142266-8. 
  3. ^ "Pipe Ramming Research : Oregon State University". Engr.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  4. ^ "Large Diameter Pipe Ramming in Canada". Trenchlessonline.com. 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 

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