- Pitbull refers here. For the Cuban-American rapper and entertainer, see Pitbull (rapper)
||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with USA and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2013)|
|American Pit Bull Terrier|
|Country of origin||England, Scotland, Ireland, and the United States|
|Notes||Generally, a purebred American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, a mix of these or another of the same bloodline or morphology.|
|Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The term pit bull is a generic term used to describe dogs with similar physical characteristics. Usually a "pit bull" is considered one of several breeds including the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Bull Terrier or any mix thereof. In some parts of the world, the American Bulldog and Dogo Argentino are also classified as a "Pit Bull-type" dog, despite major genetic differences. Any dog that is mixed with a "bully breed" may also be called a "pit bull" including those that are descended from the English Bulldog, French Bulldog, Boston Terrier and Cane Corso. The pit bull is not a distinct breed which may make it difficult for experts to identify, and while mixed breed dogs are often labelled a "pit bull" if they have certain physical characteristics such as a square shaped head or bulky body type, visual identification of mixed breed dogs is not recommended by the scholarly community.
Several jurisdictions have enacted breed-specific legislation against pit bulls, ranging from outright bans on the possession of pit bull-type dogs, to restrictions and conditions on pit bull ownership. Research indicates that breed specific legislation is ineffective because it is not the breed of dog that is dangerous; rather, it is unfavorable situations that create dangerous dogs.
American Pit Bull Terrier
The American Pit Bull Terrier was created by interbreeding Old English Terriers and English Bulldogs to produce a dog that combined the gameness (a quality of fighting dogs or working terriers; eagerness despite the threat of substantive injury) of the terrier with the strength and athleticism of the bulldog. These dogs were initially bred in England, and arrived in the United States with the founders. In the U.S., these dogs were used as catch dogs for semi-wild cattle and hogs, to hunt, to drive livestock, and as family companions. Some have been selectively bred for their fighting prowess. The United Kennel Club (UKC) was the first registry to recognize the American Pit Bull Terrier, in 1898.
American Pit Bull Terriers successfully fill the role of companion dog, police dog, and therapy dog. American Pit Bull Terriers also constitute the majority of dogs used for illegal dog fighting in the U.S. In addition, law enforcement organizations report these dogs are used for other nefarious purposes, such as guarding illegal narcotics operations, use against police, and as attack dogs.
In an effort to counter the fighting reputation of pit bull-type dogs, in 1996 the San Francisco Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals relabeled pit bull terriers as "St. Francis Terriers" (not associated with the "terrier" mascot of St. Francis College in New York), so that people might more readily adopt them. 60 temperament-screened dogs were adopted until the program was halted, after several of the newly adopted pit bulls killed cats. The New York City Center for Animal Care and Control tried a similar approach in 2004, relabeling their pit bulls as "New Yorkies", but dropped the idea in the face of overwhelming public opposition.
American Staffordshire Terrier
The American Staffordshire Terrier was created by 19th century interbreeding between bulldogs and terriers that produced the "bull-and-terrier dog," "Half and Half," and at times "pit dog" or "pit bullterrier" (which became the "Staffordshire Bull Terrier" in England). The bulldog of that time differed from the modern bulldog, having a full muzzle and a long, tapering tail. There is some debate whether the White English Terrier, the Black and Tan Terrier, the Fox Terrier, or some combination thereof were used. These dogs began to find their way into America as early as 1870, where they became known as a Pit Dog, Pit Bull Terrier, later American Bull Terrier, and still later as a Yankee terrier. They were imported primarily, but not exclusively, for pit fighting.
In 1936, they were accepted by the American Kennel Club (AKC) as "Staffordshire Terriers." Breeders started creating exemplars heavier in weight. Since January 1, 1972, the breed was renamed "American Staffordshire Terrier" to describe it as a separate breed from the lighter Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England.
Attacks on humans
A 9-year (1979–88) review of fatal dog attacks in the United States determined that, of the 101 attacks in which breed was recorded, pit bulls were implicated in 42 of those attacks (42%). A 1991 study found that 94% of attacks on children by pit bulls were unprovoked, compared to 43% for other breeds. A 5-year (1989–94) review of fatal dog attacks in the U.S. determined that pit bulls and pit bull mixed breeds were implicated in 24 (29%) of the 84 deaths in which breed was recorded.
A 15-year (1991–2005) review of dog attack fatalities investigated by the Kentucky Medical Examiner determined that pit bulls were implicated in 5 of the 11 fatal attacks (45%). Another 15-year (1994–2009) review of patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Center with dog bites determined that pit bulls were most often involved in these attacks: of the 228 patients treated, the breed of dog was recorded in 82 attacks, and of these, 29 (35%) of the attacks were by pit bulls. In 45% of the attacks, the dog belonged to the victim's family. The authors wrote:
Attacks by pit bulls are associated with higher morbidity rates, higher hospital charges, and a higher risk of death than are attacks by other breeds of dogs. Strict regulation of pit bulls may substantially reduce the US mortality rates related to dog bites.
However, concerns about the reliability of the study's data, its conclusions, its methodology, and its use of citations were raised in a later letter to the editor of Annals of Surgery, by Karen Delise, founder of the National Canine Research Council, a pit bull advocacy organization.
A 5-year (2001–05) review of dog attack victims admitted to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia determined that pit bull terriers were implicated in more than half of the bites where breed was identified. Of the 269 patients where breed was identified, 137 (51%) were attacked by pit bulls. The authors wrote:
the overwhelming number of bites involving pit bull terriers in this study and others certainly has some degree of validity when it comes to identifying bite-prone breeds. Pit bull terriers, German shepherds, and Rottweilers were the offending breeds implicated in our study, and have accounted for the majority of dog bites according to other investigators.
A review of the medical literature found that pit bulls and pit bull cross-breeds were involved in 42–45% of dog attacks. Fatalities were most often reported when children were attacked, with 70% of victims being under the age of 10.
Some other studies on the number of human deaths caused by dog bite trauma have surveyed news media stories for reports of dog-bite-related fatalities. This methodology is subject to potential errors, as some fatal attacks may not have been reported, a study might not find all relevant news reports, and the dog breed might be misidentified.
A study questioned the bull dog reputation as a dangerous breed. An electronic search of newspaper articles by Raghavan found that pit bull terriers were responsible for 1 (4%) of 28 dog-bite-related fatalities reported in Canada from 1990–2007. The study also noted that:
A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities.
The total number of fatal dog attacks from the 17-year period is equal to about 1 fatal attack per year, while the Clifton Report, a study that includes the 1990–2007 period in the Canadian Veterinary Journal Study, shows an average of 6 fatalities attributed to pit bulls alone annually in the U.S. and Canada. The Clifton Report notes that one limitation is that even experts may disagree as to the breed of a particular dog.
In a project called the "Calgary Model," legislation addressing bad owners instead of breeds has been the focus. After implementation, which included fining the owner $350–$1,500 in dog bite cases, there was a 25-year low in the incidence of such cases.
Several studies determined that pit bull owners, and owners of other "vicious" or "high risk" breeds (most commonly identified as Akita, Chow Chow, Doberman Pinscher, Rottweiler, and Wolf-mix), are more likely to have criminal convictions and are more likely to display antisocial behaviors. A 2006 study compared owners of "high risk" dogs to owners of "low risk" dogs. "High risk" dogs included “vicious” dogs by breed (e.g., pit bulls) or “vicious” actions (e.g., any dog that had bitten, attacked, or killed a person or other animal). The study determined that "high risk" dog owners had nearly 10 times as many criminal convictions than did "low risk" dog owners. A 2009 study and a followup 2012 study generally supported these findings.
Locking jaws myth
A popular myth is that pit bulls have "locking jaws". There is no physiological "locking mechanism" in the jaw muscle and bone structure of pit bulls. Pit bull-type dogs, like other terriers, hunting and bull-baiting breeds, can exhibit a bite, hold, and shake behavior and at times refuse to release when biting. Pit bulls also have wide skulls, well-developed muscles, and strong jaws.
Methods to force pit bull-type dogs to release their grip include breaking an ammonia ampule and holding it up to the dog's nose, or using a "break stick" to lever the dog's jaws open if it is biting a person or animal.
Many of the jurisdictions that restrict pit bulls apply their restriction to: (a) the modern American Pit Bull Terrier, (b) American Staffordshire Terrier, (c) Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and (d) any other dog that has the substantial physical characteristics and appearance of those breeds. Such jurisdictions include: Ontario (Canada), Miami (Florida, U.S.), Denver (Colorado, U.S.), and Malden, (Massachusetts, U.S.). However a few jurisdictions, such as Singapore and Franklin County, Ohio (U.S.), also classify the modern American Bulldog as a "pit bull-type dog". In the United Kingdom, a pit bull is an American Pit Bull Terrier.
All of the breeds share a similar history, with origins rooted from the bulldog and a variety of terriers, except for the Johnson line of American Bulldog (as opposed to the more pure Scott line), which come from the bulldog and a variety of mastiffs. The dogs called bull terriers before the development of the modern bull terrier in the early 20th century may also be called pit bulls.
Approximately 550 jurisdictions have enacted breed-specific legislation (BSL) in response to a number of well-publicized incidents involving pit bull-type dogs, and some government organizations such as the U.S. Army and Marine Corps have taken administrative action as well. These actions range from outright bans on the possession of pit bull-type dogs, to restrictions and conditions on pit bull ownership. They often establish a legal presumption that a pit bull-type dog is prima facie a legally "dangerous" or "vicious" dog. In response, 16 states in the U.S. prohibited or restricted the ability of municipal governments within those states to enact BSL, though these restrictions do not affect military installations located within the states.
It is now generally settled in caselaw that jurisdictions in the U.S. and Canada have the right to enact breed-specific legislation. Despite these holdings by the courts, there is some public skepticism over whether the laws are effective. One point of view is that pit bulls are a public safety issue that merits actions such as banning ownership, mandatory spay/neuter for all pit bulls, mandatory microchip implants and liability insurance, or prohibiting people convicted of a felony from owning pit bulls Another point of view is that comprehensive "dog bite" legislation, coupled with better consumer education and legally mandating responsible pet-keeping practices, is a better solution to the problem of dangerous pit bulls than BSL.
A third point of view is that breed-specific legislation should not ban breeds entirely, but should instead strictly regulate the conditions under which specific breeds could be owned. For example, forbidding certain classes of individuals from owning them, specifying public areas from which they would be prohibited, and establishing conditions, such as requiring a dog to wear a muzzle, for taking specific breeds of dogs into public places. Finally, some governments, such as in Australia, have forbidden the import of specific breeds, and are requiring the spay/neuter of all existing dogs of these breeds in an attempt to eliminate the breed's population slowly through natural attrition.
In a 2012 ruling involving the mauling of a child, Maryland's highest court held that pit bulls are "inherently dangerous". It made pit bull owners, and landlords renting to tenants who own a pit bull, strictly liable for any injuries caused during an attack by a pit bull.
In England and Wales the Dangerous Dogs Act prohibits the ownership of pit bull terrier along with 3 other breeds. The Act also bans the breeding, sale and exchange of these dogs.
Dog owners in the United States can be held legally liable for injuries inflicted or caused by their dogs. In general, owners are considered liable if they were unreasonably careless in handling or restraining the dog, or if they knew beforehand that the dog had a tendency to cause injury (e.g., bite); however, dog owners are automatically considered liable if local laws hold an owner strictly liable for all damage caused by their dog, regardless of carelessness or foreknowledge of a dog's tendencies. Homeowners and renters insurance policies typically provide liability coverage from US$100,000–300,000 for injuries inflicted by dogs; however, some insurance companies limit their exposure to dog bite liability claims by putting restrictions on dog owners that they insure. These restrictions include refusing to cover dog bites under the insurance policy; increasing insurance rates for homeowners with specific breeds; requiring owners of specific breeds to take special training or have their dogs pass the American Kennel Club Canine Good Citizen test; requiring owners to restrict their dogs with muzzles, chains, or enclosures; and refusing to write policies for homeowners or renters who have specific breeds of dogs.
Owners of rental properties may also be held liable if they knew an aggressive dog was living on their property and they did nothing to ensure the safety of other tenants at the property; as a result, many rental properties forbid pit bull-type dogs and any other breeds if the rental property's insurance will not cover damage inflicted by that type of dog. The dog breeds most often targeted by insurance companies include pit bull-type dogs, Rottweilers, German Shepherd Dogs, Doberman Pinschers, Akitas (Akita Inu and American Akita), and Chows.
In 2013, Farmers Insurance notified policy holders in California that "it will no longer cover bites by pit bulls, rottweilers and wolf hybrids. A spokeswoman for Farmers said those breeds account for more than a quarter of the agency's dog bite claims."
Air carrier restrictions
Several air carriers embargo certain dog breeds, due to the effect of high temperature and humidity on brachycephalic animals, or concerns for the safety of airline property, personnel, and passengers. The following table has a sampling of air carrier embargoes on dogs.
|Air France||Safety||Dogs "similar in morphology" to Staffordshire Terriers, mastiff (boerboel), tosa, and pit bulls may not be transported or shipped by air.|
|Alaska Airlines / Horizon Air||Health||Dog breeds including American Pit Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, Staffordshire Bull Terriers, fly at their owner's risk, with no additional compensation if the dog suffers injury or dies during transit. The airline may refuse to accept the dog if it feels outside temperatures are too extreme for the animal's safety.|
|American Airlines||Health||American Airlines will not accept brachycephalic or snub-nosed dogs as checked luggage.|
|Delta Air Lines||Health||"Snub-nosed dogs" are embargoed when the temperature at the departure point or any stop along the travel route is expected to exceed 75 °F (24 °C).|
|Southwest Airlines||Practicality||Southwest only accepts small dogs and cats in-cabin, in carriers that can be stowed under their owners' seats, a restriction that would exclude most — if not all — adult pit bulls. No dogs are accepted in cargo|
United Airlines formerly embargoed American Pit Bull Terriers for safety reasons. However, pit bulls (along with American Staffordshires and other similar breeds) are now permitted, provided that dogs over six months old or weighing more than 20 pounds (9 kg) are transported in reinforced crates.
Notable pit bulls
Pit Bull breeds have become famous for their roles as soldiers, police dogs, search and rescue dogs, actors, television personalities, seeing eye dogs, and celebrity pets. Historically, the Bull Terrier mix Nipper and Petey from the Little Rascals are the most well known. Lesser known, but still historically notable pit bulls include Billie Holiday's companion "Mister", Helen Keller's dog "Sir Thomas", Buster Brown's dog "Tige", Horatio Jackson's dog "Bud", President Theodore Roosevelt's Pit Bull terrier "Pete", "Jack Brutus" who served for Company K, the First Connecticut Volunteer Infantry during the civil war, and Sir Walter Scott's "Wasp".
Modernly significant pit bulls are: Weela, who helped save 32 people, 29 dogs, 3 horses, and 1 cat; Popsicle, a five-month-old puppy originally found nearly dead in a freezer, who grew to become one of the nation's most important police dogs; Norton, who was placed in the Purina Animal Hall of Fame after he rescued his owner from a severe reaction to a spider bite; Titan, who rescued his owner's wife, who would have died from an aneurysm, and D-Boy, who took three bullets to save his family from an intruder with a gun,  and Lilly, who lost a leg after being struck by a freight train while pulling her unconscious owner from the train tracks. 
- Joe Stahlkuppe. American Pit Bull Terriers/American Staffordshire Terriers. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Joanne Mattern. American Pit Bull Terriers. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Irrationality Unleashed: The Pitfalls of Breed-Specific Legislation".
- "Inaccuracy of Breed Labels Assigned to Dogs of Unknown Origin".
- "Breed Discriminatory Legislation: How DNA Will Remedy the Unfairness".
- "Pit bull Identification in Animal Shelters".
- "Breed Specific Legislation FAQ".
- "Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) FAQ".
- John Bradshaw. Dog Sense: How the New Science of Dog Behavior Can Make You a Better Friend .... Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- ".". Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Dog Ban Reversal Saves Pit Bulls, Angers City; Denver residents balk at governor's last minute reprieve". Los Angeles Times. May 2, 2004. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 1, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- "American Pit Bull Terrier". United Kennel Club (UKC). November 1, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- "Pit Bull Cruelty". American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Dog Fighting FAQ". American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- Stahlkuppe, Joe (September 1, 2000). American Pit Bull. Complete Pet Owner's Manual. Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-7641-1052-8. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- "Cool K-9 Popsicle retires". U.S. Customs Today 38 (10). October 2002. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- Lewin, Adrienne Mand (October 12, 2005). "Protecting the Nation – One Sniff at a Time". ABC News. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
- Simon, Scott (June 21, 2008). "Trainer turns pit bull into therapy dog". National Public Radio. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- "Dog Fighting Fact Sheet". Humane Society of the United States. 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- "Known prostitute' loses left arm and leg after pit bull 'viciously attacks her as she was shut inside a home with the beast". Daily Mail (London).
- Swift, E.M. (July 27, 1987). "The pit bull: friend and killer". Sports Illustrated 67 (4). Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- Baker, Al; Warren, Mathew R. (July 9, 2009). "Shooting highlights the risks dogs pose to police, and vice versa". The New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- "'Dangerous dogs' weapon of choice". BBC News. December 2, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- Cothran, George (June 11, 1997). "Shouldn't we just kill this dog?". San Francisco Weekly (San Francisco, CA). Retrieved September 4, 2009.
- "Bring breeders of high-risk dogs to heel". Animal People News. 2004-01. Retrieved September 4, 2009.
- Haberman, Clyde (January 13, 2004). "NYC; Rebrand Fido? An idea best put down". The New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved September 4, 2009.
- Laurence, Charles (January 4, 2004). "Q: When is a pit bull terrier not a pit bull terrier? A: When it's a patriot terrier". The Daily Telegraph (London, UK). Retrieved November 14, 2009.
- "American Staffordshire Terrier History". American Kennel Club. 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
- Clark, Ross D., DVM; Stainer, Joan R.; Haynes, H. David, DVM; Buckner, Ralph, DVM; Mosier, Jacob, DVM; Quinn, Art J., DVM, eds. (1983). Medical & Genetic Aspects of Purebred Dogs. Edwardsville, KS: Veterinary Medicine Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-9641609-0-3.
- Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Sattin, Richard W.; Bonzo, Sandra E. (1989). "Dog Bite-Related Fatalities from 1979 Through 1988". Journal of the American Medical Association (American Medical Association) 88 (1): 55–57.
- Avner, Jeffrey R.; Baker, M. Douglas (1991). "Dog Bites in Urban Children". Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics) 88 (1): 55–57.
- Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Lockwood, Randall; Hornreicht, Janet; Sattin, Richard W. (1996). "Fatal Dog Attacks, 1989–1994". Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics) 97 (6): 891–895. PMID 8657532.
- Shields, Lisa B. E.; Bernstein, Mark L.; Hunsaker, John C.; Stewart, Donna M. (2009). "Dog Bite-Related Fatalities: A 15-Year Review of Kentucky Medical Examiner Cases". American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 30 (3): 223–230. doi:10.1097/PAF.0b013e3181a5e558.
- Bini, John K.; Cohn, Stephen M.; Acosta, Shirley M.; McFarland, Marilyn J.; Muir, Mark T.; Michalek, Joel E. (2011). "Mortality, Mauling, and Maiming by Vicious Dogs". Annals of Surgery (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 253 (4): 791–797. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318211cd68.
- Delise, Karen (2012). "Imprudent use of Unreliable Dog Bite Tabulations and Unpublished Sources". Annals of Surgery (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 255 (5): e11–e12. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318250c8f9.
- Kaye, Alison E.; Belz, Jessica M.; Kirschner, Richard E. (2009). "Pediatric Dog Bite Injuries: A 5-Year Review of the Experience at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (American Society of Plastic Surgeons) 124 (2): 551–558. doi:10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181addad9.
- Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W. (2012). "Animal-Related Fatalities—Part I: Characteristic Autopsy Findings and Variable Causes of Death Associated with Blunt and Sharp Trauma". Journal of Forensic Sciences (American Academy of Forensic Sciences) 57 (2): 370–374. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01921.x.
- "Toledo v. Tellings, 114 Ohio St.3d 278, 2007-Ohio-3724.". Supreme Court of Ohio. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- "Certeriorari – Summary Dispositions (Order List: 552 U.S.)". United States Supreme Court. February 19, 2008. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- "Cochrane v. Ontario (Attorney General), 2008 ONCA 718". Ontario Court of Appeal. October 24, 2008. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
- "Who let the dogs out?". Center for Constitutional Studies, University of Alberta, Canada. June 12, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
- Raghavan, Malathi (June 2008). "Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990–2007". The Canadian Veterinary Journal (La Revue vétérinaire canadienne) 49 (6): 577–581. PMC 2387261. PMID 18624067.
- Clifton, Merritt. "Dog Attack Deaths and Maimings". Animal People. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boats, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Mahlman, Andrew R. (2006). "Ownership of High-Risk ("Vicious") Dogs as a Marker for Deviant Behaviors: Implications for Risk Assessment". Journal of Interpersonal Violence (Sage Publications) 21 (12): 1616–1634. doi:10.1177/0886260506294241.
- Ragatz, Laurie; Fremouw, William; Thomas, Tracy; Katrina, McCoy (2009). "Vicious Dogs: The Antisocial Behaviors and Psychological Characteristics of Owners". Journal of Forensic Sciences (American Academy of Forensic Sciences) 54 (3): 199–703. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01001.x.
- Schenk, Allison M.; Ragatz, Laurie L.; Fremouw, William J. (2012). "Vicious Dogs Part 2: Criminal Thinking, Callousness, and Personality Styles of Their Owners". Journal of Forensic Sciences (American Academy of Forensic Sciences) 57 (1): 152–59. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01961.x.
- D. Caroline Coile (April 18, 2011). Pit Bulls For Dummies. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Toledo v. Tellings, -REVERSED-, 2006-Ohio-975, ¶25". Court of Appeals of Ohio, Sixth Appellate District. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
- Frazho, J.K.; Tano, C.A.; Ferrell, E.A. (September 1, 2008). "Diagnosis and treatment of dynamic closed-mouth jaw locking in a dog". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 233 (5): 748–751. doi:10.2460/javma.233.5.748. PMID 18764710. Retrieved October 1, 2009.
- "The Truth About Pit Bulls". American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- "Breaking up a fight". Pit Bull Rescue Central. 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "Break Stick Information". Pit Bull Rescue Central. 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "Pros and cons of owning a pit bull". Bay Area Doglovers Responsible About Pit bulls (BADRAP). 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "An Act to amend the Dog Owners’ Liability Act to increase public safety in relation to dogs, including pit bulls, and to make related amendments to the Animals for Research Act". Government of Ontario, Canada. August 29, 2005. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- [dead link]
- "Revised Municipal Code – City and County of Denver, Colorado". City of Denver, Colorado. May 19, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- "Council amends dog ordinance calling for definition of dangerous dogs". Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- "Veterinary Conditions for the importation of dogs/cats for countries under Category A (1/4)". Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore. August 4, 2008. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- "Pit Bull Information". Franklin County, Ohio. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2009-03). "Dangerous Dogs Law: Guidance for Enforcers". Retrieved May 20, 2011.
- "Garrison Policy Memorandum #08-10, Mandatory Pet Micro-Chipping and Pet Control". US Army Installation Management Command, Fort Drum, NY. February 3, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- "Marine Corps Housing Management". United States Marine Corps. August 11, 2009. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- Palika, Liz (January 31, 2006). American Pit Bull Terrier: Your Happy Healthy Pet. Howell Book House. ISBN 978-0-471-74822-9. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- "States prohibiting or allowing breed specific ordinances". American Veterinary Medical Association. October 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
- Campbell, Dana (July/August 2009). "Pit Bull Bans: The State of Breed–Specific Legislation". GP-Solo (American Bar Association) 26 (5). Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- "Why Breed Specific Legislation Misses the Mark and Doesn't Work". Pitbulls.org. 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- Nelson, Kory (2005). "One city's experience: why pit bulls are more dangerous and why breed-specific legislation is justified". Municipal Lawyer 46 (6) (August 2005). pp. 12–15. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- "HSUS Statement on Dangerous Dogs". Humane Society of the United States. 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- "A community approach to dog bite prevention". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218 (11). June 1, 2001. pp. 1731–1749. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- Phillips, Kenneth (October 10, 2008). "Breed Specific Laws". dogbitelaw.com. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- Barlow, Karen (May 3, 2005). "NSW bans pit bull terrier breed". Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Hughes, Gary (October 20, 2009). "Pit bull bite prompts call for national approach to dangerous dog breeds". The Australian (Sydney, Australia). Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- ASPCA. "Pit Bull Bias in the Media".
- Anderson, Jessica (April 27, 2012). "All pit bulls to be considered dangerous under court ruling". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 1, 2012. "Pit bulls are inherently dangerous animals, the state's highest court has ruled"
- Anderson, Jessica (May 2, 2012). "Fallout from ruling that pit bulls are ‘inherently dangerous’". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- "Dog Bite Liability". Insurance Information Institute. 2009-09. Retrieved September 24, 2009.
- "Homeowners Insurance Available to Breeds Previously Excluded with CGC Certification". American Kennel Club. October 1, 2004. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
- Sodergren, Brian. "Insurance companies unfairly target specific dog breeds". Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Gephardt, Bill. Some dog breeds too risky for insurance companies. KSL.com, May 8th, 2013
- "Frequently asked questions". Air France. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- "Traveling with pets". Alaska Airlines. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- "Traveling with pets". American Airlines. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
- "Pet Travel Requirements and Restrictions". Delta Air Lines. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Pets". Southwest Airlines. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- "Pet restrictions". United Airlines. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- "Famous Women and Their Dogs: Billie Holiday and Mister". Urban Hounds. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "Famous People". All About Pit Bulls. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "Buster Brown and Tige". Stubbydog – Rediscover The Pit Bull. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "American Pit Bull Terrier ( APBT ) breed History". American Pit Bull Registry. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "The Pit Bull—American's Sweetheart". A Brief History of the American Pit Bull Terrier. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "Jack Brutus". Encyclopedia of the American Pit Bull Terrier. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "A Popular History of the Pit Bull in America". Adams Red White & Blue Kennels. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- Green, Ranny (March 13, 1994). "Can Weela's Heroics Change Pitbull Image? Can Weela's Heroics Change Pitbull Image? Pit Bulls have been used for advertisement such as the case of Spuds McKenzie of the laste 80's Bud Light commercials". Seattle Times. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "Kool K-9 Popsicle retires". US Customs Today. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "Inductee: Norton". Purina Animal Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "Family Dog Takes Bullet to Save Family". News 9 Oklahoma. By Amy Lester, NEWS 9. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- "'Hero' pit bull Heads Home to Recover". Retrieved November 7,2013.
- Delise, Karen (2007). "The Pit Bull Placebo: The Media, Myths and Politics of Canine Aggression". Retrieved December 18, 2012.