Planulozoa

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Planulozoa is a proposed clade including the Cnidaria (sea anemones and jellyfish) and the Bilateria (all the more complex animals including flatworms, insects and vertebrates). The clade excludes the Ctenophora (comb jellies).[1][2][3]

Metazoa

Glass sponges




Demosponges




Calcareous sponges


Eumetazoa

Ctenophora (comb jellies)


Planulozoa
Cnidaria

Anthozoa
(sea anemones and corals)


Medusozoa

Hydrozoa
(Hydra, siphonophores, etc.)





Cubozoa
(box jellies)



Staurozoa




"Scyphozoa"
(jellyfish, excluding
Staurozoa)







Placozoa


Bilateria

Myxozoa



Other Bilateria
(more complex)









Family tree of Cnidaria and the origins of animals[4][3][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andreas Hejnol & Mark Q. Martindale (2008). "Acoel development supports a simple planula-like urbilaterian". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363 (1496): 1493–1501. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2239. PMC 2614228. PMID 18192185. 
  2. ^ Jaume Baguñà, Pere Martinez, Jordi Paps & Marta Riutort (2008). "Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363 (1496): 1481–1491. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2238. PMC 2615819. PMID 18192186. 
  3. ^ a b Andreas Wallberg, Mikael Thollesson, James S. Farris & Ulf Jondelius (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the comb jellies (Ctenophora) and the importance of taxonomic sampling". Cladistics 20 (6): 558–578. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00041.x. 
  4. ^ A. G. Collins (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of Cnidarian life cycles" (PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15 (3): 418–432. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. 
  5. ^ C. Borchiellini, M. Manuel, E. Alivon, N. Boury-Esnault, J. Vacelet & Y. Le Parco (2001). "Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa". Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14 (1): 171–179. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00244.x.