Pishin District

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For the administrative subdivision of Iran, see Pishin District (Iran).
Pishin District
District
District Pishin
Map of Balochistan with Pishin District highlighted
Map of Balochistan with Pishin District highlighted
Country Pakistan
Province Balochistan
Headquarters Pishin
Government
 • Deputy Commissioner Bashir Ahamad Khan Bazai[1]
 • Assistant Commissioner Samee Ullah Kakar[2]
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Number of Tehsils 5

Pishin (Urdu: پشین ‎) was a part of Quetta Pishin district. In 1975 it was separated from Quetta for administrative reasons. The name Pishin is a modernized form of ‘Pushang’, which is how the city was designated in (mainly pre-modern) Persian sources (Arabic sources using 'Fushang'). Myth attributes the origin of the Persian designation to a son of the mythical Emperor Afrasiab. Fushing was the spelling used in the records of the Afghan government. The population of Pishin District was estimated to be over 300,000 in 2005,[3] with 95% of the population being Pashtun.

History[edit]

Up to the middle of the 18th century, when Quetta finally passed into the hands of Baloch rulers, the history of Pishin is identical with the province of Kandahar. The earliest mention of Pishin is in the avestic writing in which Pishinorha is described as a valley in an elevated part of the country and containing a barren level plain (dasht).

Little is known of the history of Quetta Pishin up to the 13th century AD It was in 1221 that Kandahar and its dependencies passed into the hands of the Mughals. During the first half of the 15th century, Kandahar was under the rule of the Timurs’ successors and it was probably at the beginning of this century that the Tareen tribe, which now holds Pishin, emigrated from their original homes in the Takht-i-Sulaiman and made their way into Pishin.

Between 1530 and 1545 the province of Kandahar was in the possession of Mirza Kamran the brother of the Emperor Humayun. After his death in 1556, Kandahar and its dependencies were restored to the Safavid kings of Persia and they remained under Persia until 1595, when they were again acquired by the Mughals. It is mentioned in Ain-i-Akbari that Shal and Pushang were included in the eastern division of the Kandhar Sarkar. In 1622 Kandahar was again brought under the Safavid dynasty and with the exception of a short period remained under Persia. The Safavid Monarch Shah Abbas gained possession of Kandhar in 1622. He conferred the government of Pishin and tribal dependencies upon Sher Khan the Tareen.

The end of the 17th century witnessed the rise to prominence of the Baloch power and Quetta fell into their hands in the time of Mir Ahmed yar Khan Ahmedzai Baloch whose reign lasted 30 years, from 1666 to 1696. The Ghilzai, Mir Wais obtained possession of Kandhar in 1709 and it is curious that this feat was accomplished in connection with Pishin Baloch history relates that around 1725 Pishin has been annexed by Mir Abdullah Khan Ahmedzai Baloch after an engagement with the Ghilzais near Kandahar. However, in 1733 Shah Hussain Ghilzai made a move against the Baloch and he dismantled the fort of Pishin . Moving forward, he crossed the Ghaza Bund and took Quetta.He advanced to Mastung where He was defeated by Baloch. Quetta remained after that time under Kandahar and was transferred to Nadir Shah on his taking that place.then came the rule of Ahmed Shah Abdali in Afghanistan He won the allegiance of Baluchistan Ruler Mir Mohabbat Khan Ahmedzai Baloch after the death of Mir Mohabbat Khan his brother Khan Of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Ahmedzai Baloch Became King of Balochistan but after some time he Broke the alliance and Revolted against Afghan King and defeated Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1758, As he started interfering in the internal affairs of Balochistan.Ahmed Shah Durrani finally gifted quetta to the mother of Khan of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Ahmedzai Baloch bibi Maryam Cause He took part in several expeditions to help the Afghans against the Iranians in Khurasan in 1751, in the battle of panipat India against Marhatas in 1761 and in Punjab against Sikhs in 1765.thirty thousand Baloch troops successfully participated in these battles under the command of Khan Of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch” He was Best Friend and Strategic partner of Ahmed Shah Durrani Ahmed Shah Abdali had given Pishin as a jagir to Noori Naseer Khan as well.

British Era

During the period of the first Afghan war, Quetta fell into British hands in 1839. After the British retired in 1842, Pishin and Shorarud were occupied by the Afghans. The first phase of the Afghan war closed with the signing of an agreement in May 1879 stating that the district of Pishin along with some other districts were to be ceded to the British government. It was in 1882 that final orders were given for the permanent retention of Pishin and British authority was extended over the little valley of Shorarud.

When Quetta district was handed over to the British government on April 1883, it was combined with Pishin into a single administrative charge and Sir H.S.Barnes was appointed the first political agent.

Before its occupation in 1878 and its subsequent assignment in 1879, Pishin always formed part of the province of Kandahar. The Tareens played important part as Governors. Before the British occupation and up to 1882 it was under an assistant to the Governor General. From 1883 onwards, when Pishin was combined with Quetta and Shorasud, together they fell under one political agent, the Deputy Commissioner.

This situation remained till the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Till 1975 Quetta and Pishin were a single administrative unit. In 1975, Pishin was separated from Quetta and was given the status of a district. In 1993 Pishin was bifurcated into Pishin district and Killa Abdullah district. Now there are three districts Quetta, Pishin and Killa Abdullah which before independence came under one administrative division, known as Quetta Pishin.[3]

Provincial Legislature[edit]

The district is represented in the provincial assembly by three constituencies viz from each single member's constituency one representative to of the people in the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan.[4]

  1. Abdul Malik Kakar[5]
  2. Sardar Mustafa Khan Tareen [6]
  3. Syed Liaqat Agha Agha[7]

Administration[edit]

The district of Pishin is administratively subdivided into four tehsils:[8] and one sub Tehsil[9]

Tribes[edit]

Pishin District is home to several tribes but following Five main tribes form the major population of the district:[9]

Agriculture[edit]

Pishin has very good soil for production of good quality apple, cherry, almond, grapes, and plums.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Coordinates: 30°40′N 66°50′E / 30.667°N 66.833°E / 30.667; 66.833