Planet of the Apes (1968 film)
|Planet of the Apes|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Franklin J. Schaffner|
|Produced by||Arthur P. Jacobs|
|Screenplay by||Michael Wilson
|Based on||Planet of the Apes
by Pierre Boulle
|Music by||Jerry Goldsmith|
|Editing by||Hugh S. Fowler|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Running time||112 minutes|
Planet of the Apes is a 1968 American science fiction film directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, based on the 1963 French novel La Planète des singes by Pierre Boulle. The film stars Charlton Heston, Roddy McDowall, Maurice Evans, Kim Hunter and Linda Harrison. It was the first in a series of five films made between 1968 and 1973, all produced by Arthur P. Jacobs and released by 20th Century Fox.
The film tells the story of an astronaut crew who crash-land on a strange planet in the distant future. Although the planet appears desolate at first, the surviving crew members stumble upon a society in which apes have evolved into creatures with human-like intelligence and speech. The apes have assumed the role of the dominant species and humans are mute creatures wearing animal skins.
The script was originally written by Rod Serling but underwent many rewrites before filming eventually began. Directors J. Lee Thompson and Blake Edwards were approached, but the film's producer Arthur P. Jacobs, upon the advice of Charlton Heston, chose Franklin J. Schaffner to direct the film. Schaffner's changes included creating a more primitive ape society, instead of the more expensive idea of having futuristic buildings and advanced technology. Filming took place between May–August 1967, mostly in California and Arizona, with the opening scene shot at Lake Powell, Utah. The film's budget was approximately $5,800,000.
The film was released on February 8, 1968, in the United States and was a commercial success, gaining $32,589,624 at the international box office. The film was groundbreaking for its prosthetic makeup techniques by artist John Chambers, and was well received by critics and audiences, launching a film franchise, including four sequels, as well as a short-lived television show, animated series, comic books, and various merchandising. In particular, Roddy McDowall had a long-running relationship with the Apes series, appearing in four of the original five films (absent, apart from a brief voiceover, from the second film of the series, Beneath the Planet of the Apes, in which he was replaced by David Watson in the role of Cornelius), and also in the television series.
Astronauts Taylor (Charlton Heston), Landon (Robert Gunner), Dodge (Jeff Burton) and Stewart (an uncredited Dianne Stanley) are in deep hibernation when their spaceship crash-lands in a lake on an unknown planet, after a 2006-year voyage at near-light speed (during which the crew ages only 18 months due to time dilation). The astronauts awaken to find their ship sinking and Stewart dead and her body desiccated due to an air leak in her suspended animation chamber. They use an inflatable raft to reach shore, but before departing the ship, Taylor notes that the current year is AD 3978. Once ashore Dodge performs a soil test and pronounces the soil incapable of sustaining life.
Despite this, as the three astronauts set off through a desert, they gradually encounter plant life. They find an oasis at the edge of the desert and decide to go swimming, ignoring strange and eerie scarecrow-like figures. While they are swimming, their clothes are stolen. Pursuing the thieves, the astronauts find their clothes torn to shreds, their supplies pillaged and the perpetrators — a group of mute, primitive humans dressed in torn clothes — contentedly raiding a cornfield.
Suddenly, clothed gorillas on horseback charge through the cornfield, brandishing firearms, snares, and nets. They capture some humans and kill the rest. While trying to flee, Dodge is killed, Landon is knocked unconscious, and Taylor is shot in the throat. The gorillas take Taylor to Ape City, where his life is saved after a blood transfusion by two chimpanzees and animal psychologist Zira (Kim Hunter) and surgeon Galen (Wright King). Taylor is housed in a cage with a girl whom he later calls Nova (Linda Harrison). Because of his throat wound he is unable to speak.
Taylor discovers that the various apes, who can talk and are in control, are in a strict caste system: gorillas are the police, military, hunters and workers; orangutans are administrators, politicians, lawyers and priests; and chimpanzees are intellectuals and scientists. Humans, who are believed by the apes to be unable to talk, are considered vermin and are hunted for sport, killed outright, enslaved, or used in scientific experiments.
Zira and her fiancé, Cornelius (Roddy McDowall), an archaeologist, take an interest in Taylor, whom Zira has named "Bright Eyes". Taylor attempts to communicate by writing in the dirt, but his writing is hidden by the Nova and Cornelius's boss, an orangutan named Dr. Zaius (Maurice Evans). Eventually, Taylor steals paper from Zira and uses it to write a message with his name to her. Zira and Cornelius become convinced that Taylor is intelligent, but upon learning of this, Dr. Zaius orders that Taylor be castrated.
Taylor manages to escape and during his flight through Ape City finds himself in a museum, where Dodge's stuffed corpse has been put on display (no other humans have his unique dark skin color). When Taylor is recaptured by gorillas, he overcomes his injured throat and angrily shouts, "Take your stinking paws off me, you damn dirty ape!"
A tribunal to determine Taylor's origins is convened by the President of the Assembly (James Whitmore), Dr. Zaius, and Dr. Maximus (Woodrow Parfrey). Dr. Honorious (James Daly) is the prosecutor. Taylor mentions his two comrades. The court produces Landon, who has been subjected to a lobotomy that has rendered him catatonic, and unable to speak.
After the tribunal, Dr. Zaius privately threatens to lobotomize Taylor if he does not tell the truth about where he came from. With help from Zira's socially-rebellious nephew Lucius (Lou Wagner), Zira and Cornelius free Taylor and Nova and take them to the Forbidden Zone, a taboo region outside Ape City that has been out of bounds for centuries by Ape law. A year earlier, Cornelius led an expedition into the Forbidden Zone that found a cave containing artifacts of an earlier non-simian (believed-to-be human) civilization. The group sets out for the cave to answer questions Taylor has about the evolution of the ape world and to prove he is not of that world.
Arriving at the cave, Cornelius is intercepted by Dr. Zaius and his soldiers. Taylor, now armed, holds them at bay, threatening to shoot them if necessary. Zaius agrees to enter the cave to disprove their theories and to avoid physical harm to Cornelius and Zira. Cornelius displays the remnants of a technologically advanced human society pre-dating simian history. Taylor identifies artifacts such as dentures, eyeglasses, a heart valve and, to the apes' astonishment, a talking children's doll. More soldiers appear and Lucius is overpowered, but Taylor again fends them off.
Dr. Zaius is held hostage so Taylor can escape, but admits to Taylor that he has always known that a human civilization existed long before apes ruled the planet, and that "the Forbidden Zone was once a paradise, [man] made a desert of it…ages ago!" Taylor is skeptical, and prepares to search for answers, but Dr. Zaius warns him that he may not like what he finds. Once Taylor and Nova have ridden off on horseback, Dr. Zaius has the gorillas lay explosives to seal off the cave and destroy the remaining evidence of the human society. He has Zira, Cornelius and Lucius charged with heresy.
Taylor and Nova, at last free, follow the shoreline and eventually discover the beach-covered remains of the Statue of Liberty, revealing that this "alien" planet is actually post-apocalyptic Earth. Taylor dismounts the horse, and falls to his knees in despair and anger, condemning humanity for destroying the world.
- Charlton Heston as George Taylor
- Roddy McDowall as Cornelius
- Kim Hunter as Zira
- Maurice Evans as Dr. Zaius
- James Whitmore as President of the Assembly
- James Daly as Honorious
- Linda Harrison as Nova
- Robert Gunner as Landon
- Lou Wagner as Lucius
- Woodrow Parfrey as Maximus
- Jeff Burton as Dodge
- Buck Kartalian as Julius
- Norman Burton as Hunt Leader
- Wright King as Dr. Galen
- Paul Lambert as Minister
- Dianne Stanley as Stewart (uncredited)
Producer Arthur P. Jacobs bought the rights for the Pierre Boulle novel before its publication in 1963. Jacobs pitched the production to many studios, but was passed over. After Jacobs made a successful debut as a producer doing 1964's What a Way to Go! (1964) for 20th Century Fox and begun pre-production of another movie for the studio, Doctor Dolittle, he managed to convince studio president Richard D. Zanuck to greenlight Planet of the Apes.
One script that came close to being made was written by The Twilight Zone creator Rod Serling, though it was finally rejected for a number of reasons. A prime concern was cost, as the technologically advanced ape society portrayed by Serling's script would have involved expensive sets, props and special effects. The earlier blacklisted screenwriter Michael Wilson was brought in to rewrite Serling's script and, as suggested by director Franklin J. Schaffner, the ape society was made more primitive as a way of reducing costs.
However, Serling's stylized twist ending (a trademark from his Twilight Zone days) was retained, and became one of the most famous movie endings of all time. The exact location and state of decay of the Statue of Liberty changed over several storyboards. One version depicted the statue buried up to its nose in the middle of a jungle while another depicted the statue in pieces.
To convince the Fox Studio that a Planet of the Apes film could be made, the producers shot a brief test scene from a Rod Serling draft of the script, using early versions of the ape makeup. Charlton Heston appeared as an early version of Taylor (named Thomas, as he was in the Serling-penned drafts), Edward G. Robinson appeared as Zaius, while then-unknown actors James Brolin and Linda Harrison played Cornelius and Zira. Harrison, who was the girlfriend of the head of the studio at the time, later played Nova in the 1968 film and its first sequel, and had a cameo in Tim Burton's Planet of the Apes more than 30 years later (as did Heston). This test footage is included on several DVD releases of the film, as well as the documentary Behind the Planet of the Apes. Dr. Zaius was originally to have been played by Robinson, but he backed out due to the heavy makeup and long sessions required to apply it. (Robinson later made his final film, Soylent Green (1973), opposite his one-time Ten Commandments (1956) co-star Heston).
Michael Wilson's rewrite kept the basic structure of Serling's screenplay but rewrote all the dialogue and set the script in a more primitive society. According to associate producer Mort Abrahams an additional uncredited writer (his only recollection was that the writer's last name was Kelly) polished the script, rewrote some of the dialogue and included some of the more heavy-handed tongue-in-cheek dialogue ("I never met an ape I didn't like") which wasn't in either Serling or Wilson's drafts. According to Abraham some scenes such as the one where the judges imitate the "See no evil, speak no evil and hear no evil" monkeys were improvised on the set by director Franklin J. Schaffner and kept in the final film because of the audience reaction during test screenings prior to release. During filming, John Chambers who designed prosthetic make up in the film, held training sessions at 20th-century Fox studios, where he mentored other make-up artists of the film. 
Filming began on May 21, 1967, and ended on August 10, 1967. Most of the early scenes of a desert-like terrain were shot in northern Arizona near the Grand Canyon, the Colorado River, Lake Powell, Glen Canyon and other locations near Page, Arizona Most scenes of the ape village, interiors and exteriors, were filmed on the Fox Ranch in Malibu Creek State Park, northwest of Los Angeles, essentially the backlot of 20th Century Fox. The concluding beach scenes were filmed on a stretch of California seacoast between Malibu and Oxnard with cliffs that towered 130 feet above the shore. Reaching the beach on foot was virtually impossible, so cast, crew, film equipment, and even horses had to be lowered in by helicopter. The remains of the Statue of Liberty were shot in a secluded cove on the far eastern end of Westward Beach, between Zuma Beach and Point Dume in Malibu. As noted in the documentary Behind the Planet of the Apes, the special effect shot of the half-buried statue was achieved by seamlessly blending a matte painting with existing cliffs. The shot looking down at Taylor was done from a 70-foot scaffold, angled over a 1/2-scale papier-mache model of the Statue. The actors in Planet of the Apes were so affected by their roles and wardrobe that when not shooting, they automatically segregated themselves with the species they were portraying.
The spacecraft onscreen is never actually named in the film or the script, but the name Icarus was applied later by fan Larry Evans. It is now generally referred to in fan circles by that name. Wilco models produced a 1/48 scale Icarus kit in 2004.
Writer Rod Serling was brought back to work on an outline for a sequel. Serling's outline was ultimately discarded in favor of a story by associate producer Mort Abrahams and writer Paul Dehn, which became the basis for Beneath the Planet of the Apes.
Reception and honors
Planet of the Apes was well received by critics and is widely regarded as a classic film and one of the best films of 1968, applauded for its imagination and its commentary on a possible world gone upside down. The film holds an 89% "Certified Fresh" rating on the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 46 reviews. In 2008, the film was selected by Empire magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.
The film won an honorary Academy Award for John Chambers for his outstanding make-up achievement. The film was nominated for Best Costume Design (Morton Haack) and Best Original Score for a Motion Picture (not a Musical) (Jerry Goldsmith). The score is known for its avant-garde compositional techniques, as well as the use of unusual percussion instruments and extended performance techniques.
- American Film Institute Lists
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies—Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills—#59
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains:
- Colonel George Taylor—Nominated Hero
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- "Take your stinking paws off me, you damned dirty ape."—#66
- AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores—#18
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)—Nominated
- AFI's 10 Top 10—Nominated Science Fiction Film
Later films and adaptations
Planet of the Apes was followed by four sequels:
- Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970)
- Escape from the Planet of the Apes (1971)
- Conquest of the Planet of the Apes (1972)
- Battle for the Planet of the Apes (1973)
and two short-lived television series:
- Rise of the Planet of the Apes (2011) A series reboot, directed by Rupert Wyatt, was released in August 2011 to critical and commercial success. It is intended to be the first in a new series of films.
Comic book adaptations of the films were published by Gold Key (1970) and Marvel Comics (b/w magazine 1974-77, color comic book 1975-76). Malibu Comics reprinted the Marvel adaptations when they had the license in the early 1980s. Dark Horse Comics published an adaptation for the 2001 Tim Burton film.
Parodies and Pop Culture References
A parody of the film series titled "The Milking of the Planet That Went Ape" was published in Mad Magazine. It was illustrated by Mort Drucker and written by Arnie Kogen in regular issue #157, March 1973.
As the film has been further ingrained into pop culture, numerous parodies and references have appeared in films and other media, including Spaceballs, The Simpsons, Futurama, Family Guy, Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back, and Mad Men.
- Survival film, about the film genre, with a list of related films
Notes and references
- Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p255
- "Those Damned Dirty Apes!". www.mediacircus.net. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "30 Years Later: Rod Serling's Settling the Debate over Who Wrote What, and When". www.rodserling.com. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- Brian Pendreigh (7 September 2001). "Obituary:John Chambers: Make-up master responsible for Hollywood's finest space-age creatures". The Guardian. Retrieved Feb 27, 2013.
- Biography for John Chambers (I) IMDb.com, August 4, 2007
- "Planet of the Apes (1968) A Film Review by James Berardinelli". www.reelviews.net. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- "Collider Visits The Set of RISE OF THE PLANET OF THE APES; Plus Video Blog". Lussier, Germain. (April 14, 2011). Collider.com. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- American Movie Classics (1998). Behind the Planet of the Apes. Planet of the Apes Blu-Ray: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment.
- Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward, Planet of the Apes Revisited. St. Martin's Griffin, 8/2001
- Tom Weaver (2010). Sci-Fi Swarm and Horror Horde: Interviews with 62 Filmmakers. McFarland. p. 314. ISBN 0786458313.
- Planet of the Apes Revisited, p. 61
- Planet of the Apes Revisited, p. 59
- Planet of the Apes Revisited, p. 68
- Planet of the Apes Revisited, P. 79
- Final shot location at Westward Beach, Malibu at movie-locations.com
- "Top 75 spaceships in movies and TV part 2". http://www.denofgeek.com. Retrieved 2011-05-31.
- Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry and Gross, Edward, Planet of the Apes Revisited, St. Martin's Griffin; 8/01
- "The Greatest Films of 1968". AMC Filmsite.org. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "The Best Movies of 1968 by Rank". Films101.com. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Most Popular Feature Films Released in 1968". IMDb.com. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Planet of the Apes Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 16, 2012.
- "Empire's The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire Magazine. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Planet of the Apes awards & nominations IMDb.com Retrieved 2011-05-31.
- Morton Haack at the Internet Movie Database
- Wiley, Mason; Bona, Damien (1986). MacColl, Gail, ed. Inside Oscar: The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 768.
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies Nominees
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains Nominees
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) Ballot
- AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot
- "Planet of the Apes (2001)". IMDb.com. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
- Planet of the Apes at the Grand Comics Database
- Adventures on the Planet of the Apes at the Grand Comics Database
- MAD Cover Site, MAD #157 March 1973.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Planet of the Apes (1968 film)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Planet of the Apes.|
- Planet of the Apes at the Internet Movie Database
- Planet of the Apes at allmovie
- Planet of the Apes at Rotten Tomatoes
- Planet of the Apes at Box Office Mojo
- Planet of the Apes Script
- Planet of the Apes Media Archive An interactive celebration of the Planet of the Apes franchise in sight, sound and motion
- Review and analysis of the Apes series
- Dale Winogura (Summer 1972). "Special Planet of the Apes Series Issue - Interviews & Set Visit". Cinefantastique.