Pituitary gland

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Brain: Pituitary gland
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Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone.
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Median sagittal through the hypophysis of an adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic.
Latin hypophysis, glandula pituitaria
Gray's p.1275
Artery
superior hypophyseal artery, infundibular artery, prechiasmal artery, inferior hypophyseal artery, capsular artery, artery of the inferior cavernous sinus[1]
MeSH Pituitary+Gland
NeuroLex ID birnlex_1353
TA A11.1.00.001
FMA FMA:13889

In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).[2] The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The intermediate lobe synthesises and secretes melanocyte stimulating hormone. The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum).

Structure[edit]

The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland that sits in a protective bony enclosure called the sella turcica. It is composed of three lobes: anterior, intermediate, and posterior. In many animals, these three lobes are distinct. However, in humans, the intermediate lobe is but a few cell layers thick and indistinct; as a result, it is often considered part of the anterior pituitary. In all animals, the fleshy, glandular anterior pituitary is distinct from the neural composition of the posterior pituitary. It belongs to the diencephalon.

Anterior[edit]

Main article: Anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary arises from an invagination of the oral ectoderm and forms Rathke's pouch. This contrasts with the posterior pituitary, which originates from neuroectoderm.

Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are controlled by regulatory hormones released by parvocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. The latter release regulatory hormones into hypothalamic capillaries leading to infundibular blood vessels, which in turn lead to a second capillary bed in the anterior pituitary. This vascular relationship constitutes the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system. Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, the hypothalamic releasing hormones then bind to anterior pituitary endocrine cells, upregulating or downregulating their release of hormones.[3]

The anterior pituitary is divided into anatomical regions known as the pars tuberalis, pars intermedia, and pars distalis. It develops from a depression in the dorsal wall of the pharynx (stomal part) known as Rathke's pouch. The pars intermedia is also considered as a separate intermediate lobe.

Posterior[edit]

Main article: Posterior pituitary

The posterior lobe develops as an extension of the hypothalamus. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the posterior side possess cell bodies located in the hypothalamus that project axons down the infundibulum to terminals in the posterior pituitary. This simple arrangement differs sharply from that of the adjacent anterior pituitary, which does not develop from the hypothalamus. The release of pituitary hormones by both the anterior and posterior lobes is under the control of the hypothalamus, albeit in different ways. [3]

Function[edit]

Anterior[edit]

The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. All releasing hormones (-RH) referred to, can also be referred to as releasing factors (-RF).

Somatotrophins:

Thyrotrophins:

Corticotropins:

Lactotrophins:

  • Prolactin (PRL), also known as 'Luteotropic' hormone (LTH), whose release is inconsistently stimulated by hypothalamic TRH, oxytocin, vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, angiotensin II, neuropeptide Y, galanin, substance P, bombesin-like peptides (gastrin-releasing peptide, neuromedin B and C), and neurotensin, and inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine.[5]

Gonadotropins:

These hormones are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic hormones are secreted to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system.

Intermediate[edit]

The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes the following important endocrine hormone:

Posterior[edit]

The posterior pituitary stores and secretes (not synthesize) the following important endocrine hormones:

Magnocellular Neurons:

  • Oxytocin, most of which is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is one of the few hormones to create a positive feedback loop. For example, uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which, in turn, increases uterine contractions. This positive feedback loop continues throughout labour.

Hormones[edit]

Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control the following body processes:

Clinical significance[edit]

A normal sized hand (left) and the enlarged hand of someone with acromegaly (right).
Main article: Pituitary disease

Some of the diseases involving the pituitary gland are:

All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be adversely affected by an over or under production of associated hormones.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pituitary gland[edit]

The Greek physician Galen referred to the pituitary gland by only using the (Ancient Greek) name ἀδήν,[7] gland.[8] He described the pituitary gland as part of a series of secretory organs for the excretion of nasal mucus.[7] Anatomist Andreas Vesalius translated ἀδήν with glans, in quam pituita destillat, "gland that drops slime (=pituita[9])".[10][7] Besides this 'descriptive' name, Vesalius used glandula pituitaria, from which the English name pituitary gland [11] is ultimately derived.

The expression glandula pituitaria is still used as official synonym beside hypophysis in the official Latin nomenclature Terminologia Anatomica.[12] In the seventeenth century the supposed function of the pituitary gland to produce nasal mucus was debunked.[7] The expression glandula pituitaria and its English equivalent pituitary gland can only be justified from a historical point of view.[13] The inclusion of this synonym is merely justified by noting that the main term hypophysis is a much less popular term.[14]

Hypophysis[edit]

The anatomist Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring coined the name hypophysis.[7] This name consists[7][13] of ὑπό ('under')[8] and φύειν ('to grow').[8] In later Greek ὑπόφυσις is used differently by Greek physicians as outgrowth.[7] Sömmering also used the equivalent expression appendix cerebri,[10][7] with appendix as appendage.[9] In various languages, Hirnanhang [10] in German and hersenaanhangsel [15] in Dutch, the terms are derived from appendix cerebri.

Other animals[edit]

The pituitary gland is found in all vertebrates, but its structure varies between different groups.

The division of the pituitary described above is typical of mammals, and is also true, to varying degrees, of all tetrapods. However, only in mammals does the posterior pituitary have a compact shape. In lungfish, it is a relatively flat sheet of tissue lying above the anterior pituitary, but in amphibians, reptiles, and birds, it becomes increasingly well developed. The intermediate lobe is, in general, not well developed in any species and is entirely absent in birds.[16]

The structure of the pituitary in fish, apart from the lungfish, is generally different from that in other animals. In general, the intermediate lobe tends to be well developed, and may equal the remainder of the anterior pituitary in size. The posterior lobe typically forms a sheet of tissue at the base of the pituitary stalk, and in most cases sends irregular finger-like projection into the tissue of the anterior pituitary, which lies directly beneath it. The anterior pituitary is typically divided into two regions, a more anterior rostral portion and a posterior proximal portion, but the boundary between the two is often not clearly marked. In elasmobranchs there is an additional, ventral lobe beneath the anterior pituitary proper.[16]

The arrangement in lampreys, which are among the most primitive of all fish, may indicate how the pituitary originally evolved in ancestral vertebrates. Here, the posterior pituitary is a simple flat sheet of tissue at the base of the brain, and there is no pituitary stalk. Rathke's pouch remains open to the outside, close to the nasal openings. Closely associated with the pouch are three distinct clusters of glandular tissue, corresponding to the intermediate lobe, and the rostral and proximal portions of the anterior pituitary. These various parts are separated by meningial membranes, suggesting that the pituitary of other vertebrates may have formed from the fusion of a pair of separate, but associated, glands.[16]

Most armadillos also possess a neural secretory gland very similar in form to the posterior pituitary, but located in the tail and associated with the spinal cord. This may have a function in osmoregulation.[16]

There is a structure analogous to the pituitary in the octopus brain.[17]

Intermediate lobe[edit]

Although rudimentary in humans (and often considered part of the anterior pituitary), the intermediate lobe located between the anterior and posterior pituitary is important to many animals. For instance, in fish, it is believed to control physiological color change. In adult humans, it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary. The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed to the anterior pituitary.

The intermediate lobe is, in general, not well developed in tetrapods, and is entirely absent in birds.[16]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gibo H, Hokama M, Kyoshima K, Kobayashi S (1993). "[Arteries to the pituitary]". Nippon Rinsho 51 (10): 2550–4. PMID 8254920. 
  2. ^ Mancall, Elliott L.; Brock, David G., eds. (2011). "Cranial Fossae". Gray's Clinical Anatomy. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 154. ISBN 9781437735802. 
  3. ^ a b Boron, Walter F.; Boulpaep, Emile L. (2009). Medical Physiology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. pp. 1016–1017. ISBN 978-1-4160-3115-4. 
  4. ^ Knepel W, Homolka L, Vlaskovska M, Nutto D. (1984). Stimulation of adrenocorticotropin/beta-endorphin release by synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor in vitro. Enhancement by various vasopressin analogs. Neuroendocrinology. 38(5):344-50.
  5. ^ Shlomo Melmed (3 December 2010). The pituitary. Academic Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-12-380926-1. 
  6. ^ Pocock, Gillian (2006). Human Physiology (Third ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-19-856878-0. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Hyrtl, J. (1880). Onomatologia Anatomica. Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart. Wien: Wilhelm Braumüller. K.K. Hof- und Unversitätsbuchhändler.
  8. ^ a b c Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  9. ^ a b Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  10. ^ a b c Schreger, C.H.Th.(1805). Synonymia anatomica. Synonymik der anatomischen Nomenclatur. Fürth: im Bureau für Literatur.
  11. ^ Anderson, D.M. (2000). Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (29th edition). Philadelphia/London/Toronto/Montreal/Sydney/Tokyo: W.B. Saunders Company.
  12. ^ Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme
  13. ^ a b Triepel, H. (1927). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Anhang: Biographische Notizen.(Elfte Auflage). München: Verlag J.F. Bergmann.
  14. ^ International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1966). Nomina Anatomica. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation, p. 62
  15. ^ Pinkhof, H. (1923). Vertalend en verklarend woordenboek van uitheemsche geneeskundige termen. Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn.
  16. ^ a b c d e Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 549–550. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 
  17. ^ Wells, M. J.; Wells, J. (1969). "Pituitary Analogue in the Octopus". Nature 222 (5190): 293–294. doi:10.1038/222293a0. 

External links[edit]