Plasmodium species infecting reptiles

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Over 90 species and subspecies of Plasmodium infect lizards. They have been reported from over 3200 species of lizard but only 29 species of snake. Three species - P. pessoai, P. tomodoni and P. wenyoni - infect snakes. These species belong to the subgenera Asiamoeba, Carinamoeba, Fallisia, Garnia, Lacertamoeba, Ophidiella, Paraplasmodium and Sauramoeba.[1] Additionalspecies continue to be described.[2]

Plasmodium species infecting reptiles
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Protista
Phylum: Apicomplexa
Class: Aconoidasida
Order: Haemosporida
Family: Plasmodiidae
Genus: Plasmodium
Species

Plasmodium achiotense
Plasmodium aeuminatum
Plasmodium agamae
Plasmodium arachniformis
Plasmodium attenuatum
Plasmodium aurulentum
Plasmodium australis
Plasmodium azurophilum
Plasmodium balli
Plasmodium basilisci
Plasmodium beebei
Plasmodium beltrani
Plasmodium brumpti
Plasmodium brygooi
Plasmodium chiricahuae
Plasmodium circularis
Plasmodium cnemaspi
Plasmodium cnemidophori
Plasmodium colombiense
Plasmodium cordyli
Plasmodium diminutivum
Plasmodium diploglossi
Plasmodium egerniae
Plasmodium fairchildi
Plasmodium floridense
Plasmodium gemini
Plasmodium giganteum
Plasmodium gologoense
Plasmodium gracilis
Plasmodium guyannense
Plasmodium heischi
Plasmodium hispaniolae
Plasmodium holaspi
Plasmodium icipeensis
Plasmodium iguanae
Plasmodium josephinae
Plasmodium kentropyxi
Plasmodium koreafense
Plasmodium lacertiliae
Plasmodium lainsoni
Plasmodium lepidoptiformis
Plasmodium lionatum
Plasmodium loveridgei
Plasmodium lygosomae
Plasmodium mabuiae
Plasmodium mackerrasae
Plasmodium maculilabre
Plasmodium marginatum
Plasmodium mexicanum
Plasmodium megalotrypa
Plasmodium michikoa
Plasmodium minasense
Plasmodium minuoviride
Plasmodium pelaezi
Plasmodium pessoai
Plasmodium pifanoi
Plasmodium pitmani
Plasmodium rhadinurum
Plasmodium sasai
Plasmodium saurocaudatum
Plasmodium scorzai
Plasmodium siamense
Plasmodium robinsoni
Plasmodium sasai
Plasmodium scorzai
Plasmodium tanzaniae
Plasmodium tomodoni
Plasmodium torrealbai
Plasmodium tribolonoti
Plasmodium tropiduri
Plasmodium uluguruense
Plasmodium uzungwiense
Plasmodium vacuolatum
Plasmodium vastator
Plasmodium volans
Plasmodium wenyoni
Plasmodium zonuriae

Host records[edit]

  • P. hispaniolae - Anolis lizards

Subspecies[edit]

  • P. fairchildi - P. fairchildi fairchildi and P. fairchildi hispaniolae
  • P. lygosomae - P. lygosomae nucleoversans and P. lygosomae nucleoversans
  • P. minasense - P. minasense anolisi, P. minasense capitoi, P. minasense carinii,
  • P. minasense diminutivum, P. minasense minasense, P. minasense plicae, and P. minasense tegui.[6] An additional subspecies P. minasense calcaratae has also been described.[7]
  • P. traguli - P. traguli traguli and P. traguli memmina.
  • P. tropiduri - P. tropiduri aquaticum, P. tropiduri panamense and P. tropiduri tropiduri.[6]

Vectors[edit]

Compared with those known for the species infecting humans, few vectors are known for these species.

Culex:

Aedes:

Interrelatedness[edit]

  • P. floridense is closely related to P. tropiduri and P. minasense

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schall J.J. (2000) Transmission success of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum into its vector: role of gametocyte density and sex ratio. Parasitol. 121 (6):575-580
  2. ^ Perkins S.L., Austin C. (2008) Four new species of Plasmodium from New Guinea lizards: Integrating morphology and molecules. J. Parasitol.
  3. ^ Southgate B.A. (1970) Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) giganteum in Agama cyanogaster: a new host record. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64(1):12-13
  4. ^ Garnham P.C., Telford S.R. Jr. (1984) A new malaria parasite Plasmodium (Sauramoeba) heischi in skinks (Mabuya striata) from Nairobi, with a brief discussion of the distribution of malaria parasites in the family Scincidae. J Protozool. 31(4):518-521.
  5. ^ Telford S.R. (1986) Fallisia parasites (Haemosporidia: Plasmodiidae) from the flying lizard, Draco maculatus (Agamidae) in Thailand. J. Parasitol. 72(5):766-769
  6. ^ a b Telford S.R. Jr. (1979) A taxonomic revision of small neotropical saurian Malarias allied to Plasmodium minasense. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 54(4):409-422
  7. ^ Telford S.R. Jr., Telford S.R. 3rd. (2003) Rediscovery and redescription of Plasmodium pifanoi and description of two additional Plasmodium parasites of Venezuelan lizards. J. Parasitol. 89(2):362-368