Pir Sultan Abdal

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Pir Sultan Abdal

Pir Sultan Abdal (ca. 1480–1550) was a Turkish Alevi poet, whose direct and clear language as well as the richness of his imagination and the beauty of his verses led him to become loved among the Turkish people. Pir Sultan Abdal reflected the social, cultural and religious life of the people; he was a humanist, and wrote about resistance, love, peace, death and God. He was also rebellious against authoritarian rule which led him into problems with the Ottoman establishment.

Origins[edit]

Pir Sultan Abdal's ethnic origin is Turkish, his poetry was in the Turkish language and he originated from Sivas, which is mostly populated by ethnic Turks. Although Some researchers believe "Pir Sultan" wasn't just the one in Sivas, who has rebelled against the state and hanged for his religious convictions by Hızır Paşa's orders. Most of the information about him and his era we find in his verses, which reveal him as cultivated well educated and intellectual. Pir Sultan Abdal, was an Alevi, his early work is dedicated to lyrical and pastoral themes and to the gnostic approach he had adopted. He criticized some Ottoman governors, Hizir Pasha in particular who ruled the region and his unjust officers.

His verses and calls for the rights and freedoms of the peasant folk soon attracted a lot of support among the masses who supported these ideals. As a result he was hung by Hizir Pasha.

But the tradition of his poetry and his struggle have remained alive till this day. His poetry was sung accompanied by the baglama, or saz, throughout the ages by folk singers. Today in modern Turkey the Baglama is one of the most loved instruments of the people and is extremely popular and widely used.

Many poets acquired his name to keep 'Pir Sultan's voice' alive. According to literary historians, there were at least six other poets bearing the same name.

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
Part of a series on Nizari-Ismāʿīli Batiniyya, Hurufiyya, Kaysanites and Twelver Shī‘ism

Shīʿah Batin’iyya

ALEVISM

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Beliefs

Allah · Haqq-Muhammad-Ali
Prophet Muḥammad ibn `Abd Allāh
Muhammad-Ali  · Islamic prophet
Quran  · Zahir  · Batin  · Buyruks
Shari’a · Tariqat · Haqiqa · Marifat
Wahdat al-wujud (Sufi metaphysics)
Baqaa · Fana · Haal · Ihsan · Kashf
Nafs · Al-Insān al-Kāmil · Lataif
Four Doors · Manzil · Nûr · Sulook
Yaqeen · Poetry · Cosmology
Philosophy · Psychology

The Twelve Imams

Ali  · Hasan  · Husayn
al-Abidin  · al-Baqir  · al-Sadiq
al-Kadhim  · ar-Rida  · al-Taqi
al-Naqi  · al-Askari  · al-Mahdi

Practices

Zakat  · Zeyārat  · Taqiyya
Ashura  · Hıdırellez  · Nowruz
Mawlid  · Düşkünlük Meydanı
Fasting  · Müsahiplik  · Music

Leadership

Dedes · Murshid · Pir · Rehber
Babas · Dergah · Jem · Cemevi

Crucial figures and influences

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid  · Fatimah
Khidr  · Salman al-Farisī  · al-Qarni
Jābir ibn Hayyān  · Misrī  · Bastāmī
Al-Hallaj  · Kharaqānī · Hamadānī
Yasavī  · Gilānī  · Rifā'ī  · ʿArabī
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar  · Ahi Evran
Hajji Bektash  · Jalāl ad-Dīn Rūmī
Qunawī · Tāj al-Dīn · Sarı Saltuk
Yunus Emre  · Safī Al-Dīn Ardabilī
Nāimī  · Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā  · Nasīmī
Ni'matullāh Walī (Nūr'ūd-Dīn Kermānī)
Sheikh Junāyd  · Sheikh Haydar
Sultân Ali Mirza Safavī  · Khatā'ī
Kaygusuz Abdal  · Otman Baba
Balım Sultan  · Gül Baba  · Fuzûlî
Alians  · Demir Baba · Arabati Baba
Pir Sultan Abdal  · Kul Nesîmî

Related Muslim Tariqah

Malāmat'īyyah · Qalāndār'īyyah
Qadir'īyyah · Akbar'īyya · Rifa'īyya
Uwaisī · Naqshband'īyyah Owais'īyyah
Mawlaw'īyya · Zahed'īyya · Safāv'īyya
Khalwat'īyyah · Bayram'īyyah · Jelvetī
Bābā'īyyah · Ḥurūf'īyya · Nuqṭaw'īyya
Alians · Bektashī folk religion · Çepnī
Bektash'īyyah · Jelāl'īyya · Ni'matullāhī
Harabat'īyyah · Nurbaksh'īyya · Galibī

Alevi history

Umayyads  · Abu Muslim al-Khorasani
Abbasids  · Bābak Khorram-Dīn
Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev II  · Baba Ishak
Bayezid Walī  · Persecution of Alevis
Şahkulu Rebellion  · Şahkulu Baba
Battle of Çaldıran  · Yavuz Selim
Abaza rebellion  · Kuyucu Murad Paşa
The Auspicious Event  · Mahmud II
Koçgiri Rebellion  · Dersim Rebellion
Seyid Riza  · Dersim Massacre
Maraş Massacre  · Çorum Massacre  · Sivas massacre

Other influential groups

Ismā'īlīya · Alavī Bohra · Nizārī Ismā'īlī
Nusayr'īyya · Durūzī · Khurrām'īyyah
Kızılbaş · Bábísm · Bahá'ís · Yazdanī
Yâresân · Êzidî · Yazidī · Sabians
Sabians of Harran · Luvian mythology
Chinarism · Gnosticism · Nabataeans
Mazdaism · Mazdakism · Zurvanism
Zerdust · Mandaeism · Manicheism
Shaman · Tengriism · Panentheism

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SAFAVID INFLUENCES IN IRAN

Safavid Conversion of Iran from
Sunnism to Shiism

Shia in Persia before Safavids
Shiism in Persia after Safavids

Shi'a states in Persia before Safavids

Justanids  · Alavids  · Buyids
Hasanwayhids  · Kakuyids  · Alamut
Ilkhanids  · Jalayirids  · Chobanids
Injuids  · Sarbadars  · Kara Koyunlu

Shi'a states in Persia after Safavids

Afsharids  · Shakis  · Ganja
Karabakh  · Shirvan  · Zands
Qajar dynasty  · Pahlavi dynasty  · Iran

Poetry[edit]

Dostun en güzeli bahçesine bir hoyrat girmiş
Korudur hey benli dilber korudur
Gülünü dererken dalını kırmış
Kurudur hey benli dilber kurudur

Şu meydanda serilidir postumuz
Çok şükür Mevlâ'ya gördük dostumuz
Bir gün kara toprak bürür üstümüz
Çürütür hey benli dilber çürütür

Kendisi okur da kendisi yazar
Hak hilâl kaşına eylemiş nazar
Senin akranların cennette gezer
Hürüdür hey benli dilber hürüdür

Hangi dinde isen ona tapayım
Yarın mahşer günü bile kopayım
Eğil bir yol ak gerdandan öpeyim
Beri dur hey benli dilber beri dur

Pîr Sultan Abdal'ım başından başlar
İyisini yer de kemini taşlar
Bin çiçekten bir kovana bal işler
Arıdır hey benli dilber arıdır

Translation[edit]

To the garden of my love there came an evil louder
The shrubs now lie there, my fair one, shrubs lie
While gathering the roses, he broke their stems to moulder
They are all dry, my fair one, they are all dry.

We've spread our prayer hide all over this place
We saw our dearest one to Holy God in grace
One day, all of us will come into the earth's embrace
We'll putrefy, my fair one, we'll putrefy.

God Himself reads the fate, Himself he scribes
He closed the crescent lashes of her beautiful eyes
Your peers are walking now with you in Paradise
houris they are, my fair one, houris, fair my.

Whatever your creed be, I will adore it and pray
To be awaken together with you on Judgement Day
Rise up once more to kiss your white throat that I may
Don't pass for one more trice, my fair, don't pass by.

I am Pir Sultan Abdal, the first of the firsts,
I feed my soul with the best and remedy the worst
I'll pool honey from thousand blooms to one comb till it bursts
I am the bee, my fair one, the bee am I.

Source: http://www.turkishclass.com/poem_204

Legacy[edit]

Pir Sultan followed the traditional style of folk literature. The outstanding characteristic of his poems, the use of vernacular language, keen and clear style still prevail in folkloric poetry. He also had a great influence on the poets of modern Turkey in the republican era and is today a beloved figure.

See also[edit]