Piperales

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Piperales
Piper aduncum.jpg
Piper aduncum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Piperales
Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Families

Aristolochiaceae
Hydnoraceae
Lactoridaceae
Piperaceae
Saururaceae

Piperales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. It necessarily includes the family Piperaceae but otherwise has been treated variously over time. Well-known plants which may be included in this order include black pepper, kava, lizard's tail, birthwort, and wild ginger.

Classification[edit]

APG system[edit]

In the APG III system, of 2009, this order is placed in the clade magnoliids and is circumscribed as follows:[1]

order Piperales
family Aristolochiaceae
family Hydnoraceae
family Lactoridaceae
family Piperaceae
family Saururaceae
Magnoliids


Canellales



Piperales


Aristolochiaceae



Hydnoraceae



Lactoridaceae





Piperaceae



Saururaceae








Laurales



Magnoliales




The current composition and phylogeny of the Piperales.[2][3]

This is an expansion from the APG system, of 1998, which used the same placement (in the magnoliids) but used this circumscription:

  • order Piperales
    family Aristolochiaceae
    family Lactoridaceae
    family Piperaceae
    family Saururaceae

Lactoridaceae is now no longer maintained; its sole genus Lactoris is placed in Aristolochiaceae.

Earlier systems[edit]

The Cronquist system, of 1981, placed the order in the subclass Magnoliidae of class Magnoliopsida [=dicotyledons] and used this circumscription:

  • order Piperales
    family Chloranthaceae
    family Piperaceae
    family Saururaceae

The Engler system, in its update of 1964, placed the order in subclassis Archichlamydeae in class Dicotyledoneae [=dicotyledons] and used this circumscription:

  • order Piperales
    family Chloranthaceae
    family Lactoridaceae
    family Piperaceae
    family Saururaceae

The Wettstein system, latest version published in 1935, assigned the order to the Monochlamydeae in subclass Choripetalae of class Dicotyledones. It used the circumscription:

  • order Piperales
    family Piperaceae

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x. 
  3. ^ Soltis, P. S.; D. E. Soltis (2004). "The origin and diversification of Angiosperms". American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1614–1626. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1614. PMID 21652312.