Pitman, New Jersey

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Pitman, New Jersey
Borough
Borough of Pitman
Broadway Pitman Grove.JPG
Motto: The Small Town With A Big Heart[1]
Map of Pitman highlighted within Gloucester County. Inset: Location of Gloucester County in New Jersey.
Map of Pitman highlighted within Gloucester County. Inset: Location of Gloucester County in New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Pitman, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Pitman, New Jersey
Coordinates: 39°43′59″N 75°07′51″W / 39.732942°N 75.130695°W / 39.732942; -75.130695Coordinates: 39°43′59″N 75°07′51″W / 39.732942°N 75.130695°W / 39.732942; -75.130695[2][3]
Country  United States of America
State  New Jersey
County Gloucester
Incorporated May 24, 1905
Government[6]
 • Type Borough
 • Mayor Russell C. Johnson, III (R, term ends December 31, 2015)[4]
 • Clerk Judith O'Donnell[5]
Area[3]
 • Total 2.308 sq mi (5.978 km2)
 • Land 2.266 sq mi (5.870 km2)
 • Water 0.042 sq mi (0.109 km2)  1.82%
Area rank 367th of 566 in state
16th of 24 in county[3]
Elevation[7] 125 ft (38 m)
Population (2010 Census)[8][9][10]
 • Total 9,011
 • Estimate (2012[11]) 8,939
 • Rank 255th of 566 in state
12th of 24 in county[12]
 • Density 3,976.1/sq mi (1,535.2/km2)
 • Density rank 153rd of 566 in state
3rd of 24 in county[12]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code 08071[13][14]
Area code(s) 856[15]
FIPS code 3401559070[16][3][17]
GNIS feature ID 0885354[18][3]
Website www.pitman.org

Pitman is a borough in Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 9,011,[8][9][10] reflecting a decline of 320 (-3.4%) from the 9,331 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 34 (-0.4%) from the 9,365 counted in the 1990 Census.[19] It is a dry town, where alcohol cannot be sold.[20][21]

Geography[edit]

Pitman is located at 39°43′59″N 75°07′51″W / 39.732942°N 75.130695°W / 39.732942; -75.130695 (39.732942,-75.130695). According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.308 square miles (5.978 km2), of which, 2.266 square miles (5.870 km2) of it was land and 0.042 square miles (0.109 km2) of it (1.82%) was water.[3][2]

The borough borders Mantua Township, Washington Township and Glassboro.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 1,950
1920 3,385 73.6%
1930 5,411 59.9%
1940 5,507 1.8%
1950 6,960 26.4%
1960 8,644 24.2%
1970 10,257 18.7%
1980 9,744 −5.0%
1990 9,365 −3.9%
2000 9,331 −0.4%
2010 9,011 −3.4%
Est. 2012 8,939 [11] −0.8%
Population sources:
1910-2000[22] 1910--1920[23] 1910[24]
1910-1930[25] 1930-1990[26]
2000[27][28] 2010[8][9][10]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,011 people, 3,489 households, and 2,327 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,976.1 per square mile (1,535.2 /km2). There were 3,705 housing units at an average density of 1,634.8 per square mile (631.2 /km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 96.08% (8,658) White, 1.14% (103) Black or African American, 0.09% (8) Native American, 0.62% (56) Asian, 0.03% (3) Pacific Islander, 0.64% (58) from other races, and 1.39% (125) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.46% (222) of the population.[8]

There were 3,489 households, of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.3% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.11.[8]

In the borough, 22.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 28.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.2 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.0 males.[8]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $67,234 (with a margin of error of +/- $7,656) and the median family income was $92,120 (+/- $9,726). Males had a median income of $50,119 (+/- $5,616) versus $46,806 (+/- $6,937) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $30,777 (+/- $2,034). About 4.4% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.7% of those under age 18 and 4.9% of those age 65 or over.[29]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[16] there were 9,331 people, 3,473 households, and 2,431 families residing in the borough. The population density was 4,068.3 people per square mile (1,573.2/km2). There were 3,653 housing units at an average density of 1,592.7 per square mile (615.9/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 97.16% White, 0.91% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, and 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population.[27][28]

There were 3,473 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.0% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.15.[27][28]

Alcyon Lake

In the borough the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.[27][28]

The median income for a household in the borough was $49,743, and the median income for a family was $59,419. Males had a median income of $40,894 versus $30,889 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $22,133. About 2.8% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over.[27][28]

History[edit]

In 1871, land was chosen in both Glassboro Township and Mantua Township to be set aside for a Methodist summer camp. The New Jersey Conference Camp Meeting Association was officially chartered and given authority over the land grant in 1872, and began planning the campground and organizing meetings. The land had an auditorium located on a central meeting ground, and twelve roads originated from the central area as spokes on a wheel, each representing one of the disciples of Jesus. This area became known as the Pitman Grove, and while worshipers' tents originally lined each of the twelve roads, cottages slowly replaced the tents and formed the foundation of the town of Pitman. By the 1880s, the number of cottages had climbed to 400 and residents had begun staying year-round, both of which led to the establishment of the first public school in 1884. In 1904, residents of Pitman Grove voted 122 to 35 for incorporation as an autonomous borough, and on May 24, 1905, Governor of New Jersey Edward C. Stokes signed a law granting the incorporation.[30]

Pitman Grove was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.[31]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Pitman is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle.[6]

As of 2013, the Mayor of Pitman Borough is Republican Russell C. Johnson, III, whose term of office ends December 31, 2015.. Members of the Pitman Borough Council are Council President Debra J. Higbee (D, 2014), Paul Blass (D, 2015), Patti R. Kelley (R, 2015), James E. Pierpont (D, 2014), Michael Razze (R, 2013) and Gene Shoemaker (D, 2013; serving an unexpired term).[32][33][34][35]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Pitman is located in the 2nd Congressional District[36] and is part of New Jersey's 4th state legislative district.[9][37][38]

New Jersey's Second Congressional District is represented by Frank LoBiondo (R, Ventnor City).[39] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[40][41] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).[42][43]

The 4th district of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Fred H. Madden (D, Washington Township, Gloucester County) and in the General Assembly by Paul Moriarty (D, Washington Township, Gloucester County) and Gabriela Mosquera (D, Gloucester Township).[44] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[45] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[46]

Gloucester County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose seven members are elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis in partisan elections, with two or three seats coming up for election each year. At a reorganization meeting held each January, the Board selects a Freeholder Director and a Deputy Freeholder Director from among its members. As of 2014, Gloucester County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Robert M. Damminger (D, West Deptford Township; term ends December 31, 2015),[47] Deputy Freeholder Director Giuseppe "Joe" Chila (D, Woolwich Township; 2015),[48] Lyman J. Barnes (D, Logan Township; 2014),[49] Daniel Christy (D, Washington Township; 2016),[50] Frank J. DiMarco (D, Deptford Township; 2016),[51] Heather Simmons (D, Glassboro; 2014)[52] and Adam Taliaferro (D, Woolwich Township; 2014).[53][54][55][56] Constitutional officers elected countywide are County Clerk James N. Hogan,[57] Surrogate Helene M. Reed (Monroe Township)[58] and Sheriff Carmel Morina (Greenwich Township).[59][60][55]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 6,118 registered voters in Pitman, of which 1,840 (30.1%) were registered as Democrats, 1,446 (23.6%) were registered as Republicans and 2,824 (46.2%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 8 voters registered to other parties.[61]

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 52.4% of the vote here (2,529 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 44.8% (2,164 votes) and other candidates with 1.7% (80 votes), among the 4,828 ballots cast by the borough's 6,486 registered voters, for a turnout of 74.4%.[62] In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 49.3% of the vote here (2,369 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 48.8% (2,345 votes) and other candidates with 1.0% (64 votes), among the 4,804 ballots cast by the borough's 6,350 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 75.7.[63]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 46.4% of the vote here (1,498 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 42.5% (1,373 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 8.4% (270 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (34 votes), among the 3,231 ballots cast by the borough's 6,255 registered voters, yielding a 51.7% turnout.[64]

Education[edit]

The Pitman School District serves public school students in pre-Kindergarten through twelfth grade. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[65]) are three PreK-5 elementary schools — Elwood Kindle Elementary School[66] (223 students), Memorial Elementary School[67] (254) and W. C. K. Walls Elementary School[68] (232) — Pitman Middle School[69] (grades 6 - 8; 369) and Pitman High School[70] (grades 9 - 12; 412).[71][72]

Transportation[edit]

The borough had a total of 37.20 miles (59.87 km) of roadways, of which 29.77 miles (47.91 km) are maintained by the municipality and 7.43 miles (11.96 km) by Gloucester County.[73] County Route 553 passes through the borough.[74]

New Jersey Transit provides bus service between the borough and Philadelphia on the 313, 408 and 412 routes.[75]

The community is a planned stop on the Glassboro–Camden Line, an 18-mile (28.97 km) diesel multiple unit (DMU) light rail system projected for completion in 2019.[76]

Notable people[edit]

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Pitman include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Worden, Nat. "Sony to Close N.J. CD Plant", The Wall Street Journal, January 18, 2011. Accessed July 19, 2012. "Pitman Mayor Michael Batten, a Republican, said the plant closing would deal a painful blow to the small borough with the motto: 'The Small Town With A Big Heart'."
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Gazetteer of New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 14, 2013.
  4. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 13, 2013.
  5. ^ Welcome to the Clerk's Office, Borough of Pitman. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  6. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 24.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Pitman, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 11, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Pitman borough, Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 3. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Pitman borough, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  11. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012 - 2012 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 7, 2013.
  12. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 21, 2013.
  13. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Pitman, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  14. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 29, 2013.
  15. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Pitman, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed August 29, 2013.
  16. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  18. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  19. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  20. ^ New Jersey Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control. New Jersey ABC list of dry towns (May 1, 2013)
  21. ^ Giordano, Rita. "More towns catching liquor-license buzz; Moorestown considers ending its dry spell", The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 24, 2007. Accessed February 16, 2014.
  22. ^ Barnett, Bob. "Population Data for Gloucester County Municipalities, 1800 - 2000, WestJersey.org, January 6, 2011. Accessed November 7, 2012.
  23. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  24. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed November 7, 2012.
  25. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 716. Accessed November 7, 2012.
  26. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network. Accessed November 7, 2012.
  27. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Pitman borough, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  28. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Pitman borough, Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  29. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Pitman borough, Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  30. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 140. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  31. ^ New Jersey, Gloucester County - Historic Districts, National Register of Historic Places. Accessed December 9, 2006.
  32. ^ Council Contacts, Borough of Pitman. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  33. ^ Staff. "Gloucester County election results", South Jersey Times, November 6, 2012. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  34. ^ Barna, John. "Republicans gain five local government seats in Gloucester County", Gloucester County Times, November 8, 2011. Accessed October 31, 2013. "PITMAN - Republican Councilman Russell C. Johnson III (1,030) defeated Democrat Edward J. Campbell (992) and independent Walter J. Madison (681) to succeed Republican Michael Batten as mayor. Incumbent Debra J. Higbee (1,457) and Democratic colleague James E. Pierpont (1,398) defeated Republican incumbent Jeffrey S. Sanders (1,234) and Republican Russell L. Bill (1,202)."
  35. ^ Barna, John. "Gloucester County municipal election results", Gloucester County Times, November 3, 2010. Accessed October 31, 2013. "PITMAN - Republican incumbents Michael L. Razze Jr. (1,703) and Russell C. Johnson III (1,624) defeated Democrats Michael Capelli (1,378) and Robin M. Mollenhauer (1,306) for two open council seats."
  36. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  37. ^ 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 63, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  38. ^ Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  39. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  40. ^ Cory A. Booker, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  41. ^ Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  42. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013. "He currently lives in North Bergen and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  43. ^ Senators of the 113th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  44. ^ Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 16, 2014.
  45. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  46. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  47. ^ Robert M. Damminger, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  48. ^ Giuseppe (Joe) Chila, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  49. ^ Lyman Barnes, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  50. ^ Daniel Christy, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  51. ^ Frank J. DiMarco, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  52. ^ Heather Simmons, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  53. ^ Adam J. Taliaferro, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  54. ^ Board of Freeholders, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  55. ^ a b 2014 Gloucester County Official Directory, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  56. ^ 2014 County Data Sheet, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  57. ^ James N. Hogan, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  58. ^ Surrogate Helene M. Reed, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  59. ^ Sheriff Carmel M. Morina, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  60. ^ Row Officers, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  61. ^ Voter Registration Summary - Gloucester, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 8, 2012.
  62. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Gloucester County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 8, 2012.
  63. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Gloucester County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 8, 2012.
  64. ^ 2009 Governor: Gloucester County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 8, 2012.
  65. ^ Data for the Pitman School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 8, 2012.
  66. ^ Elwood Kindle Elementary School, Pitman School District. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  67. ^ Memorial Elementary School, Pitman School District. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  68. ^ W. C. K. Walls Elementary School, Pitman School District. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  69. ^ Pitman Middle School, Pitman School District. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  70. ^ Pitman High School, Pitman School District. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  71. ^ Schools, Pitman School District. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  72. ^ New Jersey School Directory for the Pitman School District, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  73. ^ Gloucester County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  74. ^ County Route 553 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, September 2007. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  75. ^ Gloucester County Bus / Rail Connections, New Jersey Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 26, 2010. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  76. ^ "Fact Sheet 2013". Glassboro-Camden Line. DVPA & PATCO. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  77. ^ Penn State MBB History. Accessed July 23, 2007.
  78. ^ SI.com Joe Crispin Player Page. Accessed July 23, 2007.
  79. ^ A pop with 'Pop', Crispin brothers act in Coke commercial. Accessed July 23, 2007.
  80. ^ Staff. "Preston Foster a Natural as a Tugboat Skipper in TV Series", The Boston Globe, July 31, 1955. Accessed April 17, 2011. "He was brought up and educated in Pitman, New Jersey, not far from Philadelphia."
  81. ^ John Edmund Hunt, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 26, 2007.
  82. ^ Micko, Lillian. "Real 'League Of Their Own' Players Are Honored Fans Inspired By The Movie Came. So Did Two Women Who Played And Their Coach.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, July 13, 1994. Accessed October 31, 2013. "Among about 500 women who played in the league and whose stories the movie portrayed were Gertie Dunn, 60, and Jane Moffet, 64, who busily autographed baseballs, programs, photographs, ticket stubs and T-shirts, among other things, for a steady stream of fans before and during the game.... Moffet, who now lives in Toms River but grew up in Pitman, retired just last month after 42 years in education."
  83. ^ NJACSports.com "
  84. ^ DeLuca, Dan. "Patti Smith Still Enthralls In Tla Show", The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 27, 1995. Accessed February 18, 2014. "Is she ever. For the Pitman-bred Smith, this weekend's shows at the TLA - two on Friday, one on Saturday - were the first Philadelphia performances since she retreated from public life in 1979 to raise a family in Detroit with her husband, Fred 'Sonic' Smith, who died in 1994."
  85. ^ Justice John E. Wallace, Jr., New Jersey Supreme Court. Accessed July 15, 2008.

External links[edit]