Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as:[1]

Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered over with cartilaginous scales. Besides the parts they have in common with other animals, they are furnished with a nictitant membrane, and most of them with an swim-blader, by the contraction or dilatation of which, they can raise or sink themselves in their element at pleasure.

Linnaean Characteristics [1]

  • Heart: 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, dark red blood
  • Gills: external
  • Jaw: incumbent
  • Penis: (usually) none
  • Eggs: without whites
  • Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils?, eyes, ears
  • Covering: imbricate scales
  • Supports: fins. Swims in the Water & Smacks.

Apodes[edit]

The European eel was named Muraena angvilla in 1758.
Muraena (eels)
Gymnotus (electric knifefishes)
Trichiurus (cutlassfishes)
The seawolf was named Anarhichas lupus in 1758.
Anarhichas (wolffishes)
Ammodytes (sand eels)
Stromateus (butterfishes)
Xiphias (swordfishes)

Jugulares[edit]

Callionymus (dragonets)
Uranoscopus (stargazers)
Trachinus (weevers)
The Atlantic cod was named Gadus morhua & Gadus callarias in 1758.
Gadus (cod & kin)
The butterfly blenny was named Blennius ocellaris in 1758.
Blennius (blennies)
Ophidion (cusk-wels)

Thoracici[edit]

Cyclopterus[edit]

Cyclopterus (Lumpfishes)

Echeneis[edit]

Echeneis (Remoras)

Coryphaena[edit]

Coryphaena (Dolphinfishes)

Gobius[edit]

The black goby was named Gobius niger & Gobius jozo in 1758.
Gobius (Gobies)

Cottus[edit]

Cottus (Sculpins)

Scorpaena[edit]

Scorpaena (Scorpionfishes)

Zeus[edit]

The lookdown was named Zeus vomer in 1758.
Zeus (John Dories & kin)

Pleuronectes[edit]

The European plaice was named Pleuronectes platessa in 1758.
Pleuronectes (Flatfishes)

Chaetodon[edit]

The Moorish idol was named Chaetodon canescens & Chaetodon cornutus in 1758.
Chaetodon (Butterflyfishes, Angelfishes, & kin)

Sparus[edit]

The red porgy was named Sparus orphus & Sparus pagrus in 1758.
Sparus (Breams and Porgies)

Labrus[edit]

The goldsinny wrasse was named Labrus suillus & Labrus rupestris in 1758.
Labrus (Wrasses, Parrotfishes, & kin)

Sciaena[edit]

Sciaena (Snappers & Croakers)

Perca[edit]

The European perch was named Perca fluviatilis in 1758.
Perca (Perch, Grouper, & kin)

Gasterosteus[edit]

The red lionfish was named Gasterosteus volitans in 1758.
The flying gurnard was named Gasterosteus spinarella & Trigla volitans in 1758.
Gasterosteus (Sticklebacks & kin)

Scomber[edit]

The Atlantic mackerel was named Scomber scombrus in 1758.
Scomber (Mackerel & Tuna)

Mullus[edit]

The red mullet was named Mullus surmuletus in 1758.
Mullus (Goatfishes)

Trigla[edit]

Trigla (Sea robins)

Abdominales[edit]

Cobitis (Loaches)
The walking catfish was named Silurus batrachus in 1758.
Silurus (Catfishes)
Loricaria (Suckermouth Catfishes)
The Atlantic salmon was named Salmo salar in 1758.
The brown trout was named Salmo eriox, Salmo trutta, Salmo fario & Salmo lacustris in 1758.
Salmo (Salmon, Trout, & kin)
Fistularia (Cornetfishes)
The longnose gar was named Esox osseus in 1758.
Esox (Pike, Gar, and kin)
Argentina (Herring smelts)
Atherina (Silversides)
Mugil (Mullet)
Exocoetus (Flying fishes)
Polynemus (Threadfins)
The European anchovy was named Clupea encrasicolus in 1758.
Clupea (Herring, Hatchetfishes, & kin)
The common carp was named Cyprinus carpio in 1758.
Cyprinus (Carp & kin)

Branchiostegi[edit]

The queen triggerfish was named Balistes vetula in 1758.
Mormyrus (Elephantfishes)
Balistes (Triggerfishes)
The yellow boxfish was named Ostracion tuberculatus & Ostracion cubicus in 1758.
Ostracion (Boxfishes & Cowfishes)
Tetrodon (Pufferfishes & Sunfishes)
The long-spine porcupinefish was named Diodon holocanthus in 1758.
Diodon (Porcupinefishes)
Centriscus (Shrimpfishes)
Syngnathus (Pipefishes & Seahorses)
Pegasus (Seamoths)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carl von Linné, translated by William Turton (1806). Volume 1. A general system of nature: through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals, systematically divided into their several classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co.