Plain language is clear, succinct writing designed to ensure the reader understands as quickly and completely as possible. Plain language strives to be easy to read, understand, and use. It avoids verbose, convoluted language and jargon. In many countries, laws mandate that public agencies use plain language to increase access to programs and services. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities includes plain language as one of the "modes, means and formats of communication."
Most literacy and communications scholars agree that plain language means:
- "Clear and effective communication" (Joseph Kimble)
- "The idiomatic and grammatical use of language that most effectively presents ideas to the reader" (Bryan Garner)
- "Clear, straightforward expression, using only as many words as are necessary. It is language that avoids obscurity, inflated vocabulary and convoluted construction. It is not baby talk, nor is it a simplified version of ... language." (Dr Robert Eagleson)
- "A literary style that is easy-to-read because it matches the reading skill of the audience" (William DuBay)
- "Language that is clear, concise and correct" (Richard Wydick)
|Original text||Plain language|
|High-quality learning environments are a necessary precondition for facilitation and enhancement of the ongoing learning process.||Children need good schools if they are to learn properly.|
|Firearm relinquishment is a mandatory condition.||You must hand over your guns.|
|This temporary injunction remains in effect against both parties until the final decree of divorce or order of legal separation is entered, the complaint is dismissed, the parties reach agreement, or until the court modifies or dissolves this injunction. This injunction shall not preclude either party from applying to the court for further temporary orders, an extended injunction or modification or revocation of this temporary injunction.||You must follow this order unless the court changes or ends it, your case is finalized or dismissed, or you and your spouse make an agreement. Either spouse may ask the court to change or cancel this order, or to issue new orders.|
|Citigroup today announced a series of repositioning actions that will further reduce expenses and improve efficiency across the company while maintaining Citi's unique capabilities to serve clients, especially in the emerging markets. These actions will result in increased business efficiency, streamlined operations and an optimized consumer footprint across geographies.||Citigroup today announced lay-offs. This will save cost.|
Cicero argued, “When you wish to instruct, be brief; that men's minds take in quickly what you say, learn its lesson, and retain it faithfully. Every word that is unnecessary only pours over the side of a brimming mind.” Cicero writes that the plain style is not easy. While it may seem close to everyday speech, achieving the effect in formal discourse is a high and difficult art: "Plainness of style seems easy to imitate at first thought, but when attempted, nothing is more difficult."
Plainness does not mean the absence of all ornaments, only the more obvious ones. Cicero recognizes what Aristotle had already pointed out, that a well-turned metaphor or simile can help us see a relation we had not recognized. In fact, he makes use of metaphor and simile to teach us what the plain style is all about:
... although it is not full-blooded, it should nevertheless have some of the sap of life so that, though it lack great strength, it may be, so to speak, in sound health.... Just as some women are said to be handsomer when unadorned... so this plain style gives pleasure when unembellished.... All noticeable pearls, as it were, will be excluded. Not even curling irons will be used. All cosmetics, artificial white and red, will be rejected. Only elegance and neatness will remain. (The Orator, xxiii, 76-79)
Shakespeare parodied the pretentious style, as in the speeches of Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing. The plain, or native style, was, in fact, an entire literary tradition during the English Renaissance, from John Skelton through Ben Jonson and include such poets as Barnabe Googe, George Gascoigne, Walter Raleigh, and perhaps the later work of Fulke Greville. In addition to its purely linguistic plainness, the Plain Style employed an emphatic, pre-Petrarchan prosody (each syllable either clearly stressed or clearly unstressed).
By the end of the 19th century, scholars began to study the features of plain language. A. L. Sherman, a professor of English literature at the University of Nebraska, wrote Analytics of Literature: A Manual for the Objective Study of English Prose and Poetry in 1893. In this work, Sherman showed that the typical English sentence has shortened over time and that spoken English is a pattern for written English.
Literary English, in short, will follow the forms of the standard spoken English from which it comes. No man should talk worse than he writes, no man writes better than he should talk.... The oral sentence is clearest because it is the product of millions of daily efforts to be clear and strong. It represents the work of the race for thousands of years in perfecting an effective instrument of communication.
1900 to 1950
Two 1921 works, Harry Kitson's "The Mind of the Buyer," and Edward L. Thorndike's "The Teacher's Word Book" picked up where Sherman left off. Kitson's work was the first to apply empirical psychology to advertising. He advised the use of short words and sentences. Thorndike's work contained the frequency ratings of 10,000 words. He recommended using the ratings in his book to grade books not only for students in schools but also for average readers and adults learning English. Thorndike wrote:
It is commonly assumed that children and adults prefer trashy stories in large measure because they are more exciting and more stimulating in respect to sex. There is, however, reason to believe that greater ease of reading in respect to vocabulary, construction, and facts, is a very important cause of preference. A count of the vocabulary of "best sellers" and a summary of it in terms of our list would thus be very instructive.
The 1930s saw many studies on how to make texts more readable. In 1931, Douglas Tyler and Ralph Waples published the results of their two-year study, "What People Want to Read About." In 1934, Ralph Ojemann, Edgar Dale, and Ralph Waples published two studies on writing for adults with limited reading ability. In 1935, educational psychologist William S. Gray teamed up with Bernice Leary to publish their study, "What Makes a Book Readable."
George Orwell’s 1946 essay "Politics and the English Language" decried the pretentious diction, meaninglessness, vagueness, and worn-out idioms of political jargon. In 1979, the Plain English Campaign was founded in London to combat "gobbledegook, jargon and legalese".
1951 to 2000
Lyman Bryson at Teachers College in Columbia University led efforts to supply average readers with more books of substance dealing with science and current events. Bryson's students include Irving Lorge and Rudolf Flesch, who became leaders in the plain-language movement. In 1975, Flesch collaborated with J. Peter Kincaid to create the Flesch-Kincaid readability test, which uses an algorithm to produce grade level scores that predict the level of education required to read the selected text. The instrument looks at word length (number of letters) and sentence length (number of words) and produces a score sd of Ohio State, Jeanne S. Chall of the Reading Laboratory of Harvard, and George R. Klare of Ohio University. Their efforts spurred the publication of over 200 readability formulas and 1,000 published studies on readability.
Beginning in 1935, a series of literacy surveys showed that the average reader in the U.S. was an adult of limited reading ability. Today, the average adult in the U.S. reads at the 9th-grade level.
Access to health information, educational and economic development opportunities, and government programs is often referred to in a social justice context. To ensure more community members can access this information, many adult educators, legal writers, and social program developers use plain language principles when they develop public documents. The goal of plain language translation is to increase accessibility for those with lower literacy levels.
In the United States, movement towards Plain English began in the 1940s through the pen of Stuart Chase. In 1953, Chase wrote The Power of Words, in which he complained about gobbledygook and legalese in English semantics, with an emphasis on political and legal discourse.
In North American industry, the plain language movement began in the 1970s when First National City Bank (now Citibank ) launched the first plain language consumer loan documents. Concerned about the large number of suits against its customers to collect bad debts, the bank voluntarily made the decision to implement plain language policies in 1973. That same decade, the consumer-rights movement won legislation that required plain language in contracts, insurance policies, and government regulations. American law schools began requiring students to take legal writing classes that encouraged them to use plain English as much as possible and to avoid legal jargon, except when absolutely necessary. Public outrage with the skyrocketing number of unreadable government forms led to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980.
In 1972, the Plain Language Movement received practical political application, when President Richard Nixon decreed that the “Federal Register be written in layman’s terms.” On March 23, 1978, U.S. President Jimmy Carter signed Executive Order 12044, which said that federal officials must see that each regulation is "written in plain English and understandable to those who must comply with it." President Ronald Reagan rescinded these orders in 1981, but many political agencies continued to follow them. By 1991, eight states had also passed legislation related to plain language. Plain Language Association International (PLAIN) was formed in 1993 as the Plain Language Network. Its membership is international; it was incorporated as a non-profit organization in Canada in 2008. In June 1998, President Bill Clinton issued a memorandum that called for executive departments and agencies to use plain language in all government documents. Vice President Al Gore subsequently spearheaded a plain language initiative that formed a group called the Plain Language Action Network (PLAIN) to provide plain language training to government agencies.
Other organizations have formed recently. Clarity is an international association promoting plain legal language. The organization publishes a journal. The Plain Language Information and Action Network (also known as PLAIN) is a group of volunteer US federal employees working to improve communications from the federal government to the public. The Center for Plain Language is a US-based nonprofit organization promoting the use of plain language in the public and private sectors. The organization hosts annual symposia in Washington DC. The Center also gives ClearMark Awards to outstanding examples of clear communication, and WonderMark awards to examples of truly bad communication. Organizations that have endorsed plain language include the Legal Writing Institute, the Canadian Bar Association, and the Canadian Bankers Association.
PLAIN provided guidance to federal executive agencies when President Barack Obama signed the Plain Writing Act of 2010 (H.R. 946; Pub.L. 111–274), which required federal executive agencies to put all new and revised covered documents into plain language. The Act's sponsor, U.S. Representative Bruce Braley, noted upon its passage that "The writing of documents in the standard vernacular english language will bolster and increase the accountability of government within America and will continue to more effectively save time and money in this country."
Plain language is also gaining traction in U.S. courts and legal aid agencies. California was the first state to adopt plain language court forms and instructions, for which it received the 2003 Burton Award for Outstanding Reform. A 2006 comparative study of plain language court forms concluded that "plain language court forms and instructions are better understood, easier to use, and more economical".
- Plain English
- List of plain English words and phrases
- Plain English Campaign
- Scribes: The American Society of Legal Writers
- Linguistic purism in English, List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English
- Plain Writing Act of 2010
- Plain English and Plain English Campaign
- Legal writing
- Facilitated communication
- Opposites of Plain language
- Robert Leon Cooper (1989). Language Planning and Social Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33641-3.
- Garner, Bryan A. (2009). Garner on Language and Writing: Selected Essays and Speeches of Bryan A. Garner. Chicago: American Bar Association. p. 295. ISBN 1-60442-445-1.
- United Nations General Assembly. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Article 2 - Definitions. 13 December 2006, A/RES/61/106, Annex I. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Before and after". Plain English Campaign. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Mindlin, Maria. “Readability” (2010). Transcend Translations.
- Derek Thompson (5 December 2012). "Citigroup Eliminates 11,000 Jobs in History's Most Corporate-Jargony Paragraph Ever". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Plain English Campaign. Retrieved August 16, 2011, from: http://www.plainenglish.co.uk
- Kinkaid, J.P., Fishburne, R.P., R.L., & Chissom, B.S. (1975). Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel. Research Branch Report 8-75. Chief of Naval Technical Training: Naval Air Station Memphis.
- Asprey, M., (2003). Plain language around the world. Plain language for lawyers. The Federation Press. Retrieved September 23, 2008, from http://www.federationpress.com.au/pdf/AspreyCh4Exp.pdf
- "Background: Plain Writing Legislative History, 2007-2010", 2010, Irwin Berent, Plain Writing Association
- "About PLAIN". Plain Language Association International. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
- "Speech by SEC Commissioner: Remarks at the Plain Language Association International's Fifth International Conference". Securities and Exchange Commission. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- "Clarity an international association promoting plain legal language". Clarity. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
- "Legal journal: Clarity". University of Texas. 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- "About Us". Federal Aviation Administration and PLAIN. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
- "About the Center". Center for Plain Language. Retrieved 2008-11-13.[dead link]
- "Addison to Present at the Center for Plain Language Symposium with SEC Chairman". Business Wire cited through Bnet. 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
- "Awards". Center for Plain Language.
- "Plain Language Organizations". Retrieved 2008-09-13.
- Pub.L. 111–274§4(b)
- "Obama Signs 'Plain Writing' Law". ABC World News with Diane Sawyer. ABC News. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- “About Clarity”. Clarity: An international association promoting plain legal language. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from: www.clarity-international.net/aboutus.html
- “Free Legal Articles”. NOLO: Law for All. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from: www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia
- “About”, Civil Jury Instructions Resource Center. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from: www.courts.ca.gov/partners/313.htm
- Mindlin, Maria. “Is Plain Language better? A Comparative Readability Study of Plain Language Court Forms”, Scribes Journal of Legal Writing, Vol. 10, 2005-2006. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from: www.transcend.net/library/html/PLStudy.html
- Clarity (the lawyers' movement for plain legal language)
- PlainLanguage.gov (U.S. Government site)
- The Plain Language Association International (PLAIN)
- The Plain Writing Association (PWA)
- Plain language and legislation booklet: Office of the Scottish Parliamentary Counsel
- Clarity Rating Calculator
- Plain language documents: Before & After
- Revisiting Plain Language, Beth Mazur
- Plain language: gone underground?, Christine Mowat
- Plain writing legislative history, Irwin Berent, Plain Writing Association
- A Historical Bibliography of the Plain Language Movement, Plain Writing Association
- Plain Writing Legislation: A Comparison of Bills, Plain Writing Association
- PLAIN Plain Language Association International
- Essay: Why not "Plain English"?
- The European Commission Translation Service Fight the Fog Campaign
- The American Plain Language Action and Information Network
- Center for Plain Language
- The Swedish Government's Plain Swedish office
- The Plain Writing Act of 2010