Pisidia

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Pisidia (Πισιδία)
Ancient Region of Anatolia
Theatre of Termessos
Theatre of Termessos
Location Southern Anatolia
State existed -
Language Pisidian
Notable cities Termessos, Sagalassos
Roman province Asia, Galatia
Location of Pamphylia
History of Anatolia
Bronze Age
Troy I–VIII 3000–700 B.C.
Hattians 2500–2000 B.C.
Akkadian Empire 2400–2150 B.C.
Luwian hieroglyphs / Luvians 2300–1400 B.C.
Assyria 1950–1750 B.C.
Achaeans (Homer) 1700–1300 B.C.
Kizzuwatna 1650–1450 B.C.
Hittites 1680–1220 B.C.
  Hittite Old Kingdom
  Middle Hittites
  Hittite New Kingdom
Arzawa 1500–1320 B.C.
Mitanni 1500–1300 B.C.
Lycia / Lycians 1450–350 B.C.
Assuwa 1300–1250 B.C.
Neo-Hittites 1200–800 B.C.
Phrygia / Phrygians 1200–700 B.C.
Caria / Carians 1150–547 B.C.
Tuwanuwa 1000–700 B.C.
Ionia 1000–545 B.C.
Urartu 859–595/585 B.C.
From Stone Age to Classical antiquity
Lydia / Lydians 685–547 B.C.
Persia-Achaemenid Empire 559–331 B.C.
Alexander the Great 334–301 B.C.
Seleucid Empire 305–64 B.C.
Pontus / Kingdom of Pontus 302–64 B.C.
Pergamon / Kingdom of Pergamon 282–129 B.C.
Galatia / Galatians 281–64 B.C.
Armenian Empire 190 B.C. – 428 A.D.
Roman Republic 133–27 B.C.
Roman Empire 27 B.C. – 330 A.D.
Middle Ages
Byzantine Empire 330 – 1453
Danishmends 1071 – 1178
Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti 1077–1307
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia 1078–1375
Ramadanids of Cilicia 1352–1608
Artuqids 1101–1409
Empire of Trebizond 1204–1461
Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261
Karamanids 1250–1487
Ilkhanate 1256–1335
Eretnids (Successor of Ilkhanids) 1335–1381
Qizilbash-Dulkadirids of Elbistan 1337–1522
Kara Koyunlu 1375–1468
Ak Koyunlu 1378–1501
Ottomans and Turkey
Rise of the Ottoman Empire 1299–1453
Growth of the Ottoman Empire 1453–1683
Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire 1683–1827
Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1828–1908
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 1908–1922
Republic of Turkey 1922–present

History of Turkey

Pisidia (/pɨˈsɪdiə/, Greek: Πισιδία, Turkish: Pisidya) was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, and bordering Caria, Lydia, Phrygia and Pamphylia. It corresponds roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey. Among Pisidia's settlements were Termessus, Selge, Cremna, Sagalassos, Etenna, Antiochia, Neapolis, Tyriacum, Laodiceia Katakekaumene and Philomelium.

Geography[edit]

Although close to Mediterranean Sea on the map, the warm climate of the south cannot pass the height of the Taurus Mountains. Owing to the climate, there is no timberland but crop plants grow in areas provided with water from the mountains, whose annual average rainfall is c. 1000 mm on the peaks and 500 mm on the slopes. This water feeds the plateau. The Pisidian cities, mostly founded on the slopes, benefited from this fertility. The irrigated soil of the land is very suitable for growing fruit and for husbandry.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The area of Pisidia has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age, with some settlements known from historical times ranging in age from the eighth to third millennium BC. The ancestors of the classical Pisidians were likely present in the region before the 14th century BC, when Hittite records refer to a mountain site of Salawassa, identified with the later site of Sagalassos. At that time, Pisidia appears to have been part of the region the Hittites called Arzawa. The Pisidian language is poorly known, but is assumed to be a member of the Anatolian branch of Indo-European languages.

Herodotus mentioned the Pisidic people in the text which they were called "Lakuna" but this was one of the names given to Pisidic tribes, which occupied a little mountainous region north to the Antalya Bay. Pisidians are known to be among the nations which helped the Persians in their war against Greece. [1]

There can be little doubt that the Pisidians and Pamphylians were the same people, but the distinction between the two seems to have been established at an early period. Herodotus, who does not mention the Pisidians, enumerates the Pamphylians among the nations of Asia Minor, while Ephorus mentions them both, correctly including the one among the nations on the interior, the other among those of the coast. Pamphylia early received colonies from Greece and other lands, and from this cause, combined with the greater fertility of their territory, became more civilized than its neighbor in the interior. Pisidia remained a wild, mountainous region, and one of the most difficult for outside powers to rule.

As far back as the Hittite period, Pisidia was host to independent communities not under the Hittite yoke. Known for its warlike factions, it remained largely independent of the Lydians, and even the Persians, who conquered Anatolia in the 6th century BC, and divided the area into satrapies for greater control, were unable to cope with constant uprisings and turmoil.

Hellenistic period[edit]

Alexander the Great had somewhat better fortune, conquering Sagalassos on his way to Persia, though the city of Termessos defied him. After Alexander died, the region became part of territories of Antigonus Monophthalmus, and possibly Lysimachus of Thrace, after which Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Dynasty of Syria, took control of Pisidia. Under the Selucids Greek colonies were founded at strategically important places and the local people Hellenised. Even so, the Hellenistic kings were never in complete control, in part because Anatolia was contested between the Selucids, the Attalids of Pergamon, and the Galatians, invading Celts from Europe. The cities in Pisidia were among the last in western Anatolia to fully adopt Greek culture and to coin their own money.[2]

Pisidia officially passed from the Selucids to the Attalids as a result of the Treaty of Apamea, forced on Antiochos III of Syria by the Romans in 188 BC. After Attalos III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathed his kingdom to Rome in 133 BC as the province of Asia, Pisidia was given to the Kingdom of Cappadocia, which proved unable to govern it. The Pisidians cast their lot with pirate-dominated Cilicia and Pamphylia until Roman rule was restored in 102 BC.

In 39 BC Marcus Antonius entrusted Pisidia to the Galatian client king Amyntas and charged him with putting down the bandit Homonadesians of the Taurus Mountains, who threatened the roads connecting Pisidia to Pamphylia. After Amyntas was killed in the struggle 25 BC, Rome made Pisidia part of the new province of Galatia. The Homonadesians were finally wiped out in 3 BC.

Roman and Byzantine period[edit]

Photo of a 15th Century map showing Pisidia.

During the Roman period Pisidia was colonized the area with veterans of its legions to maintain control. For the colonists, who came from poorer parts of Italy, agriculture must have been the area’s main attraction. Under Augustus, eight colonies were established in Pisidia, and Antioch and Sagalassos became the most important urban centers. The province was gradually Latinised. Latin remained the formal language of the area until the end of the 3rd century.

Pisidia was important in the early spread of Christianity. St. Paul visited Antioch on each of his missionary journeys, helping to make it a center of the new faith in Anatolia. After the Emperor Constantine's legalization of Christianity in 311 it played an important role as a metropolitan city. Afterwards it became the capital city of the Christian Pisidian Province, founded in the 4th century; Parlais became its titular see. Most Pisidian cities were heavily fortified at that time due to civil wars and foreign invasions.

The area was devastated by earthquake in 518, a plague around 541-543, and another earthquake and Arab raids in the middle of the 7th century. After the Muslim conquest of Syria disrupted trade routes, the area declined in importance. In the 8th century the raids increased. In the 11th century the Seljuk Turks captured the area and founded the Seljuk Sultanate in Central Anatolia. Pisidia constantly changed hands between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Turks until 1176, when the Great Sultan Kılıçarslan defeated Manuel Commenos in the Myriokephalon (thousand heads), which ended Roman rule and cemented Turkish rule of the area.

Episcopal sees[edit]

Ancient episcopal sees of Pisidia that are listed in the Annuario Pontificio as titular sees include:[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] (need better ref)
  2. ^ asiaminorcoins.com - ancient cities and coins of Pisidia
  3. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]