Planet of the Apes

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Planet of the Apes
Planet of the Apes (logo).svg
Creator Pierre Boulle
Original work La Planète des Singes
Print publications
Novels La Planète des Singes
Comics List of comics
Films and television
Films Planet of the Apes (1968)
Beneath the Planet of the Apes
Escape from the Planet of the Apes
Conquest of the Planet of the Apes
Battle for the Planet of the Apes
Planet of the Apes (2001)
Rise of the Planet of the Apes
Dawn of the Planet of the Apes
Television series Planet of the Apes
Return to the Planet of the Apes
Games
Video games Planet of the Apes

Planet of the Apes is an American science fiction media franchise consisting of films, books, television series and other media about a world where humans and intelligent apes clash for control. The series began with French author Pierre Boulle's 1963 novel La Planète des Singes, translated into English as both Planet of the Apes and Monkey Planet. The 1968 film adaptation, Planet of the Apes, was a critical and commercial success, initiating a series of sequels, tie-ins, and derivative works. Originally owned by producer Arthur P. Jacobs' APJAC Productions, 20th Century Fox has owned the franchise's rights and privileges since 1973.[1]

The 1968 film was followed by four sequels between 1970 and 1973: Beneath the Planet of the Apes, Escape from the Planet of the Apes, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes, and Battle for the Planet of the Apes. It also spawned two television series in 1974 and 1975: the live-action Planet of the Apes and the animated Return to the Planet of the Apes. After over ten years in "development hell", Tim Burton directed a film remake, Planet of the Apes, in 2001. A new reboot series commenced in 2011 with Rise of the Planet of the Apes; this was followed in 2014 by Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, with another sequel planned. All of these versions have in turn led to other media and merchandising tie-ins, including books, comics, games, and toys.

La Planète des Singes[edit]

First American edition of Pierre Boulle's novel, titled Planet of the Apes

The series began with French author Pierre Boulle's 1963 novel La Planète des Singes. A social satire concerning an astronaut's voyage to a world where intelligent apes dominate primitive humans, Boulle wrote the novel in six months after the "humanlike expressions" of gorillas at the zoo inspired him to contemplate the relationship between man and ape.[2] La Planète des Singes was heavily influenced by 18th- and 19th-century fantastical travel narratives, especially Jonathan Swift's satirical Gulliver's Travels. It is one of several of Boulle's works to use science fiction tropes and plot devices to comment on the failings of human nature and mankind's overreliance on technology. However, Boulle rejected the science fiction label for his work, instead terming it "social fantasy".[2] Boulle considered the novel one of his minor works, though it proved to be a hit. Xan Fielding translated it into English as Monkey Planet for publication in the UK; the publishers changed the title to Planet of the Apes for the American release.[3]

La Planète des Singes begins with a frame story in which wealthy couple Jinn and Phyllis discover a message in a bottle while vacationing in space. Inside is the account of Ulysse Mérou, a French journalist who participated in a mission to the distant planet of Soror. In Mérou's story, the astronauts find Soror inhabited by speechless, animalistic humans who are hunted and enslaved by an advanced society of apes. Apes kill Mérou's companions and take him captive, mating him with a woman named Nova. However, two sympathetic chimpanzee scientists, Zira and Cornelius, help him demonstrate his intelligence. Mérou participates in an archaeological dig that reveals humans had once dominated Soror until their complacency allowed their more industrious ape slaves to overthrow them. After this revelation, Nova gives birth to a baby who displays Mérou's intelligence, further disquieting the apes. Fearing for their lives, Mérou and his family steal a spaceship and fly to Earth. However, upon arrival (hundreds of years later, due to time dilation), they find that apes have taken over just as they had on Soror. Mérou leaves his account as a warning before departing. In a final twist, Jinn and Phyllis are revealed to be chimpanzees who reject Mérou's story as impossible.[2][4]

Boulle's literary agent Allain Bernheim brought the novel to the attention of American film producer Arthur P. Jacobs, who had come to Paris looking for new properties to adapt with his new company, APJAC Productions. To explain his interests, Jacobs had told agents, "I wish King Kong hadn't been made so I could make it." Bernheim initially approached Jacobs about a Françoise Sagan novel, which Jacobs turned down. Remembering Jacobs' earlier comment about King Kong, Bernheim mentioned La Planète des Singes, not expecting Jacobs would be interested. However, the story intrigued Jacobs, who bought the film rights immediately.[5]

Original film series[edit]

Planet of the Apes[edit]

Charlton Heston, star of Planet of the Apes
Franklin J. Schaffner, director of Planet of the Apes

After optioning the film rights to Boulle's novel, Arthur P. Jacobs spent over three years trying to convince filmmakers to take on the project. Jacobs hired a succession of artists to create test sketches, and hired veteran television writer Rod Serling, creator of The Twilight Zone, to write the script. However, as production costs were estimated at over $10 million, no studio in either Hollywood or Europe would assume the risk. Jacobs and associate producer Mort Abrahams persevered, and eventually persuaded Charlton Heston to star; Heston in turn recommended director Franklin J. Schaffner. The team recorded a brief screen test featuring Heston, which ultimately convinced 20th Century Fox the film could succeed.[6][7]

However, Fox insisted on changes to reduce the budget to a more manageable $5.8 million. Rod Serling's script had already changed elements of Boulle's novel, introducing Cold War themes; notably Serling wrote a new twist ending that revealed humans had destroyed themselves through nuclear warfare.[8] The producers hired veteran writer Michael Wilson, who had previously written the adaptation of Boulle's novel The Bridge over the River Kwai, to rewrite Serling's script. To save on special effects costs, Wilson's script called for an ape society more primitive than appeared in the novel. The new script changed much of the plot and dialogue, but retained the Cold War themes and Serling's ending.[9][10][11] John Chambers created the innovative makeup effects.[12]

In the film, American astronaut George Taylor (Charlton Heston) and his crew crash on a strange planet after spending two thousand years in hibernation. They soon encounter mute, primitive humans who raid their clothing and supplies. A group of horseback riding gorillas attack, eliminating Taylor's comrades and shooting him in the throat before rounding him up with the other humans. Temporarily unable to speak due to his injury, Taylor is turned over to chimpanzee scientist Zira (Kim Hunter), who treats his wounds and pairs him with a human woman, Nova (Linda Harrison). Zira and her fiancee, chimpanzee archaeologist Cornelius (Roddy McDowall), become convinced of Taylor's intelligence, but are harshly rebuked by orangutan science minister Dr. Zaius (Maurice Evans). Taylor escapes and shocks the apes by demonstrating he can speak. He is then subjected to a tribunal and threatened privately by Dr. Zaius, who believes he is from the Forbidden Zone, a mysterious region proscribed in the apes' religion. Zira and Cornelius free Taylor and Nova and take them to the Forbidden Zone, and Zaius pursues them with the army. After a standoff, the group takes Zaius hostage and explores an archaeological site he had covered up: an ancient human ruin that proves men once had an advanced civilization. Zaius allows Taylor to depart with Nova further into the Forbidden Zone, warning him he may not like what he finds. In the iconic twist ending, they come upon a ruined Statue of Liberty, revealing the planet is Earth.

The film was released on February 8, 1968. It was a smash success with both critics and audiences, breaking contemporary box office records and earning rave reviews.[13] John Chambers received an honorary Oscar at the 41st Academy Awards for his make-up effects, the first ever given to a make-up artist.[12] Jerry Goldsmith's score and Morton Haack's costume design also earned Oscar nominations.[14] Fox approached Jacobs and Abrahams about filming a sequel. Though they had not made the film with sequels in mind, its success led them to consider the prospect.[13]

Beneath the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Planning for the Planet of the Apes sequel, eventually titled Beneath the Planet of the Apes, began two months after the original's release in February 1968. Jacobs and Abrahams initially considered several treatments by Rod Serling and Pierre Boulle, but ultimately turned them down.[15] In fall 1968 the producers hired Paul Dehn to write the script; he would become the primary writer for the franchise.[16][17] Charlton Heston was uninterested in a sequel, but agreed to shoot a few scenes if his character were killed off and his salary donated to charity.[18] In one of many major rewrites, Dehn altered the script to center on a new character, Brent, played by James Franciscus.[19] With director Franklin J. Shaffner unavailable due to his work on Patton, the producers hired television director Ted Post on January 8, 1969.[20] Post struggled with the material, especially after the studio cut the budget to $3.4 million.[21]

Picking up just after Planet of the Apes, Beneath opens with Taylor (Heston) and Nova (Linda Harrison) exploring the Forbidden Zone. They see strange fire and Taylor disappears into a vortex. Shortly after, a spaceship carrying 20th-century astronaut Brent (Franciscus), who had been sent to find Taylor's crew but inadvertently followed them into Earth's future, crashes into the Forbidden Zone. Brent finds Nova wearing Taylor's dog tag, and they travel to Ape City, where Brent learns of the simian civilization and meets Zira (Kim Hunter) and Cornelius (David Watson, replacing Roddy McDowall due to a scheduling conflict). Meanwhile, gorilla General Ursus (James Gregory) and a reluctant Dr. Zaius (Maurice Evans) announce a military expedition into the Forbidden Zone. Zira helps Brent and Nova escape Ape City and they head back to the Forbidden Zone. Entering the ruins of Queensboro Plaza, they discover a colony of telepathic mutant humans led by Méndez (Paul Richards) inhabiting the former New York City Subway. The mutants worship an ancient nuclear bomb they plan to unleash if the apes breach their sanctuary. Taken prisoner, Brent finds Taylor, who realizes the bomb will destroy the entire planet if detonated. The apes attack, and Méndez arms the bomb before Ursus kills him; the apes also kill Brent and Nova and mortally wound Taylor. Taylor begs Dr. Zaius to help him disarm the bomb, but Zaius refuses. In his final act, Taylor hits the activation switch, destroying the world.

Beneath the Planet of the Apes opened on May 26, 1970. Unlike the first film, it was poorly reviewed; critics typically regard it as the worst of the Apes sequels other than the fifth film, Battle for the Planet of the Apes.[22] However, it was a major box office hit, nearing the original's numbers. Despite its apocalyptic ending, Fox requested another sequel, turning the films into a series.[22][23][24]

Escape from the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Roddy McDowall returned as Cornelius in Escape from the Planet of the Apes. He would go on to star in two additional Apes films and the live-action television series

Following the financial success of Beneath the Planet of the Apes, Arthur P. Jacobs recruited writer Paul Dehn to write a new script with a brief telegram: "Apes exist, Sequel required." Dehn immediately started work on what became Escape from the Planet of the Apes. The producers hired a new director, Don Taylor.[24] Fox gave the production a greatly diminished budget ($2.5 million), which required a tight production schedule.[25] To work around the budget, as well as Beneath's seemingly definitive ending, the film took the series in a new direction by transporting Zira (Kim Hunter) and Cornelius (Roddy McDowall, returning to the role after being absent from Beneath) back in time to the contemporary United States, reducing the need for expensive sets and ape make-up effects.[26] Compared to its predecessors, the new film dwelt more heavily on themes of racial conflict, which became a primary focus through the rest of the series.[27]

Escape's opening establishes that Zira (Kim Hunter), Cornelius (Roddy McDowall) and their chimpanzee colleague Dr. Milo (Sal Mineo) escaped the destruction of Earth using Taylor's spaceship and traveled through a time warp back to 1973. They initially try to hide their ability to speak and their knowledge of the future from the humans, who put them in the care of scientists Stephanie Branton (Natalie Trundy) and Lewis Dixon (Bradford Dillman) at the Los Angeles Zoo. However, Zira frustratedly reveals she can speak, and shortly after Milo is killed by a zoo gorilla. A Presidential Commission investigates Zira and Cornelius, who reveal parts of their story and subsequently become celebrities. Branton and Dixon advise them to keep the details of humanity's fate secret for the time being, but the President's Science Advisor Otto Hasslein (Eric Braeden) discovers Zira is pregnant and fears the apes will bring about the destruction they predict. Through increasingly intense interrogation methods he learns of the future war in which apes will subjugate humanity, and of Zira's experiments on humans. After the final questioning, Cornelius accidentally kills an orderly for calling his child a "little monkey." Hasslein uses this as a pretext to order the apes killed; the President agrees to abort the pregnancy and sterilize Cornelius and Zira, but refuses to execute them. However, Branton and Dixon secretly shelter the family with sympathetic circus owner Armando (Ricardo Montalban); Zira gives birth to a baby they name Milo. Hasslein and the police pursue the apes, who flee to Los Angeles Harbor. Hasslein shoots Zira and the baby, and Cornelius shoots Hasslein before being killed by a sniper. Cornelius and Zira die in each others' arms, but the ending reveals that they had secretly switched Milo for one of Armando's circus apes.

Escape from the Planet of the Apes opened on May 21, 1971, less than a year after Beneath. It was well received by critics.[28] From this point critics began seeing the films less as independent units and more as installments in a greater work; Frederick S. Clarke noted the burgeoning series had "the promise of being the first epic of filmed science fiction."[29] It also performed well at the box office, though not as strongly as its predecessors. Fox ordered a third sequel.[30]

Conquest of the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Based on the strong positive response to Escape, Fox ordered Conquest of the Planet of the Apes, though it provided a comparatively low budget of $1.7 million.[30] Paul Dehn returned as the scriptwriter, and the producers hired J. Lee Thompson to direct. Thompson had worked with Jacobs during the planning stages of Planet, but scheduling conflicts had made him unavailable to participate in the series.[31] For Conquest, Thompson and Dehn focused heavily on the racial conflict theme, an ancillary concern in the early films that became a major theme in Escape.[32] In particular, Dehn associated the apes with African-Americans and modeled the plot after the 1966 Watts Riots and other episodes from the Civil Rights Movement.[31] Roddy McDowall signed on to play Caesar, or Milo, the son of his earlier character Cornelius.[33]

Set in the near future, the film follows Caesar (McDowall), son of Zira and Cornelius, who has been raised secretly by paternal circus owner Armando (Ricardo Montalban). As predicted in Escape, dogs and cats have gone extinct, leading humans to import apes, first as pets, but now as a source of slave labor. While advertising their circus in a large city, Caesar and Armando witness humans abusing ape slaves, and Caesar shouts in protest. The crowd grows agitated at the prospect of a talking ape, but Armando claims the words were his. Following the confusion, Armando plans to bluff their way out of trouble with the authorities, telling Caesar to hide among his kind and warning him not to expose his identity. An incognito Caesar is enslaved and sold to Governor Breck (Don Murray), to be supervised by the kindly MacDonald (Hari Rhodes). Meanwhile, Breck's subordinate Kolp (Severn Darden) interrogates Armando; threatened with a machine that will force him to tell the truth, Armando leaps out the window to preserve Caesar's secret. Hearing the news, Caesar plots an ape rebellion. However, Kolp and Breck grow suspicious about Caesar's identity and torture him into speaking. MacDonald saves Caesar from execution, and Caesar escapes to launch the rebellion. After a climactic battle with the riot police, the apes seize control.

Conquest opened June 30, 1972. Reviews were mixed. However, the ending left the series open to another sequel, and the film was successful enough that Fox greenlit another film.[34]

Battle for the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Fox approved Battle for the Planet of the Apes with a budget of $1.7 million. The filmmakers went into Battle knowing it would be the last of the original series.[35] J. Lee Thompson returned as director. Series writer Paul Dehn submitted a treatment, but illness forced him to leave the film before completing the script. The producers subsequently hired John William Corrington and Joyce Hooper Corrington to write the screenplay.[36][37] Battle continued Conquest's focus on racial conflict and domination. However, likely based in part on the studio's wishes, the Corringtons discarded Dehn's more pessimistic treatment in favor of a story with a more hopeful, though ambiguous, resolution.[38]

The film begins with a frame narrative in which the orangutan Lawgiver (John Huston) recounts the story of Caesar, 700 years later. In the main storyline, Caesar (Roddy McDowall) leads the apes following a devastating war that destroyed much of the world. He allows surviving humans to live as subjects, angering the gorilla general Aldo (Claude Akins). Hoping to learn of his parents and the future, Caesar, his human assistant MacDonald (Austin Stoker, playing the brother of Hari Rhodes' character), and his orangutan adviser Virgil (Paul Williams) journey to the Forbidden City, a radioactive ruin. They find the film archives they seek, but soon radiation-scarred humans led by Governor Kolp (Severn Darden) and Méndez (Paul Stevens) chase them out. Back in Ape City, Caesar reports his discoveries. Aldo plots a coup, and mortally wounds Caesar's son Cornelius (Bobby Porter) when he overhears. Meanwhile, Kolp interprets Caesar's expedition as an attack and declares war; Aldo uses this as a pretext to imprison the Ape City humans. After a long battle, the apes defeat the mutants. In the aftermath, Aldo challenges Caesar, but Virgil reveals he murdered Cornelius, violating sacred law: "ape shall never kill ape". Caesar chases Aldo to his death. He releases the humans, and both groups commit to building a new equal society. The ending reveals the Lawgiver has told this story to an integrated audience of ape and human children; the final shot depicts a statue of Caesar shedding a tear.

The film opened June 15, 1973. It was the lowest grossing film of the franchise, with a domestic total of $8.8 million.[39] The film received poor reviews from critics, who regard it as the weakest of the five films.[22] It holds a 38% rating on the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 24 critical reviews.[40] Critics have offered various interpretations of the film's message, particularly the intentionally ambiguous imagery in the ending. By one interpretation, the statue cries tears of joy because the species have broken the cycle of oppression, giving the series an optimistic finale. By another, the statue weeps because racial strife still exists, implying the dystopian future of Planet and Beneath is unavoidable.[41]

Television series[edit]

Planet of the Apes[edit]

The cast of the Planet of the Apes TV series: James Naughton as Burke, Ron Harper as Virdon, and Roddy McDowall as Galen

In addition to their box office grosses, the films earned very high ratings when broadcast on television after their theatrical run. To capitalize on this success, Arthur P. Jacobs conceived of an hour-long live action television series to follow the films. He originally thought of the idea in 1971 during the production of Conquest, which he then anticipated would be the final film. However, he shelved the project once Conquest proved to be a hit and Fox ordered a fifth film. Jacobs died on June 27, 1973, bringing an end to the APJAC era of the Planet of the Apes franchise. Former Fox executive Stan Hough took over as producer for the television project, titled Planet of the Apes. CBS picked up the series for its fall lineup.[42]

The show follows two 20th-century American astronauts, Alan Virdon (Ron Harper) and Peter Burke (James Naughton), who pass through a time warp to the year 3085. They find Earth ruled by intelligent apes who subjugate humans (unlike the original film, the humans are able to speak). The astronauts soon run afoul of orangutan Councillor Zaius (Booth Coleman) and the ape elite, who fear their ideas of equality and accounts of a past advanced human civilization will lead to a human revolt. Zaius' young chimpanzee assistant Galen (Roddy McDowall) becomes convinced of their story and helps them escape, and subsequently joins them. The episodes portray Virdon, Burke, and Galen as they travel through future California, looking for answers and aiding downtrodden humans and apes while dodging the relentless pursuit of gorilla general General Urko (Mark Lenard).

Planet of the Apes premiered on CBS on September 13, 1974, filling the 8–9 p.m. time slot on Fridays. It earned low ratings during its run. According to writers Joe Russo, Larry Landsman, and Edward Gross, it suffered from repetitive storytelling and CBS' decision to gear the show toward children, thus losing interest among the films' adult fans. It was cancelled after 14 episodes, the last airing on December 20, 1974.[36][43] In 1981, Fox reedited ten of the episodes into five TV movies. Each of the films combined two episodes and (in some markets) added new introductory and concluding segments starring Roddy McDowall as an aged Galen. The films were given what scholar Eric Greene called "the most outlandish titles of the Apes corpus": Back to the Planet of the Apes; Forgotten City of the Planet of the Apes; Treachery and Greed on the Planet of the Apes; Life, Liberty and Pursuit on the Planet of the Apes and Farewell to the Planet of the Apes.[44]

Scholar Eric Greene finds the show's timeline significant: set in 3085, it occurs about 900 years before Taylor's crash in the original film, and 400 years after the Lawgiver's sermon in Battle. By depicting a future where apes dominate humans, it implies the Lawgiver's message of equality between man and ape has failed, giving weight to the more pessimistic interpretation of Battle's ending.[45] Greene writes that the show emphasized the theme of racial conflict less than the films had, though two episodes made it the central focus: "The Trap" and "The Liberator".[46]

Return to the Planet of the Apes[edit]

In 1975, after the failure of the live action show, NBC decided to adapt Planet of the Apes for an animated series. The network contracted David H. DePatie and Friz Freleng of DePatie-Freleng Enterprises to produce the show as a half-hour Saturday morning cartoon, titled Return to the Planet of the Apes. Doug Wildey, co-creator of Jonny Quest, took on most creative control as associate producer, storyboard director, and supervising director.[47] Wildey had only watched Planet and Beneath, and thus relied on them for his interpretation. As such, the show relied less on the themes and plot developments from Escape, Conquest, and Battle and instead returned to the Vietnam War and Cold War themes prominent in the first two films.[48]

The plot concerns three American astronauts, Bill Hudson (Tom Williams), Jeff Allen (Austin Stoker, who played MacDonald in Battle), and Judy Franklin (Claudette Nevins), who inadvertently journey to Earth's far future. They find the word populated by three groups: mute humans who inhabit desert caves, including Nova (Nevins); subterranean human "Underdwellers" fashioned after the mutants of Beneath; and civilized apes who subjugate the humans. Gorilla General Urko (Henry Cordin) controls the ape army and wants to exterminate all humans, while chimpanzee scientists Zira (Philippa Harris) and Cornelius (Edwin Mills) defend their right to live. Dr. Zaius (Richard Blackburn) and the orangutans lead the ape high council; fearing both a military takeover by Urko and the prospect of human reascendance, they play the gorillas and chimps against each other. Through the show, the astronauts become increasingly involved in the planet's affairs and in defending the humans against Urko's invasion.[49]

The animated series premiered September 6, 1975. NBC broadcast thirteen episodes between September 6 and November 21, 1975.[50] The show did not earn particularly strong ratings. The network considered producing a second three-episode season to complete the story, but this never materialized.[51]

21st century films[edit]

Planned relaunch and development hell[edit]

Fox initiated plans to relaunch the Planet of the Apes series in the 1980s, but the project fell into "development hell" for over ten years, experiencing one of the most protracted development periods in film history. It began in 1988, when Fox announced Adam Rifkin, then a 21-year-old independent film director, would develop a new Apes film. Invited by Fox executives, Rifkin pitched a concept for Return to the Planet of the Apes, an alternative sequel to Planet that ignored the other four films. In Rifkin's initial concept, Taylor's descendant Duke launches a Spartacus-like uprising against Roman-inspired ape oppressors led by General Izan. The project nearly entered pre-production, but days before, Fox brought in new studio executives who sent the project back to development.[52] They commissioned Rifkin to rewrite the script through several drafts, but these failed to impress the studio, who ultimately scrapped the project.[53]

After several years in limbo, Fox returned to the Apes concept, this time with Oliver Stone as executive producer. Stone brought in Terry Hayes as screenwriter, and they developed a script titled Return of the Apes.[54] In their script, humanity is threatened by an ailment that seems to be encoded in their DNA, so two scientists go back in time thousands of years to stop it at its origins. They discover the disease was engineered by advanced apes to ensure humanity's eventual destruction.[55] Arnold Schwarzenegger committed to star as scientist Will Robinson, while Philip Noyce agreed to direct. The draft impressed Fox president Peter Chernin, but other executives were ambivalent about the action script, believing it should be lighter. Notably, executive Dylan Sellers insisted the script include a comic scene involving apes playing baseball as his "stamp" on the film, and fired Hayes when he left it out. This move caused Noyce to quit as well, and subsequently almost everyone involved in the project left for one reason or another.[54]

After the collapse of the Stone-Hayes project, Fox brought on Chris Columbus to develop a new Apes concept. Columbus hired writer Sam Hamm to write a new draft taking elements from Boulle's novel and various unused scripts. In Hamm's script, an ape astronaut from a distant planet lands on earth, unleashing a virus that threatens humanity. Scientists take the ship back to the ape's planet to find a cure, discovering a world where sophisticated apes hunt humans. They locate a cure, but upon their return they see that apes have taken over Earth as well. Schwarzenegger remained attached, but Fox found the script underwhelming. Columbus left the project in 1995 after his mother's death, and James Cameron stepped in to produce. Cameron intended to go in a "very different direction" with the script, but following the critical and financial success of his film Titanic, he dropped out of the project. Fox approached a series of directors to take over, without success. By 1999 the studio decided once again to go in a new direction.[56]

Planet of the Apes[edit]

Tim Burton, director of the 2001 Planet of the Apes

In 1999, Fox hired William Broyles, Jr. to write a new script. Fox insisted on a firm July 2001 release date, but otherwise offered considerable creative control.[56] This prospect attracted director Tim Burton, who hoped to do a "re-imagining" of Planet of the Apes. However, Burton found the production arduous, largely due to Fox's strict release schedule. The studio budgeted the film at $100 million, meaning Broyles' ambitious script had to be rewritten to reduce costs; Lawrence Konner and Mark Rosenthal worked on rewrites even as the film entered production. The tight schedule meant all stages of production were rushed.[57]

Mark Wahlberg stars as Leo Davidson, an astronaut aboard the Oberon, a space station crewed by both humans and trained apes. While attempting to rescue stranded chimpanzee Pericles during a storm, Leo passes through a time warp and crashes on the planet Ashlar in the year 5021. He encounters primitive humans but is soon captured and enslaved by talking apes. Recognizing Leo's intelligence, Ari (Helena Bonham Carter), a chimpanzee who advocates for humans, purchases him to serve her sympathetic father. Following a dinner for the human-hating chimpanzee General Thade (Tim Roth), Leo launches a human escape, convincing Ari to join them. The group journeys to the forbidden temple of "Calima", which Leo recognizes as the Oberon; inside he discovers the station had crashed in the storm millennia ago, and the apes subsequently overthrew the humans, leading to the present society. Meanwhile, Thade learns of the society's true origins from his dying father Zaius (Charlton Heston) and leads gorilla Colonel Attar (Michael Clarke Duncan) and the ape army after the humans. The two sides battle until Pericles' space pod descends and interrupts the fray; the apes interpret this as the return of their god Selos and cease hostilities. However, Thade chases Pericles into the Oberon; Leo follows and traps Thade behind a door. With peace achieved, Leo takes Pericles' pod back through the time warp to Earth, crashing in Washington, D.C.; in a twist ending, he finds the planet populated by apes, with a statue of Thade in the Lincoln Memorial.

The film received mixed reviews, with critics generally believing it failed to compare to the original. Much criticism focused on the confusing plot and twist ending, though many reviewers praised the special effects.[58][59] The film succeeded in the box office, taking in a total of $362,211,740.[60] Fox had initially hoped for a second film, but the difficult production made Burton disinclined to participate, and the film failed to generate enough interest for Fox to pursue a sequel.[57]

Rise of the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Andy Serkis portrayed chimpanzee Caesar through performance capture acting

In 2006, screenwriters Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver developed a concept for a new Planet of the Apes film inspired by news articles on apes raised as humans, which they successfully pitched to 20th Century Fox. Jaffa and Silver conceived the film as a way to reboot the franchise by reinventing the story of the chimpanzee Caesar, the lead character of Conquest, and hoped it would launch a new series of sequels.[61] However, development was slow for several years as the production cycled through writers, directors, and producers, but in January 2010 Peter Chernin of Chernin Entertainment signed on as producer, and brought Jaffa and Silver back on to complete the script.[62] The producers hired Rupert Wyatt to direct.[63] Fox partnered with New Zealand visual effects company Weta Digital to create realistic ape effects, and performance capture actor Andy Serkis signed on to star as Caesar.[64] James Franco signed on as the human lead, Will Rodman.[65]

In the film, Gen-Sys scientist Will Rodman (James Franco) has developed a viral Alzheimer's treatment that has successfully increased cognition in chimpanzee Bright Eyes. However, at a board meeting to reveal the drug, Bright Eyes goes berserk and is shot by security, and Will's boss Stephen Jacobs (David Oyelowo) terminates the project. Chimp handler Franklin (Tyler Labine) discovers the true reason for Bright Eyes' rampage: she had secretly given birth to a baby, Caesar (Andy Serkis). Franklin convinces Will to take the baby home. Will soon discovers that Caesar has inherited his mother's intelligence, and decides to continue his research privately, raising Caesar as his own. Will uses the drug on his Alzheimer's-suffering father Charles (John Lithgow), restoring his cognitive ability. Several years later, however, Caesar begins to question his identity, and Charles' disease returns. A disoriented Charles gets into an altercation with a neighbor, and Caesar rushes in to protect him, injuring the neighbor. The court orders Caesar sent to a primate shelter run by Landon (Brian Cox) and his cruel son Dodge (Tom Felton). Mistreated by Dodge and the resident alpha chimp, Caesar uses his ingenuity to unlock his cage and befriend the other apes, ultimately becoming alpha himself. Meanwhile, desperate to save his father and Caesar, Will reveals his research to Jacobs, who clears development of a more powerful, gaseous form of the drug. Charles refuses the treatment and dies overnight. Will bribes Landon into releasing Caesar, but Caesar refuses to leave the other apes. Instead, he breaks out at night and takes Will's drug canisters, which he releases on the apes. The now intelligent apes launch an escape, subsequently freeing others at Gen-Sys and the San Francisco Zoo and heading for the Golden Gate Bridge. After overcoming the police, the apes flee to the Muir Woods. Will makes a final attempt to convince Caesar to come home, but Caesar speaks: "Caesar is home", and the two part. The credits reveal the drug's virus is fatal to humans and tracks its spread around the world.

The film debuted on August 5, 2011. Critics reviewed it positively, praising the visual effects, Wyatt's direction, and Serkis' performance as Caesar.[66][67] Rise was a major box office hit, taking in a total of $481,801,049 over its $93 million budget.[68] Fox immediately planned for a sequel.[69]

Dawn of the Planet of the Apes[edit]

Cast and crew of Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (from left): director Matt Reeves and stars Jason Clarke, Keri Russell, and Andy Serkis

Plans for the film eventually titled Dawn of the Planet of the Apes began just after Rise's release in 2011. Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver returned to pen the script and produce; producers Peter Chernin and his partner Dylan Clark also returned. The studio quickly signed Andy Serkis to reprise his role as Caesar.[69] Director Rupert Wyatt was initially slated to return, but he left the project and was replaced by Matt Reeves on October 1, 2012. The film was given a release date of July 11, 2014.[70]

Set ten years after Rise, the film establishes that the "Simian Flu" has killed most humans, while Caesar leads a peaceful ape community in the Muir Woods. One day, human survivors from San Francisco led by Malcolm (Jason Clarke) arrive; Caesar orders them out and marches the apes to the city as a warning not to return. However, the humans need a hydroelectric dam in ape territory for power, and their leader Dreyfus (Gary Oldman) believes they must fight if necessary. Malcolm returns to the apes to seek a peaceful resolution, and Caesar cautiously allows his team in, even assisting their work after human doctor Ellie (Keri Russell) heals Caesar's wife Cornelia (Judy Greer). Meanwhile, Caesar's human-hating bonobo lieutenant Koba (Toby Kebbell) discovers the humans' armory, but is too disgusted at seeing apes assisting humans to warn Caesar. Instead, he steals a rifle and secretly shoots Caesar at a celebration, pinning the murder on Malcolm's hot-headed assistant Carver (Kirk Acevedo). Koba and the apes raid the armory and sack the city, imprisoning humans. After hiding, Malcolm and his family find Caesar still alive and take him to his former house to heal. Malcolm encounters Caesar's son Blue Eyes (Nick Thurston), who recruits loyal apes to oust the increasingly oppressive Koba. Caesar and company attack Koba atop a tower, and Caesar prevails in one-on-one combat. Caesar realizes man will never forgive ape for this war, and he and Malcolm part in regret.

The film debuted on July 11, 2014. It was met with critical acclaim, with reviewers finding it a strong followup to Rise. Critics lauded the combination of an intelligent, emotional script with impressive special effects.[71][72] It also performed very strongly at the box office.[73] Fox moved directly into developing another film.[74]

Third reboot series film[edit]

The producers were confident enough in Dawn of the Planet of the Apes that they started planning for the next installment before production had completed. They contracted Matt Reeves to return as director after seeing his cut of Dawn; he will also write the script with Mark Bomback. Peter Chernin, Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver will produce.[75] The film is currently untitled and is scheduled for release on July 29, 2016.[74][76]

Other media and merchandise[edit]

Books[edit]

Pierre Boulle's novel La Planète des Singes was translated and reprinted several times after its original publication in 1963.[77] In addition, each of the other films spawned novelizations by established science fiction writers of the day, each of which went through multiple reprintings of their own. Michael Avallone wrote the novelization for Beneath the Planet of the Apes in 1970. Jerry Pournelle, who later co-authored Lucifer's Hammer and The Mote in God's Eye, wrote the Escape from the Planet of the Apes novelization. John Jakes, former Science Fiction Writers of America president, wrote Conquest of the Planet of the Apes. David Gerrold, scriptwriter for the Star Trek episode "The Trouble with Tribbles", novelized Battle for the Planet of the Apes. Novelizations of the live action and animated television series were also produced.[78]

William T. Quick novelized the 2001 Planet of the Apes. He subsequently wrote two prequel novels, Planet of the Apes: The Fall in 2002 and Planet of the Apes: Colony in 2003.[79] In 2011, Andrew E. C. Gaska wrote Conspiracy of the Planet of the Apes, an illustrated novel that follows Landon during the events of the 1968 film. The book features illustrations by several different artists, including Jim Steranko, Matt Busch, Dave Dorman, Scott Hampton, Joe Jusko, Ken Kelly, Christopher Moeller, Tom Scioli and Mark Texeira.

Comics[edit]

Planet of the Apes-based comics have been published regularly since 1968. Among the most notable is Marvel Comics' Planet of the Apes magazine, published from 1974 to 1977. The black-and-white series featured comics adaptations of each of the films, new Apes stories by Doug Moench, series news, essays, interviews and other material. It became one of Marvel's most successful titles, attracting 300 to 400 fan letters with every issue, so many that the studio had to suspend its practice of writing personal responses. Marvel also published the monthly title Adventures on the Planet of the Apes from 1975 to 1976, comprising color reprints of the Planet and Beneath adaptations.[80]

In 1990, during a resurgence of interest in the series, Malibu Comics launched a new monthly black-and-white Planet of the Apes comic through its Adventure Comics studio. The debut issue sold 40,000, a record for black-and-white comics, leading to a successful run of 24 issues over two years. The series follows Caesar's grandson and heir Alexander as he struggles to govern ape civilization. The comic's success led Malibu to publish five four-issue spin-off miniseries: Ape City, Planet of the Apes: Urchak's Folly, Alien Nation crossover Ape Nation, Planet of the Apes: Blood of the Apes, and Planet of the Apes: The Forbidden Zone. Malibu also published two one-shots: A Day on the Planet of the Apes and Planet prequel Planet of the Apes: Sins of the Fathers; a trade paperback collecting the first four issues of the main series, titled Monkey Planet; and reissues of stories from Marvel's earlier Apes series.[81]

Other companies producing Planet of the Apes comics include Gold Key Comics, Dark Horse Comics, and Boom! Studios.

Toys and merchandise[edit]

The series, and particularly the live-action Apes television show and the Return to the Planet of the Apes cartoon, generated numerous toy and merchandising tie-ins. During the 1970s, Fox licensed around 60 companies to produce about 300 different Apes products; licensed products include action figures and playsets, model building kits, coloring books, book-and-record sets, trading cards, toy weapons, costumes, apparel, branded tableware, and lunch boxes. This level of merchandising was unusual for the time, and the success of Apes merchandise may have inspired the campaigns that later became commonplace for media ventures. Eric Greene writes that some Apes toys were popular enough to lead some contemporary children to engage in role-playing make believe games that simulated the series' conflicts in a manner similar to "Cowboys and Indians".[82]

Video games[edit]

In 1983, 20th Century Fox Videogames developed a Planet of the Apes game for the Atari 2600, which was to be the first computer game based on the series. However, the game was still in the prototype phase when Fox shuttered its game division during the video game crash of 1983, and never saw release. It was assumed lost until 2002, when Atari collector Matt Reichert identified a prototype, found in 1999 in a case labeled Alligator People, as the missing Apes game.[83][84] Independent designers Retrodesign completed and released the game as Revenge of the Apes in 2003.[84] In the game, the player controls Taylor as he fights different ape species across several levels inspired by the film, with the final board being the Statue of Liberty.[83]

A video game based on the series did not appear until 2001. Fox Interactive began developing the Planet of the Apes game in 1998 for PC and PlayStation as a tie-in to the long-gestating remake film, which was then being headed by James Cameron. Though that incarnation of the film subsequently went on hold, Fox Interactive remained confident a remake would eventually appear, and proceeded with the video game.[85] Visiware served as developer. With the film remake in limbo, the creators developed their own story based on Boulle's novel and the original films.[86] The game is an action-adventure in which players control astronaut Ulysses as he explores the future Earth, becoming a Messiah figure to oppressed humans and uncovering the truth behind ape society. The game was delayed for three years due to setbacks with the film project and Fox Interactive's decision to co-publish with another company. Despite its long development, the game missed the July 27, 2001 debut of Tim Burton's Planet of the Apes film.[87] Fox Interactive and co-publisher Ubisoft finally released the PC version on September 20, 2001;[88] the PlayStation version followed on August 22, 2002.[89] The game received mostly negative reviews.[90][91] Additionally, Ubisoft produced a substantially different Planet of the Apes game for Game Boy Advance and Game Boy Color, a side-scroller following the first two films.[86][92]

In 2014, Fox partnered with Ndemic Creations on a substantial Dawn of the Planet of the Apes-themed update to the mobile game Plague Inc. Players create and spread a "Simian Flu" virus to eradicate humans while helping apes survive.[93]

Cultural impact and legacy[edit]

Fans in costume as Dr. Zaius and Dr. Zira at a science fiction convention

Planet of the Apes received popular and critical attention well after production ended on the original films and television series.[94] Fans continued their interest in the franchise through publications like Marvel Comics' Planet of the Apes magazine[80] and science fiction conventions, including "apecons" devoted entirely to films involving apes.[95] The series' distinctive ape costumes were employed in live appearances, including by musician Paul Williams (Virgil from Battle) on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and Mike Douglas on The Mike Douglas Show.[94] In the 1970s fans Bill Blake and Paula Crist created Cornelius and Zira costumes; their routine was convincing enough that Fox licensed them to portray the characters at events.[96] The films earned strong ratings when they aired on television after their releases, and various stations rebroadcast them together in marathons in later years.[97] The live-action television series was re-formatted into five TV movies for further broadcast in 1981,[44] and the Sci-Fi Channel ran both it and the cartoon in the 1990s.[98]

Planet of the Apes had a wide impact on subsequent popular media. Eric Greene writes that the series influenced various films and television productions during the 1970s and '80s that used science fiction settings and characters to explore race relations, including Alien Nation, Enemy Mine, and V. More direct influence can be seen in DC Comics' 1972–1978 series Kamandi: The Last Boy on Earth, which concerns the titular survivor in a future where talking apes and other animals have displaced humans. Outside the United States, the film inspired the Japanese series and film Time of the Apes, about three characters who travel to a future ruled by apes.[44] Mel Brooks' 1987 science fiction spoof Spaceballs lampooned the Statue of Liberty ending from the original Planet.[99]

Interest in the series resurged again in the 1990s, as plans for a new film and other media circulated. Greene attributes this renewed interest to a combination of "pop culture nostalgia and baby boomer economics", as well as a "political ferment" rising at the time that hearkened back to the period when the films were first released.[100] Inspired particularly by the publication of the Malibu Comics series, during this period fans founded new clubs and fanzines active in the U.S., Canada, Brazil, and other countries.[101] Companies began producing new branded merchandise, including clothing, toys, and costumes.[98]

Especially after the 1990s, artists in diverse media referenced, incorporated, or were otherwise influenced by the series. Planet of the Apes turned up in songs by various musicians, references in films, comedy bits by Dennis Miller and Paul Mooney, and an episode of Saturday Night Live hosted by Charlton Heston. The Simpsons parodied the series several times.[99] Notably, the episode "A Fish Called Selma" features the washed-up actor Troy McClure starring in a Broadway musical adaptation called Stop the Planet of the Apes, I Wanna Get Off![102] Artist Martha Rosler incorporated footage of Cornelius and Zira's interrogation from Escape from the Planet of the Apes in her installation "Global Taste: A Meal in Three Courses", while Guillermo Gómez-Peña and Coco Fusco employed video from Planet in a 1993 performance art piece at the Whitney Museum of American Art.[103]

The series' impact has also extended to the political sphere, and groups of various leanings have employed its themes and imagery in their discourse.[104] The phrase "planet of the apes" itself has been used for an overturning of the political or racial status quo.[105] Eric Greene writes that it is especially popular among racial nationalists and reactionaries of different stripes, who use it in reference to race conflict.[106] It is a favorite reference among white supremacists, who liken minority advancement to the films' world in which supposed "inferiors" seize control. On the other hand, black nationalists have subverted this reference to celebrate the feared "racial apocalypse"; in this spirit, gangsta rap group Da Lench Mob titled their 1994 album Planet of da Apes. According to Greene, these uses invert the anti-racist message of the films.[107] Planet's final image of the ruined Statue of Liberty has become a common reference of warning; for example, Greenpeace used it in an advertising campaign against nuclear testing. The series' themes and imagery have been invoked in political discourse in a wide variety of contexts, including Sixties culture, nuclear weaponry, urban decay, contemporary wars, and gun violence.[108]

List of media[edit]

Feature films[edit]

Number Title Release date Director Timeline
1 Planet of the Apes February 8, 1968 Franklin J. Schaffner Original series
2 Beneath the Planet of the Apes May 27, 1970 Ted Post
3 Escape from the Planet of the Apes May 21, 1971 Don Taylor
4 Conquest of the Planet of the Apes June 29, 1972 J. Lee Thompson
5 Battle for the Planet of the Apes June 15, 1973
6 Planet of the Apes July 27, 2001 Tim Burton Remake
7 Rise of the Planet of the Apes August 5, 2011 Rupert Wyatt Reboot series
8 Dawn of the Planet of the Apes July 11, 2014 Matt Reeves
9 Untitled Third Reboot Series Film July 29, 2016

Reception[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic Worldwide gross Budget
Planet of the Apes (1968) 89% (47 reviews)[109] $32,589,624[110] $5.4 million
Beneath the Planet of the Apes 41% (22 reviews)[111] $18,999,718[112] $3 million
Escape from the Planet of the Apes 78% (23 reviews)[113] $12,348,905[114] $2.5 million
Conquest of the Planet of the Apes 44% (18 reviews)[115] $9,700,000[116] $1.8 million
Battle for the Planet of the Apes 38% (24 reviews)[117] $8,844,595[118] $1.7 million
Planet of the Apes (2001) 45% (156 reviews)[119] 50 (34 reviews)[120] $362,211,740[121] $100 million
Rise of the Planet of the Apes 82% (248 reviews)[122] 68 (39 reviews)[123] $481,801,049[124] $93 million[124]
Dawn of the Planet of the Apes 91% (182 reviews)[125] 79 (48 reviews)[126] $673,360,323[127] $170 million[127]
Total $1,599,855,954 $377.4 million

Characters[edit]

The following table shows the cast members who played the primary characters in the film series.

Character Film
Planet of the Apes (1968) Beneath the Planet of the Apes Escape from the Planet of the Apes Conquest of the Planet of the Apes Battle for the Planet of the Apes Planet of the Apes (2001) Rise of the Planet of the Apes Dawn of the Planet of the Apes

Humans[edit]

George Taylor Charlton Heston Charlton Heston (archival footage)
Nova Linda Harrison
Brent James Franciscus
Mendez Paul Richards
Albina Natalie Trundy
Skipper Tod Andrews
Dr. Lewis Dixon Bradford Dillman
Dr. Stephanie ("Stevie") Branton Natalie Trundy
Dr. Otto Hasslein Eric Braeden
Armando Ricardo Montalbán
Governor Breck Don Murray
MacDonald Hari Rhodes
Kolp Severn Darden
MacDonald Austin Stoker
Mendez Paul Stevens
Jake Michael Stearns
Leo Davidson Mark Wahlberg
Daena Estella Warren
Birn Luke Eberl
Will Rodman James Franco James Franco (archival footage)
Caroline Aranha Freida Pinto
John Landon Brian Cox
Steven Jacobs David Oyelowo
Charles Rodman John Lithgow
Dodge Landon Tom Felton
Dreyfus Gary Oldman
Malcolm Jason Clarke
Ellie Keri Russell
Alexander Kodi Smit-McPhee
Carver Kirk Acevedo
Werner Jocko Sims
McVeigh Kevin Rankin
Finney Keir O'Donnell

Apes[edit]

Cornelius Roddy McDowall David Watson Roddy McDowall
Dr. Zira Kim Hunter
Dr. Zaius Maurice Evans Charlton Heston
Ursus James Gregory
Caesar Walker Edmiston (voice) Roddy McDowall Andy Serkis
Lisa Natalie Trundy
Aldo David Chow Claude Akins
Virgil Paul Williams
Nova Lisa Marie
Ari Helena Bonham Carter
Thade Tim Roth
Rocket Terry Notary
Maurice Karin Konoval
Cornelia Devyn Dalton Judy Greer
Koba Christopher Gordon Toby Kebbell
Blue Eyes Nick Thurston
Ash Larramie "Doc" Shaw
Grey Lee Ross

Crew[edit]

Job Film
Planet of the Apes
(1968)
Beneath the Planet of the Apes Escape from the Planet of the Apes Conquest of the Planet of the Apes Battle for the Planet of the Apes Planet of the Apes
(2001)
Rise of the Planet of the Apes Dawn of the Planet of the Apes Untitled third film of the reboot series
Director Franklin J. Schaffner Ted Post Don Taylor J. Lee Thompson Tim Burton Rupert Wyatt Matt Reeves
Producer(s) Arthur P. Jacobs Richard D. Zanuck Peter Chernin,
Dylan Clark,
Rick Jaffa,
Amanda Silver
Music Jerry Goldsmith Leonard Rosenman Jerry Goldsmith Tom Scott Leonard Rosenman Danny Elfman Patrick Doyle Michael Giacchino
Writer(s) Michael Wilson,
Rod Serling
Paul Dehn John William Corrington,
Joyce Hooper Corrington
William Broyles, Jr.,
Lawrence Konner,
Mark Rosenthal
Rick Jaffa,
Amanda Silver
Mark Bomback,
Rick Jaffa,
Amanda Silver
Matt Reeves,
Mark Bomback

Notes and references[edit]

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  3. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 4. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  4. ^ Becker, Lucille Frackman (1993). "Science and Detective Fiction: Complementary Genres on the Margins of French Literature". In Henry, Freeman G. French Literature Series: One The Margins of French Literature XX. Ropodi. pp. 122–124. ISBN 9051834268. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  5. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 2, 9–10. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  6. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  7. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  8. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 25–28. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  9. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  10. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 33. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  11. ^ Webb, Gordon C. (July–August 1998). "30 Years Later: Rod Serling's Planet of the Apes". Creative Screenwriting. Retrieved July 18, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 29, 42–44. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 2–3, 57. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  14. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  15. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 57–59. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  16. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9780819563293. 
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  23. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 143. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 21, 2014. 
  24. ^ a b Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  25. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 145–147. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 22, 2014. 
  26. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 109–110. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 22, 2014. 
  27. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 71–73. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  28. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 170, 178. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 22, 2014. 
  29. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  30. ^ a b Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 170, 178–179. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 22, 2014. 
  31. ^ a b Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  32. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 81–83. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  33. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 186. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  34. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 200. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
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  36. ^ a b Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited. Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0312252390. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  37. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 9780819563293. 
  38. ^ Greene, Eric (1998). Planet of the Apes as American Myth: Race and Politics in the Films and Television Series. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 115–116. ISBN 9780819563293. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Handley, Rich (2009). Timeline of the Planet of the Apes. Hasslein Books. ISBN 978-0615253923.  Includes cover gallery.

External links[edit]