Plan of Iguala
Plan of Iguala, also known as Plan of the Three Guarantees ("Plan Trigarante"), was a peace treaty proclaimed on February 24, 1821, in the final stage of Mexican War of Independence from Spain. The plan attempted to establish a constitutional foundation upon which an independent Mexican Empire would be based. It took its name from the city of Iguala in the modern-day state of Guerrero.
The Plan of Iguala had three main goals, these included the establishment of Roman Catholicism, the proclamation of Mexico's independence, and social equality for all social and ethnic groups in the new country. These goals were summarized as "Religion, Independence and Unity" ("Religión, Independencia y Unión").
Mexico was to become a constitutional monarchy, modelled after the European monarchies of the time. The Plan also called for the equality of all inhabitants of Mexico, granting them equal rights in court and in every aspect of their lives.
The two main figures behind the Plan were Agustín de Iturbide (who would become Emperor of Mexico) and Vicente Guerrero, Revolutionary rebel leader and later President of Mexico. The Army of the Three Guarantees was set up to defend the ideals of the Plan of Iguala, and consisted of the unified military forces of these two men. On August 24, 1821, Iturbide and Spanish Viceroy Juan O'Donojú signed the Treaty of Córdoba in Córdoba, Veracruz, ratifying the Plan of Iguala, and thus confirming Mexico's independence.
The Spanish Congress meeting in Madrid on February 13, 1822, resolved to declare the Treaty of Córdoba as "illegal, null, and void". However, as far as the Mexican government was concerned, following O'Donojú's acceptance of the Plan for the country's independence. This forced Spain to begin a series of efforts known as the Spanish reconquest attempts of Mexico which lasted 9 years (1821-1829) when at the end, Spain recognizes Mexico's independence.
Following the fall of Iturbide's empire, the Mexican Congress denied both the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba as the basis for government on April 8, 1823. A new constitutional convention was called which led to the adoption of the 1824 Constitution of Mexico on October 4, 1824.
- Mexican War of Independence
- Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
- Plans in Mexican history
- The preamble states that "Americans, under which term are included not only those born in America, but Europeans, Africans and Asians who reside in it." And Article 12 states: "All the inhabitants of it the Mexican Empire, without any other distinction besides merit and virtue, are suitable citizens to apply for any employment," or "All the inhabitants of New Spain, without any distinction between Europeans, Africans, nor Indians, are citizens of this Monarchy with option to all employment depending on their merit and virtues," depending on the copy. McKeehan, Wallace L. (1997). "Plan of Iguala and Treaty of Cordova". Sons of DeWitt Colony Texas. Retrieved 2 November 2009. De Iturbide, Agustín. "Plan de Iguala". Leaflets. 1821. From Woodson Research Center, Rice University, Americas collection, 1811-1920, MS 518. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
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