Planet of the Apes

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Planet of the Apes
Planet of the Apes (logo).svg
Creator Pierre Boulle
Original work La Planète des Singes
Print publications
Novels La Planète des Singes
Comics List of comics
Films and television
Films Planet of the Apes (1968)
Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970)
Escape from the Planet of the Apes (1971)
Conquest of the Planet of the Apes (1972)
Battle for the Planet of the Apes (1973)
Planet of the Apes (2001)
Rise of the Planet of the Apes (2011)
Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (2014)
Television series Planet of the Apes
Return to the Planet of the Apes
Games
Video games Planet of the Apes

Planet of the Apes is an American science fiction media franchise consisting of films, books, television series and other media about a world where humans and intelligent apes clash for control. The series began with French author Pierre Boulle's 1963 novel La Planète des Singes, translated into English as both Planet of the Apes and Monkey Planet. The 1968 film adaptation, Planet of the Apes, was a critical and commercial success, initiating a series of sequels, tie-ins, and derivative works. Arthur P. Jacobs produced the series under APJAC Productions until his death in 1973; since then 20th Century Fox has owned the franchise.

Four sequels followed the original film between 1970 and 1973: Beneath the Planet of the Apes, Escape from the Planet of the Apes, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes, and Battle for the Planet of the Apes. The series also spawned two television series: Planet of the Apes in 1974 and the animated Return to the Planet of the Apes in 1975. Plans for a film remake stalled in "development hell" for over ten years before Tim Burton's Planet of the Apes was released in 2001. A new reboot film series commenced in 2011 with Rise of the Planet of the Apes, which was followed by Dawn of the Planet of the Apes in 2014; another sequel is planned. All of these versions have in turn led to other media and merchandising tie-ins, including books, comics, video games, and toys.

Planet of the Apes has had a wide influence. It has impacted subsequent films, media and art, as well as popular culture and political discourse.

La Planète des Singes[edit]

First American edition Boulle's novel, titled Planet of the Apes

The series began with French author Pierre Boulle's 1963 novel La Planète des Singes. Boulle wrote the novel in six months after the "humanlike expressions" of gorillas at the zoo inspired him to contemplate the relationship between man and ape. La Planète des Singes was heavily influenced by 18th- and 19th-century fantastical travel narratives, especially Jonathan Swift's satirical Gulliver's Travels. It is one of several of Boulle's works to use science fiction tropes and plot devices to comment on the failings of human nature and mankind's overreliance on technology. However, Boulle rejected the science fiction label for his work, instead terming it "social fantasy".[1]

The novel is a social satire following Ulysse Mérou, a French journalist who participates in a voyage to a distant planet where speechless, animalistic humans are hunted and enslaved by an advanced society of apes. Eventually Mérou discovers that humans had once dominated the planet until their complacency allowed the more industrious apes to overthrow them. The novel's central message is that human intelligence is not a fixed quality and could atrophy if taken for granted.[1][2] Boulle considered the novel one of his minor works, though it proved to be a hit. Xan Fielding translated it into English; it was published in the United Kingdom as Monkey Planet and in the United States as Planet of the Apes.[3]

Boulle's literary agent Allain Bernheim brought the novel to the attention of American film producer Arthur P. Jacobs, who had come to Paris looking for new properties to adapt with his new company, APJAC Productions. To explain his interests, Jacobs had told agents, "I wish King Kong hadn't been made so I could make it." Bernheim initially approached Jacobs about a Françoise Sagan novel, which Jacobs turned down. Remembering Jacobs' earlier comment about King Kong, Bernheim mentioned La Planète des Singes, not expecting Jacobs would be interested. However, the story intrigued Jacobs, who bought the film rights immediately.[4]

Original film series[edit]

Planet of the Apes[edit]

Charlton Heston, star of Planet of the Apes
Franklin J. Schaffner, director of Planet of the Apes

After optioning the novel's film rights, Arthur P. Jacobs spent over three years trying to convince filmmakers to take on the project. He hired a succession of artists to create test sketches, and hired veteran television writer Rod Serling, creator of The Twilight Zone, to write the script.[5][6] Serling's script changed elements of Boulle's novel, introducing Cold War themes; notably he wrote a new twist ending that revealed the planet to be a future Earth where humans had destroyed themselves through nuclear warfare.[7] As production costs were estimated at over $10 million, no studio in either Hollywood or Europe would assume the risk. Jacobs and associate producer Mort Abrahams persevered, and eventually persuaded Charlton Heston to star; Heston in turn recommended director Franklin J. Schaffner. The team recorded a brief screen test featuring Heston, which ultimately convinced 20th Century Fox the film could succeed.[5][6]

Fox insisted on changes to reduce the budget to a more manageable $5.8 million. The producers hired veteran writer Michael Wilson, who had previously written the adaptation of Boulle's novel The Bridge over the River Kwai, to rewrite Serling's script. To save on special effects costs, Wilson's script called for an ape society more primitive than appeared in the novel. The new script changed much of the plot and dialogue, but retained the Cold War themes and Serling's ending.[8][9][10] John Chambers created the innovative makeup effects.[11]

Heston played 20th-century American astronaut George Taylor, who travels to a strange planet where intelligent apes dominate mute, primitive humans. Kim Hunter and Roddy McDowall played the sympathetic chimpanzees Zira and Cornelius, and Linda Harrison portrayed Taylor's love interest Nova. Maurice Evans played the villain, orangutan science minister Dr. Zaius.[12] The finale, in which Taylor comes upon a ruined Statue of Liberty and realizes he has been on Earth all along, became the series' defining scene and one of the most iconic images in 1960s film.[13] The film was released on February 8, 1968, and was a smash success with both critics and audiences, breaking contemporary box office records and earning rave reviews.[14] John Chambers received an honorary Oscar at the 41st Academy Awards for his make-up effects, the first ever given to a make-up artist.[11] Jerry Goldsmith's score and Morton Haack's costume design also earned Oscar nominations.[15] Fox approached Jacobs and Abrahams about filming a sequel. Though they had not made the film with sequels in mind, its success led them to consider the prospect.[14]

Beneath the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Kim Hunter played Zira in the first three films

Planning for the sequel, eventually titled Beneath the Planet of the Apes, began two months after the original film's release. Jacobs and Abrahams initially considered several treatments by Rod Serling and Pierre Boulle, but ultimately turned them down.[16] In fall 1968 the producers hired Paul Dehn to write the script; he would become the primary writer for the franchise.[17][18] Charlton Heston was uninterested in a sequel, but agreed to shoot a few scenes if his character were killed off and his salary donated to charity.[19] In one of many major rewrites, Dehn altered the script to center on a new character, Brent, played by James Franciscus.[20] With director Franklin J. Shaffner unavailable due to his work on Patton, the producers hired television director Ted Post on January 8, 1969.[21] Post struggled with the material, especially after the studio cut the budget to $3.4 million.[22]

The story follows Franciscus' character Brent, an astronaut who inadvertently follows Taylor into the future while searching for him. After encountering the apes from the first film, Brent finds Taylor imprisoned by a colony of subterranean human mutants who worship an ancient nuclear bomb. Kim Hunter, Maurice Evans, and Linda Harrison returned as Zira, Zaius, and Nova.[23] David Watson replaced Roddy McDowall as Cornelius, as McDowall was unavailable due to a scheduling conflict.[24] James Gregory played gorilla General Ursus and Paul Richards played mutant leader Méndez. The film opened on May 26, 1970.[23] Unlike the first film, Beneath was poorly reviewed; critics typically regard it as the worst of the Apes sequels other than the fifth film, Battle for the Planet of the Apes.[25] However, it was a major box office hit, nearing the original's numbers. Despite a conclusion depicting the planet's nuclear destruction, Fox requested another sequel, turning the films into a series.[26][27]

Escape from the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Roddy McDowall returned as Cornelius in Escape from the Planet of the Apes. He would go on to star in two additional Apes films and the live-action television series

Following the financial success of Beneath, Arthur P. Jacobs recruited Paul Dehn to write a new script with a brief telegram: "Apes exist, Sequel required." Dehn immediately started work on what became Escape from the Planet of the Apes. The producers hired a new director, Don Taylor.[27] Fox gave the production a greatly diminished budget ($2.5 million), which required a tight production schedule.[28] To work around the budget, as well as Beneath's seemingly definitive ending, the film took the series in a new direction by transporting Zira (Kim Hunter) and Cornelius (Roddy McDowall, returning to the role after being absent from Beneath) back in time to the contemporary United States, reducing the need for expensive sets and ape make-up effects.[22] In the film, Zira and Cornelius are initially accepted by American society, but human fears that their child will bring about the destruction they predict lead to their deaths. Jacob's wife Natalie Trundy, who appeared as a mutant in Beneath and later played the ape Lisa in the next two sequels, was cast as Dr. Stephanie Branton.[29] Bradford Dillman played Dr. Lewis Dixon, Ricardo Montalban played Armando, and Eric Braeden portrayed the villain, the President's Science Advisor Otto Hasslein.[30] Compared to its predecessors, Escape dwelt more heavily on themes of racial conflict, which became a primary focus through the rest of the series.[31] The film opened on May 21, 1971, less than a year after Beneath. It was well received by critics.[32] From this point critics began seeing the films less as independent units and more as installments in a greater work; Frederick S. Clarke wrote that the burgeoning series had "the promise of being the first epic of filmed science fiction."[33] It also performed well at the box office, though not as strongly as its predecessors. Fox ordered a third sequel.[34]

Conquest of the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Based on the strong positive response to Escape, Fox ordered Conquest of the Planet of the Apes, though it provided a comparatively low budget of $1.7 million.[34] Paul Dehn returned as the scriptwriter, and the producers hired J. Lee Thompson to direct. Thompson had worked with Jacobs during the planning stages of Planet, but scheduling conflicts had made him unavailable to participate in the series.[35] For Conquest, Thompson and Dehn focused heavily on the racial conflict theme, an ancillary concern in the early films that became a major theme in Escape.[36] In particular, Dehn associated the apes with African-Americans and modeled the plot after the 1966 Watts Riots and other episodes from the Civil Rights Movement.[35] Roddy McDowall signed on to play Caesar, the son of his previous character Cornelius.[37] Ricardo Montalban returned as Armando, while Don Murray played Governor Breck, Severn Darden played Kolp, and Hari Rhodes played MacDonald.[38]

Following Escape, Conquest is set in a near future where humans have turned apes into slaves; Caesar rises from bondage to lead an ape rebellion. The film opened June 30, 1972.[38] Reviews were mixed. However, the ending left the series open to another sequel, and Conquest was successful enough at the box office that Fox greenlit another film.[39]

Battle for the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Fox approved Battle for the Planet of the Apes with a $1.2 million budget, the lowest of the series.[40] The filmmakers went into the project knowing it would be the last of the original series.[41] J. Lee Thompson returned as director. Series writer Paul Dehn submitted a treatment, but illness forced him to leave the film before completing the script. The producers subsequently hired John William Corrington and Joyce Hooper Corrington to write the screenplay.[42][43] Battle continued Conquest's focus on racial conflict and domination. However, likely based in part on the studio's wishes, the Corringtons discarded Dehn's pessimistic treatment in favor of a story with a more hopeful, though ambiguous, resolution.[44]

Battle follows Caesar as he leads the apes and their human subjects after a devastating war that destroyed much of the planet. He contends with both an attack by radiation-scarred human mutants and a coup attempt as he attempts to build a better society for both apes and humans. McDowall returned as Caesar, and Severn Darden returned as Kolp. Paul Williams played the orangutan Virgil, Austin Stoker played MacDonald (the brother of Hari Rhodes' character), and Claude Akins played the evil gorilla general Aldo. John Huston played the orangutan Lawgiver in a frame narrative.[45] The film opened May 2, 1973. It made a profit over production costs, but received poor reviews from critics, who regard it as the weakest of the five films.[46]

Critics have offered various interpretations of the film's message and its significance for the series. Particular attention has been paid to the intentionally ambiguous imagery in the ending: set 700 years after the main events, the last scene depicts a statue of Caesar shedding a single tear as the Lawgiver recounts Caesar's story to an integrated audience of ape and human children. By one interpretation, the statue cries tears of joy because the species have broken the cycle of oppression, giving the series an optimistic finale. By another, the statue weeps because racial strife still exists, implying the dystopian future of Planet and Beneath is unavoidable.[47]

Television series[edit]

Planet of the Apes TV series[edit]

The cast of the Planet of the Apes TV series: James Naughton as Burke, Ron Harper as Virdon, and Roddy McDowall as Galen

In addition to their box office grosses, the films earned very high ratings when broadcast on television after their theatrical run. To capitalize on this success, Arthur P. Jacobs conceived of an hour-long live action television series to follow the films. He originally thought of the idea in 1971 during the production of Conquest, which he then anticipated would be the final film. However, he shelved the project once Conquest proved to be a hit and Fox ordered a fifth film. Jacobs died on June 27, 1973, bringing an end to the APJAC era of the Planet of the Apes franchise. Former Fox executive Stan Hough took over as producer for the television project, titled Planet of the Apes. CBS picked up the series for its fall 1974 lineup.[48]

Ron Harper and James Naughton played Alan Virdon and Peter Burke, two 20th-century American astronauts who pass through a time warp to a future where Earth is ruled by intelligent apes who subjugate humans (unlike the original film, the humans can speak). Roddy McDowall played Galen, a young chimpanzee who becomes convinced of the astronauts' story and joins them. Booth Coleman played orangutan Councillor Zaius and Mark Lenard played gorilla General Urko. The episodes portray Virdon, Burke, and Galen as they look for answers, aid downtrodden humans and apes, and avoid the authorities. The show premiered on September 13, 1974, filling CBS' 8–9 p.m. time slot on Fridays. It earned low ratings during its run. According to writers Joe Russo, Larry Landsman, and Edward Gross, it suffered from repetitive storytelling and CBS' decision to gear the show toward children, thus losing interest among the films' adult fans. CBS cancelled the show after 14 episodes, the last airing on December 20, 1974.[42][49]

In 1981, Fox reedited ten of the episodes into five TV movies. Each of the films combined two episodes and (in some markets) added new introductory and concluding segments starring Roddy McDowall as an aged Galen. The films were given what scholar Eric Greene called "the most outlandish titles of the Apes corpus": Back to the Planet of the Apes; Forgotten City of the Planet of the Apes; Treachery and Greed on the Planet of the Apes; Life, Liberty and Pursuit on the Planet of the Apes; and Farewell to the Planet of the Apes.[50]

Greene finds the show's timeline significant: set in 3085, it occurs about 900 years before Taylor's crash in the original film, and 400 years after the Lawgiver's sermon in Battle. By depicting a future where apes dominate humans, it implies the Lawgiver's message of equality between man and ape has failed, giving weight to the more pessimistic interpretation of Battle's ending.[51] Greene writes that the show emphasized the theme of racial conflict less than the films had, though the episodes "The Trap" and "The Liberator" made it the central focus.[52]

Return to the Planet of the Apes[edit]

In 1975, after the failure of the live action show, NBC decided to adapt Planet of the Apes for an animated series. The network contracted David H. DePatie and Friz Freleng of DePatie-Freleng Enterprises to produce the show as a half-hour Saturday morning cartoon, titled Return to the Planet of the Apes. Doug Wildey, co-creator of Jonny Quest, took on most creative control as associate producer, storyboard director, and supervising director.[53] Wildey had only watched the original film and Beneath, and thus relied on them for his interpretation. As such, the show relied less on the themes and plot developments from Escape, Conquest, and Battle and instead returned to the Vietnam War and Cold War themes prominent in the first two films.[54]

The plot concerns three American astronauts, Bill Hudson (Tom Williams), Jeff Allen (Austin Stoker, who played MacDonald in Battle), and Judy Franklin (Claudette Nevins), who inadvertently journey to Earth's far future. They find the word populated by three groups: mute humans who inhabit desert caves, subterranean human "Underdwellers" fashioned after the mutants of Beneath, and civilized apes who subjugate the humans. Through the show, the astronauts become increasingly involved in the planet's affairs and in defending the humans against an ape invasion. The cast featured characters based on those from the previous films and TV series, including Claudette Nevis as Nova, Henry Cordin as General Urko, Philippa Harris as Zira, Edwin Mills as Cornelius, and Richard Blackburn as Dr. Zaius.[55] NBC broadcast thirteen episodes between September 6 and November 21, 1975.[56] The show did not earn particularly strong ratings. The network considered producing a second three-episode season to complete the story, but this never materialized.[57]

Remake film[edit]

Planned relaunch and development hell[edit]

Fox initiated plans to relaunch the Planet of the Apes series in the 1980s, but the project fell into "development hell" for over ten years, experiencing one of the most protracted development periods in film history. It began in 1988, when Fox announced Adam Rifkin, then a 21-year-old independent film director, would develop a new Apes film. At a Fox executive's invitation, Rifkin pitched a concept for Return to the Planet of the Apes, an alternative sequel to Planet that ignored the other four films. In Rifkin's initial concept, Taylor's descendant Duke launches a Spartacus-like uprising against Roman-inspired ape oppressors led by General Izan. The project nearly entered pre-production, but days before, Fox brought in new studio executives who sent the project back to development.[58] They commissioned Rifkin to rewrite the script through several drafts, but these failed to impress the studio, who ultimately scrapped the project.[59]

After several years in limbo, Fox returned to the Apes concept, this time with Oliver Stone as executive producer. Stone brought in Terry Hayes as screenwriter, and they developed a script titled Return of the Apes.[60] In their script, humanity is threatened by an ailment that seems to be encoded in their DNA, so two scientists go back in time thousands of years to stop it at its origins. They discover the disease was engineered by advanced apes to ensure humanity's eventual destruction.[61] Arnold Schwarzenegger committed to star as scientist Will Robinson, while Philip Noyce agreed to direct. The draft impressed Fox president Peter Chernin, but other executives were ambivalent about the action script, believing it should be lighter. Notably, executive Dylan Sellers insisted the script include a comic scene involving apes playing baseball as his "stamp" on the film, and fired Hayes when he left it out. This move caused Noyce to quit as well, and subsequently almost everyone involved in the project left for one reason or another.[60]

After the collapse of the Stone-Hayes project, Fox brought on Chris Columbus to develop a new Apes concept. Columbus hired Sam Hamm to write a new draft taking elements from Boulle's novel and various unused scripts. In Hamm's script, an ape astronaut from a distant planet lands on earth, unleashing a virus that threatens mankind. Scientists take the ship back to the planet, where sophisticated apes hunt humans. They locate a cure, but upon their return they find Earth overrun by apes. Schwarzenegger remained attached, but Fox found the script underwhelming. Columbus left the project in 1995 after his mother's death, and James Cameron stepped in to produce. Cameron intended to go in a "very different direction" with the script, but following the critical and financial success of his film Titanic, he dropped out of the project. Fox approached a series of directors to take over, without success. By 1999 the studio decided once again to go in a new direction.[62]

Tim Burton's Planet of the Apes[edit]

Tim Burton, director of the 2001 Planet of the Apes

In 1999, Fox hired William Broyles, Jr. to write a new script. Fox insisted on a firm July 2001 release date, but otherwise offered considerable creative control.[62] This prospect attracted director Tim Burton, who hoped to do a "re-imagining" of Planet of the Apes. However, Burton found the production arduous, largely due to Fox's strict release schedule. The studio budgeted the film at $100 million, meaning Broyles' ambitious script had to be rewritten to reduce costs; Lawrence Konner and Mark Rosenthal worked on rewrites even as the film entered production. The tight schedule meant all stages of production were rushed.[63]

The film stars Mark Wahlberg as astronaut Leo Davidson, who accidentally travels through a wormhole to a distant planet where talking apes enslave humans. He leads a human revolt and upends civilization by discovering the apes descended from the normal Earth primates employed on his mission. Helena Bonham Carter played chimpanzee Ari, while Tim Roth played the human-hating chimpanzee General Thade. The film received mixed reviews, with critics generally believing it failed to compare to the original. Much criticism focused on the confusing plot and twist ending, though many reviewers praised the special effects.[64][65] The film succeeded in the box office, taking in a total of $362,211,740.[66] Fox had initially hoped for a second film, but the difficult production made Burton disinclined to participate, and the film failed to generate enough interest for Fox to pursue a sequel.[63]

Reboot series[edit]

Rise of the Planet of the Apes[edit]

In 2006, screenwriters Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver developed a concept for a new Planet of the Apes film, eventually titled Rise of the Planet of the Apes. Inspired by news articles on apes raised as humans, Jaffa and Silver conceived the film as a way to reboot the franchise by reinventing the story of the chimpanzee Caesar, the lead character of Conquest.[67] In this version, Caesar receives enhanced cognition from a new viral drug and is raised by humans; after being imprisoned in a primate sanctuary, he uses his ingenuity to launch an uprising. Jaffa and Silver successfully pitched the story to Fox.[67] However, development was slow for several years as the production cycled through writers, directors, and producers. In January 2010 Peter Chernin of Chernin Entertainment signed on as producer, and brought Jaffa and Silver back on to complete the script.[68] The producers hired Rupert Wyatt to direct.[69] Fox partnered with New Zealand visual effects company Weta Digital to create realistic ape effects, and performance capture actor Andy Serkis signed on to star as Caesar.[70] James Franco signed on as the human lead, Will Rodman.[71]

The film debuted on August 5, 2011. Critics reviewed it positively, praising the visual effects, Wyatt's direction, and Serkis' performance as Caesar.[72][73] Rise was a major box office hit, taking in a total of $481,801,049 over its $93 million budget.[74] Fox immediately planned for a sequel.[75]

Dawn of the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Cast and crew of Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (from left): director Matt Reeves and stars Jason Clarke, Keri Russell, and Andy Serkis

Plans for the film eventually titled Dawn of the Planet of the Apes began just after Rise's release in 2011. Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver returned to pen the script and produce; producers Peter Chernin and his partner Dylan Clark also returned. The studio quickly signed Andy Serkis to reprise his role as Caesar.[75] Director Rupert Wyatt was initially slated to return, but he left the project and was replaced by Matt Reeves on October 1, 2012.[76] Fox gave the film a budget of $170 million and a release date of July 11, 2014.[76][77]

Set ten years after Rise, the film establishes that the "Simian Flu" that increased the intelligence of the apes has killed most humans. Caesar struggles to maintain peace as his ape community is drawn into a war with nearby human survivors. The human cast included Jason Clarke as Malcolm, Keri Russell as Ellie, and Gary Oldman as Dreyfus. The ape characters were created through performance capture: Toby Kebbell played the villainous Koba, Judy Greer played Cornelia, Nick Thurston played Blue Eyes, and Karin Konoval played Maurice. The film debuted on July 11, 2014. It was met with critical acclaim, with reviewers finding it a strong followup to Rise. Critics lauded the combination of an engaging script with impressive special effects.[78][79] It also performed very strongly at the box office, taking in $707,498,744 in worldwide grosses.[77] Fox moved directly into developing another film.[80]

Third reboot series film[edit]

The producers were confident enough in Dawn of the Planet of the Apes that they started planning for the next installment before production had completed. They contracted Matt Reeves to return as director after seeing his cut of Dawn; he will also write the script with Mark Bomback. Peter Chernin, Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver will produce.[81] The film is currently untitled and is scheduled for release on July 29, 2016.[80][82]

Other media and merchandise[edit]

Books[edit]

Pierre Boulle's novel La Planète des Singes was translated and reprinted several times after its original publication in 1963.[83] In addition, all of the original sequels spawned novelizations by established science fiction writers of the day, each of which went through multiple reprintings of their own. Michael Avallone wrote the novelization for Beneath the Planet of the Apes in 1970. Jerry Pournelle, who later co-authored Lucifer's Hammer and The Mote in God's Eye, wrote the Escape from the Planet of the Apes novelization. John Jakes, former Science Fiction Writers of America president, wrote Conquest of the Planet of the Apes. David Gerrold, scriptwriter for the Star Trek episode "The Trouble with Tribbles", novelized Battle for the Planet of the Apes. Novelizations of the live action and animated television series were also produced.[84] William T. Quick novelized the 2001 Planet of the Apes; he also wrote two prequel novels, and several other book tie-ins were published.[85]

Comics[edit]

Planet of the Apes-based comics have been published regularly since 1968. Among the most notable is Marvel Comics' Planet of the Apes magazine, published from 1974 to 1977. The black-and-white series featured comics adaptations of each of the films, new Apes stories by Doug Moench, series news, essays, interviews and other material. It became one of Marvel's most successful titles, attracting 300 to 400 fan letters with every issue, so many that the studio had to suspend its practice of writing personal responses. Marvel also published the monthly title Adventures on the Planet of the Apes from 1975 to 1976, comprising color reprints of the Planet and Beneath adaptations.[86]

In 1990, during a resurgence of interest in the series, Malibu Comics launched a new monthly black-and-white Planet of the Apes comic through its Adventure Comics studio. The debut issue sold 40,000, a record for black-and-white comics, leading to a successful run of 24 issues over two years. The series follows Caesar's grandson and heir Alexander as he struggles to govern ape civilization. The comic's success led Malibu to publish five four-issue spin-off miniseries: Ape City, Planet of the Apes: Urchak's Folly, Alien Nation crossover Ape Nation, Planet of the Apes: Blood of the Apes, and Planet of the Apes: The Forbidden Zone. Malibu also published two one-shots: A Day on the Planet of the Apes and Planet prequel Planet of the Apes: Sins of the Fathers; a trade paperback collecting the first four issues of the main series, titled Monkey Planet; and reissues of stories from Marvel's earlier Apes series.[87]

Other companies producing Planet of the Apes comics include Gold Key Comics, Dark Horse Comics, and Boom! Studios.

Toys and merchandise[edit]

The series, and particularly the live-action Apes television show and the Return to the Planet of the Apes cartoon, generated numerous toy and merchandising tie-ins. During the 1970s, Fox licensed around 60 companies to produce about 300 different Apes products, including action figures and playsets, model building kits, coloring books, book-and-record sets, trading cards, toy weapons, costumes, apparel, branded tableware, and lunch boxes. This level of merchandising was unusual for the time, and the success of Apes merchandise may have inspired the campaigns that later became commonplace for media ventures.[88] The action figures, sold by Mego beginning in 1973, were the first ever action figures sold as film tie-ins; they proved very popular and inspired many later toy lines.[89] Eric Greene writes that Apes toys were popular enough to lead some contemporary children to engage in role-playing make believe games that simulated the series' conflicts in a manner similar to "Cowboys and Indians".[88]

Video games[edit]

In 1983, 20th Century Fox Videogames developed a Planet of the Apes game for the Atari 2600, which was to be the first computer game based on the series. However, the game was still in the prototype phase when Fox shuttered its game division during the video game crash of 1983, and never saw release. It was assumed lost until 2002, when Atari collector Matt Reichert identified a prototype, found in 1999 in a case labeled Alligator People, as the missing Apes game.[90][91] Independent designers Retrodesign completed and released the game as Revenge of the Apes in 2003.[91] In the game, the player controls Taylor as he fights different ape species across several levels inspired by the film, with the final board being the Statue of Liberty.[90]

A video game based on the series did not appear until 2001. Fox Interactive began developing the Planet of the Apes game in 1998 for PC and PlayStation as a tie-in to the long-gestating remake film. Fox and developer Visiware proceeded with the game when the film went into limbo, creating their own story based on Boulle's novel and the original films.[92][93] The game is an action-adventure in which players control astronaut Ulysses as he explores an ape-ruled future Earth. Setbacks with the film project and Fox Interactive's decision to co-publish with another company (Ubisoft) delayed the game three years. Despite its long development, the game missed the debut of Tim Burton's Planet of the Apes film by two months;[94] it finally appeared on September 20, 2001, to mostly negative reviews.[95][96][97] Additionally, Ubisoft produced a substantially different Planet of the Apes game for Game Boy Advance and Game Boy Color, a side-scroller following the first two films.[93][98]

In 2014, Fox partnered with Ndemic Creations on a substantial Dawn of the Planet of the Apes-themed update to the mobile game Plague Inc. Players create and spread a "Simian Flu" virus to eradicate humans while helping apes survive.[99]

Cultural impact and legacy[edit]

Fans in costume as Dr. Zaius and Dr. Zira at a science fiction convention

Planet of the Apes received popular and critical attention well after production ended on the original films and television series.[15] Fans continued their interest in the franchise through publications like Marvel Comics' Planet of the Apes magazine[86] and science fiction conventions, where the series was sufficiently popular to inspire "apecons" – conventions devoted entirely to films involving apes – in the 1970s.[100] The series' distinctive ape costumes were employed in live appearances, including by musician Paul Williams (Virgil from Battle) on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and by Mike Douglas on The Mike Douglas Show.[15] In the 1970s fans Bill Blake and Paula Crist created Cornelius and Zira costumes; their routine was convincing enough that Fox licensed them to portray the characters at events.[101] The films earned strong ratings when they aired on television after their releases, and various stations rebroadcast them together in marathons in later years.[102] The live-action television series was re-formatted into five TV movies for further broadcast in 1981,[50] and the Sci-Fi Channel ran both it and the cartoon in the 1990s.[83]

Planet of the Apes had a wide impact on subsequent popular media. In terms of production, the series' success with sequelization, spinoffs and merchandising established a new model of media franchising in Hollywood filmmaking, in which studios develop films specifically to generate multi-media franchises.[103] In terms of content, Eric Greene writes that the series influenced various films and television productions during the 1970s and '80s that used science fiction settings and characters to explore race relations, including Alien Nation, Enemy Mine, and V. More direct influence can be seen in DC Comics' 1972–1978 series Kamandi: The Last Boy on Earth, which concerns the titular survivor in a future where talking apes and other animals have displaced humans. Outside the United States, the film inspired the Japanese series and film Time of the Apes, about three characters who travel to a future ruled by apes.[50] Mel Brooks' 1987 science fiction spoof Spaceballs lampooned the Statue of Liberty ending from the original Planet.[104]

Interest in the series resurged again in the 1990s, as plans for a new film and other media circulated. Greene attributes this renewed interest to a combination of "pop culture nostalgia and baby boomer economics", as well as a "political ferment" rising at the time that hearkened back to the period when the films were first released.[105] Inspired particularly by the publication of the Malibu Comics series, during this period fans founded new clubs, websites fanzines active in the U.S., Canada, Brazil, and other countries.[106] Companies began producing new branded merchandise, including clothing, toys, and costumes.[107]

Especially after the 1990s, artists in diverse media referenced, incorporated, or were otherwise influenced by the series. Planet of the Apes turned up in songs by various musicians, references in films, comedy bits by Dennis Miller and Paul Mooney, and an episode of Saturday Night Live hosted by Charlton Heston. The Simpsons parodied the series several times.[104] Notably, the episode "A Fish Called Selma" features the washed-up actor Troy McClure starring in a Broadway musical adaptation called Stop the Planet of the Apes, I Want to Get Off![108] Artist Martha Rosler incorporated footage of Cornelius and Zira's interrogation from Escape in her installation "Global Taste: A Meal in Three Courses", while Guillermo Gómez-Peña and Coco Fusco employed video from Planet in a 1993 performance art piece at the Whitney Museum of American Art.[109]

The series' impact has also extended to the political sphere, and groups of various leanings have employed its themes and imagery in their discourse.[110] The phrase "planet of the apes" itself has been used for an overturning of the political or racial status quo.[111] Eric Greene writes that it is especially popular among racial nationalists and reactionaries of different stripes, who use it in reference to race conflict.[112] It is a favorite reference among white supremacists, who liken minority advancement to the films' world in which supposed "inferiors" seize control. On the other hand, black nationalists have subverted this reference to celebrate the "racial apocalypse"; in this spirit, gangsta rap group Da Lench Mob titled their 1994 album Planet of da Apes. According to Greene, these uses invert the anti-racist message of the films.[113] Planet's final image of the ruined Statue of Liberty has become a common political reference; for example, Greenpeace used it in an advertising campaign against nuclear testing. The series' themes and imagery have been invoked in political discussions on a wide variety of topics, including Sixties culture, nuclear weaponry, urban decay, contemporary wars, and gun violence.[114]

List of media[edit]

Feature films[edit]

Number Title Release date Director Timeline
1 Planet of the Apes February 8, 1968 Franklin J. Schaffner Original series
2 Beneath the Planet of the Apes May 27, 1970 Ted Post
3 Escape from the Planet of the Apes May 21, 1971 Don Taylor
4 Conquest of the Planet of the Apes June 29, 1972 J. Lee Thompson
5 Battle for the Planet of the Apes June 15, 1973
6 Planet of the Apes July 27, 2001 Tim Burton Remake
7 Rise of the Planet of the Apes August 5, 2011 Rupert Wyatt Reboot series
8 Dawn of the Planet of the Apes July 11, 2014 Matt Reeves
9 Untitled Third Reboot Series Film July 29, 2016

Reception[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic Worldwide gross Budget
Planet of the Apes (1968) 89% (47 reviews)[115] $32,589,624[116] $5.4 million
Beneath the Planet of the Apes 41% (22 reviews)[117] $18,999,718[118] $3 million
Escape from the Planet of the Apes 78% (23 reviews)[119] $12,348,905[120] $2.5 million
Conquest of the Planet of the Apes 44% (18 reviews)[121] $9,700,000[122] $1.8 million
Battle for the Planet of the Apes 38% (24 reviews)[123] $8,844,595[124] $1.7 million
Planet of the Apes (2001) 45% (156 reviews)[64] 50 (34 reviews)[65] $362,211,740[66] $100 million
Rise of the Planet of the Apes 82% (248 reviews)[72] 68 (39 reviews)[73] $481,801,049[74] $93 million[74]
Dawn of the Planet of the Apes 91% (242 reviews)[78] 79 (48 reviews)[79] $708,178,313[77] $170 million[77]
Total $1,634,673,944 $377.4 million

Characters[edit]

The following table shows the cast members who played the primary characters in the film series.

Character Film
Planet of the Apes (1968) Beneath the Planet of the Apes Escape from the Planet of the Apes Conquest of the Planet of the Apes Battle for the Planet of the Apes Planet of the Apes (2001) Rise of the Planet of the Apes Dawn of the Planet of the Apes

Humans[edit]

George Taylor Charlton Heston Charlton Heston (archival footage)
Nova Linda Harrison
Brent James Franciscus
Mendez Paul Richards
Albina Natalie Trundy
Skipper Tod Andrews
Dr. Lewis Dixon Bradford Dillman
Dr. Stephanie ("Stevie") Branton Natalie Trundy
Dr. Otto Hasslein Eric Braeden
Armando Ricardo Montalbán
Governor Breck Don Murray
MacDonald Hari Rhodes
Kolp Severn Darden
MacDonald Austin Stoker
Mendez Paul Stevens
Jake Michael Stearns
Leo Davidson Mark Wahlberg
Daena Estella Warren
Birn Luke Eberl
Will Rodman James Franco James Franco (archival footage)
Caroline Aranha Freida Pinto
John Landon Brian Cox
Steven Jacobs David Oyelowo
Charles Rodman John Lithgow
Dodge Landon Tom Felton
Dreyfus Gary Oldman
Malcolm Jason Clarke
Ellie Keri Russell
Alexander Kodi Smit-McPhee
Carver Kirk Acevedo
Werner Jocko Sims
McVeigh Kevin Rankin
Finney Keir O'Donnell

Apes[edit]

Cornelius Roddy McDowall David Watson Roddy McDowall
Dr. Zira Kim Hunter
Dr. Zaius Maurice Evans Charlton Heston
Ursus James Gregory
Caesar Walker Edmiston (voice) Roddy McDowall Andy Serkis
Lisa Natalie Trundy
Aldo David Chow Claude Akins
Virgil Paul Williams
Nova Lisa Marie
Ari Helena Bonham Carter
Thade Tim Roth
Rocket Terry Notary
Maurice Karin Konoval
Cornelia Devyn Dalton Judy Greer
Koba Christopher Gordon Toby Kebbell
Blue Eyes Nick Thurston
Ash Larramie "Doc" Shaw
Grey Lee Ross

Crew[edit]

Job Film
Planet of the Apes
(1968)
Beneath the Planet of the Apes Escape from the Planet of the Apes Conquest of the Planet of the Apes Battle for the Planet of the Apes Planet of the Apes
(2001)
Rise of the Planet of the Apes Dawn of the Planet of the Apes Untitled third film of the reboot series
Director Franklin J. Schaffner Ted Post Don Taylor J. Lee Thompson Tim Burton Rupert Wyatt Matt Reeves
Producer(s) Arthur P. Jacobs Richard D. Zanuck Peter Chernin,
Dylan Clark,
Rick Jaffa,
Amanda Silver
Music Jerry Goldsmith Leonard Rosenman Jerry Goldsmith Tom Scott Leonard Rosenman Danny Elfman Patrick Doyle Michael Giacchino
Writer(s) Michael Wilson,
Rod Serling
Paul Dehn John William Corrington,
Joyce Hooper Corrington
William Broyles, Jr.,
Lawrence Konner,
Mark Rosenthal
Rick Jaffa,
Amanda Silver
Mark Bomback,
Rick Jaffa,
Amanda Silver
Matt Reeves,
Mark Bomback

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 4–6.
  2. ^ Becker 1993, pp. 122–124.
  3. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 4.
  4. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 2, 9–10.
  5. ^ a b Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 2–3.
  6. ^ a b Greene 1998, p. 2.
  7. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 25–28.
  8. ^ Greene 1998, p. 28.
  9. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 33.
  10. ^ Webb 1998.
  11. ^ a b Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 29, 42–44.
  12. ^ Greene 1998, p. 215.
  13. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 52, 53 and note.
  14. ^ a b Greene 1998, pp. 2–3, 57.
  15. ^ a b c Greene 1998, p. 164.
  16. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 57–59.
  17. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 60–61.
  18. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 108–111.
  19. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 105–106, 117–119.
  20. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 117–118.
  21. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 108–109.
  22. ^ a b Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 109–110.
  23. ^ a b Greene 1998, p. 216.
  24. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 61–62.
  25. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 109.
  26. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 109, 143.
  27. ^ a b Greene 1998, p. 71.
  28. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 145–147.
  29. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 153, 187, 212.
  30. ^ Greene 1998, p. 217.
  31. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 71–73.
  32. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 170, 178.
  33. ^ Greene 1998, p. 1.
  34. ^ a b Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 170, 178–179.
  35. ^ a b Greene 1998, pp. 81–82.
  36. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 81–83.
  37. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 186.
  38. ^ a b Greene 1998, pp. 217–218.
  39. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 200.
  40. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 216.
  41. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 203.
  42. ^ a b Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 114–115.
  43. ^ Greene 1998, p. 208.
  44. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 115–116.
  45. ^ Greene 1998, p. 218.
  46. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, pp. 109, 217–220.
  47. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 114.
  48. ^ Greene 1998, p. 152.
  49. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 152, 158, 218–221.
  50. ^ a b c Greene 1998, p. 168.
  51. ^ Greene 1998, p. 153.
  52. ^ Greene 1998, p. 154.
  53. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 159, 221.
  54. ^ Greene 1998, p. 159.
  55. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 159–164, 221–222.
  56. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 221–222.
  57. ^ Russo, Landsman, and Gross 2001, p. 239.
  58. ^ Hughes 2004, pp. 34–37.
  59. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 180–181.
  60. ^ a b Hughes 2004, pp. 38–41.
  61. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 181–182.
  62. ^ a b Hughes 2004, pp. 41–43.
  63. ^ a b Hughes 2004, pp. 44–46.
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  75. ^ a b Fleming, Jr., Mike (November 3, 2011). "Andy Serkis Closes Big ‘Planet Of The Apes’ Deal; Should Fox Campaign For Oscar?". Deadline.com. Retrieved September 1, 2014. 
  76. ^ a b Lussier, Germain (October 1, 2012). "Matt Reeves Confirmed to Helm ‘Dawn of the Planet of the Apes’". www.slashfilm.com. /Film. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
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  80. ^ a b Kroll, Justin (January 7, 2014). "Matt Reeves Will Return to Direct ‘Planet of the Apes 3′". Variety. Retrieved September 3, 2014. 
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  82. ^ "Untitled Planet of the Apes (2016)". Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  83. ^ a b Greene 1998, p. 169.
  84. ^ Greene 1998, p. 166 and note.
  85. ^ Handley 2008, p. 256, 267.
  86. ^ a b Greene 1998, pp. 164–166.
  87. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 171–175.
  88. ^ a b Greene 1998, pp. 166–168.
  89. ^ Scott 2010, pp. 3, 204.
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  99. ^ Watts, Steve (July 2, 2014). "Dawn of the Planet of the Apes Virus Added to Plague Inc". www.ign.com. IGN. Retrieved August 21, 2014. 
  100. ^ Southard 1982, p. 23.
  101. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 164, 167.
  102. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 152, 169.
  103. ^ Von Busack 2004, p. 165.
  104. ^ a b Greene 1998, pp. 169–170.
  105. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 169, 170–171.
  106. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 175.
  107. ^ Greene 1998, pp. xv, 169.
  108. ^ Kassabian 2013, p. 55.
  109. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 170.
  110. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 176–179.
  111. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 176.
  112. ^ Greene 1998, p. 177.
  113. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 176–177.
  114. ^ Greene 1998, pp. 177–179.
  115. ^ "Planet of the Apes (1968) – Rotten Tomatoes". Flixster. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 28, 2013. 
  116. ^ Total Domestic Gross for Planet of the Apes (1968)
  117. ^ "Beneath the Planet of the Apes – Rotten Tomatoes". Flixster. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 28, 2013. 
  118. ^ Total Domestic Gross for Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970)
  119. ^ "Escape from the Planet of the Apes – Rotten Tomatoes". Flixster. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 28, 2013. 
  120. ^ Total Domestic Gross for Escape from the Planet of the Apes (1971)
  121. ^ "Conquest of the Planet of the Apes – Rotten Tomatoes". Flixster. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 28, 2013. 
  122. ^ Total Domestic Gross for Conquest of the Planet of the Apes (1972)
  123. ^ "Battle for the Planet of the Apes – Rotten Tomatoes". Flixster. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 28, 2013. 
  124. ^ Total Domestic Gross for Battle for the Planet of the Apes (1973)

References[edit]

External links[edit]