Plasma oscillations, also known as "Langmuir waves" (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals. The oscillations can be described as an instability in the dielectric function of a free electron gas. The frequency only depends weakly on the wavelength. The quasiparticle resulting from the quantization of these oscillations is the plasmon.
Langmuir waves were discovered by American physicists Irving Langmuir and Lewi Tonks in the 1920s. They are parallel in form to Jeans instability waves, which are caused by gravitational instabilities in a static medium.
Consider a neutral plasma, consisting of a gas of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons. If one displaces by a tiny amount all of the electrons with respect to the ions, the Coulomb force pulls back, acting as a restoring force.
'Cold' electrons 
If the thermal motion of the electrons is ignored, it is possible to show that the charge density oscillates at the plasma frequency
where is the number density of electrons, e is the electric charge, m* is the effective mass of the electron, and is the permittivity of free space. Note that the above formula is derived under the approximation that the ion mass is infinite. This is generally a good approximation, as the electrons are so much lighter than ions. (One must modify this expression in the case of electron-positron plasmas, often encountered in astrophysics). Since the frequency is independent of the wavelength, these oscillations have an infinite phase velocity and zero group velocity.
Note that, if is electron mass , plasma frequency depends only on physical constants and concentration of electrons . The numeric expression for plasma ordinary frequency
with number density in cm–3.
'Warm' electrons 
When the effects of the electron thermal speed are taken into account, the electron pressure acts as a restoring force as well as the electric field and the oscillations propagate with frequency and wavenumber related by the longitudinal Langmuir wave:
called the Bohm-Gross dispersion relation. If the spatial scale is large compared to the Debye length, the oscillations are only weakly modified by the pressure term, but at small scales the pressure term dominates and the waves become dispersionless with a speed of . For such waves, however, the electron thermal speed is comparable to the phase velocity, i.e.,
so the plasma waves can accelerate electrons that are moving with speed nearly equal to the phase velocity of the wave. This process often leads to a form of collisionless damping, called Landau damping. Consequently, the large-k portion in the dispersion relation is difficult to observe and seldom of consequence.
In a bounded plasma, fringing electric fields can result in propagation of plasma oscillations, even when the electrons are cold.
See also 
- Waves in plasmas
- Surface plasmon resonance
- Upper hybrid oscillation, in particular for a discussion of the modification to the mode at propagation angles oblique to the magnetic field
- In 2006, plasma physicists at the Universities of Texas and Michigan were able to photograph Langmuir waves, generated by a 30 TW laser pulse, for the first time.
- Electron wake
- List of plasma (physics) articles