Organic solar cell
||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Polymer solar cell. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2014.|
An organic solar cell or plastic solar cell is a type of polymer solar cell that uses organic electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect.
The plastic used in organic solar cells has low production costs in high volumes. Combined with the flexibility of organic molecules, organic solar cells are potentially cost-effective for photovoltaic applications. Molecular engineering (e.g. changing the length and functional group of polymers) can change the energy gap, which allows chemical change in these materials. The optical absorption coefficient of organic molecules is high, so a large amount of light can be absorbed with a small amount of materials. The main disadvantages associated with organic photovoltaic cells are low efficiency, low stability and low strength compared to inorganic photovoltaic cells.
- 1 Physics
- 2 Junction types
- 3 Current challenges and recent progress
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
A photovoltaic cell is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts visible light into direct current (DC) electricity. Some photovoltaic cells convert infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation into DC. A common characteristic of both the small molecules and polymers (Fig 1) used in photovoltaics is that they all have large conjugated systems. A conjugated system is formed where carbon atoms covalently bond with alternating single and double bonds; in other words these are chemical reactions of hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons' electrons pz orbitals delocalize and form a delocalized bonding π orbital with a π* antibonding orbital. The delocalized π orbital is the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and the π* orbital is the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). The voltage separation between HOMO and LUMO is considered the band gap of organic electronic materials. The band gap is typically in the range of 1–4 eV.
When these materials absorb a photon, an excited state is created and confined to a molecule or a region of a polymer chain. The excited state can be regarded as an electron-hole pair bound together by electrostatic interactions, i.e. excitons. In photovoltaic cells, excitons are broken up into free electron-hole pairs by effective fields. The effective fields are set up by creating a heterojunction between two dissimilar materials. Effective fields break up excitons by causing the electron to fall from the conduction band of the absorber to the conduction band of the acceptor molecule. It is necessary that the acceptor material has a conduction band edge that is lower than that of the absorber material.
Single layer organic photovoltaic cells are the simplest form. These cells are made by sandwiching a layer of organic electronic materials between two metallic conductors, typically a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) with high work function and a layer of low work function metal such as Aluminum, Magnesium or Calcium. The basic structure of such a cell is illustrated in Fig 2.
The difference of work function between the two conductors sets up an electric field in the organic layer. When the organic layer absorbs light, electrons will be excited to the LUMO and leave holes in the HOMO, thereby forming excitons. The potential created by the different work functions helps to split the exciton pairs, pulling electrons to the positive electrode (an electrical conductor used to make contact with a non-metallic part of a circuit) and holes to the negative electrode.
In 1958 the photovoltaic effect or the creation of voltage of a cell based on magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc)—a macrocyclic compound having an alternating nitrogen atom-carbon atom ring structure—was discovered to have a photovoltage of 200 mV. An Al/MgPc/Ag cell obtained photovoltaic efficiency of 0.01% under illumination at 690 nm.
Conjugated polymers were also used in this type of photovoltaic cell. One device used polyacetylene (Fig 1) as the organic layer, with Al and graphite, producing an open circuit voltage of 0.3 V and a charge collection efficiency of 0.3%. An Al/poly(3-nethyl-thiophene)/Pt cell had an external quantum yield of 0.17%, an open circuit voltage of 0.4 V and a fill factor of 0.3. An ITO/PPV/Al cell showed an open circuit voltage of 1 V and a power conversion efficiency of 0.1% under white-light illumination.
Single layer organic solar cells do not work well. They have low quantum efficiencies (<1%) and low power conversion efficiencies (<0.1%). A major problem with them is that the electric field resulting from the difference between the two conductive electrodes is seldom sufficient to split the excitons. Often the electrons recombine with the holes without reaching the electrode.
Bilayer cells contain two layers in between the conductive electrodes (Fig 3). The two layers have different electron affinity and ionization energies, therefore electrostatic forces are generated at the interface between the two layers. The materials are chosen to make the differences large enough that these local electric fields are strong, which splits excitons much more efficiently than single layer photovoltaic cells. The layer with higher electron affinity and ionization potential is the electron acceptor, and the other layer is the electron donor. This structure is also called a planar donor-acceptor heterojunction.
C60 has high electron affinity, making it a good acceptor. A C60/MEH-PPV double layer cell had a relatively high fill factor of 0.48 and a power conversion efficiency of 0.04% under monochromatic illumination. PPV/C60 cells displayed a monochromatic external quantum efficiency of 9%, a power conversion efficiency of 1% and a fill factor of 0.48.
Perylene derivatives display high electron affinity and chemical stability. A layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as electron donor and perylene tetracarboxylic derivative as electron acceptor, fabricating a cell with a fill factor as high as 0.65 and a power conversion efficiency of 1% under simulated AM2 illumination. Halls et al. fabricated a cell with a layer of bis(phenethylimido) perylene over a layer of PPV as the electron donor. This cell had peak external quantum efficiency of 6% and power conversion efficiency of 1% under monochromatic illumination, and a fill factor of up to 0.6.
The diffusion length of excitons in organic electronic materials is typically on the order of 10 nm. In order for most excitons to diffuse to the interface of layers and split into carriers, the layer thickness should be in the same range as the diffusion length. However, a polymer layer typically needs a thickness of at least 100 nm to absorb enough light. At such a large thickness, only a small fraction of the excitons can reach the heterojunction interface.
A three-layer (two acceptor and one donor) fullerene-free stack achieved a conversion efficiency of 8.4%. The implementation produced high open-circuit voltages and absorption in the visible spectra and high short-circuit currents. Quantum efficiency was above 75% between 400 nm and 720 nm wavelengths, with an open-circuit voltage around 1 V.
In bulk heterojunction cells, the electron donor and acceptor are mixed, forming a polymer blend (Fig 4). If the length scale of the blend is similar to the exciton diffusion length, most of the excitons generated in either material may reach the interface, where excitons split efficiently. Electrons move to the acceptor domains then were carried through the device and collected by one electrode, and holes move in the opposite direction and collected at the other side.
Most bulk heterojunction cells use two components, although three-component cells have been explored. The third component, a secondary p-type donor polymer, acts to absorb light in a different region of the solar spectrum. This in theory increases the amount of absorbed light. These ternary cells operate through one of three distinct mechanisms: charge transfer, energy transfer or parallel-linkage.
In charge transfer, both donors contribute directly to the generation of free charge carriers. Holes pass through only one donor domain before collection at the anode. In energy transfer, only one donor contributes to the production of holes. The second donor acts solely to absorb light, transferring extra energy to the first donor material. In parallel linkage, both donors produce excitons independently, which then migrate to their respective donor/acceptor interfaces and dissociate.
C60 and its derivatives are used as electron acceptors, as in dispersed heterojunction photovoltaic cells. A cell with the blend of MEH-PPV and a methano-functionalized C60 derivative as the heterojunction, ITO and Ca as the electrodes showed a quantum efficiency of 29% and a power conversion efficiency of 2.9% under monochromatic illumination. Replacing MEH-PPV with P3HT produced a quantum yield of 45% under a 10 V reverse bias.
Polymer/polymer blends are also used in dispersed heterojunction photovoltaic cells. A blend of CN-PPV and MEH-PPV with Al and ITO as the electrodes, yielded peak monochromatic power conversion efficiency of 1% and fill factor of 0.38.
Dye sensitized photovoltaic cells can also be considered important examples of this type.
The electron donor and acceptor are mixed in such a way that the gradient is gradual. This architecture combines the short electron travel distance in the dispersed heterojunction with the advantage of the charge gradient of the bilayer technology.
A cell with a blend of CuPc and C60 showed a quantum efficiency of 50% and a power conversion efficiency of 2.1% using 100 mW/cm2 simulated AM1.5G solar illumination for a graded heterojunction.
Similar to the graded heterojunction the continuous junction concept aims at realizing a gradual transition from an electron donor to an electron acceptor. However, the acceptor material is prepared directly from the donor polymer in a post-polymerization modification step.
Current challenges and recent progress
Difficulties associated with organic photovoltaic cells include their low external quantum efficiency (up to 70%) in comparison with inorganic photovoltaic devices; due largely to the large band gap of organic materials. Instabilities against oxidation and reduction, recrystallization and temperature variations can also lead to device degradation and decreased performance over time. This occurs to different extents for devices with different compositions, and is an area into which active research is taking place.
Other important factors include the exciton diffusion length; charge separation and charge collection; and charge transport and mobility, which are affected by the presence of impurities.
Effect of film morphology
As described above, dispersed heterojunctions of donor-acceptor organic materials have high quantum efficiencies compared to the planar hetero-junction, because in dispersed heterojunctions it is more likely for an exciton to find an interface within its diffusion length. Film morphology can also have a drastic effect on the quantum efficiency of the device. Rough surfaces and the presence of voids can increase the series resistance and also the chance of short-circuiting. Film morphology and, as a result, quantum efficiency can be improved by annealing of a device after covering it by a ~1000 Å thick metal cathode. Metal film on top of the organic film applies stresses on the organic film, which helps to prevent the morphological relaxation in the organic film. This gives more densely packed films and at the same time allows the formation of phase-separated interpenetrating donor-acceptor interface inside the bulk of organic thin film.
Controlled growth heterojunction
Charge separation occurs at the donor acceptor interface. Whilst traveling to the electrode, a charge can become trapped and/or recombine in a disordered interpenetrating organic material, resulting in decreased device efficiency. Controlled growth of the heterojunction provides better control over positions of the donor-acceptor materials, resulting in much greater power efficiency (ratio of output power to input power) than that of planar and highly disoriented hetero-junctions (as shown in Fig 5). Thus, the choice of suitable processing parameters in order to better control the structure and film morphology is highly desirable.
Progress in growth techniques
Mostly organic films for photovoltaic applications are deposited by spin coating and vapor-phase deposition. However each method has certain draw backs, spin coating technique can coat larger surface areas with high speed but the use of solvent for one layer can degrade the already existing polymer layer. Another problem is related with the patterning of the substrate for device as spin-coating results in coating the entire substrate with a single material.
Vacuum thermal evaporation
Another deposition technique is vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) which involves the heating of an organic material in vacuum. The substrate is placed several centimeters away from the source so that evaporated material may be directly deposited onto the substrate, as shown in Fig 6(a). This method is useful for depositing many layers of different materials without chemical interaction between different layers. However, there are sometimes problems with film-thickness uniformity and uniform doping over large-area substrates. In addition, the materials that deposit on the wall of the chamber can contaminate later depositions. This "line of sight" technique also can create holes in the film due to shadowing, which causes an increase in the device series-resistance and short circuit.
Organic vapor phase deposition
Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD, Fig 6(b)) allows better control of the structure and morphology of the film than vacuum thermal evaporation. The process involves evaporation of the organic material over a substrate in the presence of an inert carrier gas. The resulting film morphology can be tuned by changing the gas flow rate and the source temperature. Uniform films can be grown by reducing the carrier gas pressure, which will increase the velocity and mean free path of the gas, and as a result boundary layer thickness decreases. Cells produced by OVPD do not have issues related with contaminations from the flakes coming out of the walls of the chamber, as the walls are warm and do not allow molecules to stick to and produce a film upon them.
Another advantage over VTE is the uniformity in evaporation rate. This occurs because the carrier gas becomes saturated with the vapors of the organic material coming out of the source and then moves towards the cooled substrate, Fig. 6(b). Depending on the growth parameters (temperature of the source, base pressure and flux of the carrier gas) the deposited film can be crystalline or amorphous in nature. Devices fabricated using OVPD show a higher short-circuit current density than that of devices made using VTE. An extra layer of donor-acceptor hetero-junction at the top of the cell may block excitons, whilst allowing conduction of electron; resulting in improved cell efficiency.
Organic solar ink
Organic solar ink is able to deliver higher performance in fluorescent lighting conditions in comparison to amorphous silicon solar cells, and said to have a 30% to 40% increase in indoor power density in comparison to the standard organic solar technology.
- Pulfrey, L.D. (1978). Photovoltaic Power Generation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 9780442266400.
- Rivers P. N. (2007). Leading edge research in solar energy. Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 1600213367.
- McGehee D.G., Topinka M.A. (2006). "Solar cells: Pictures from the blended zone". Nature Materials 5 (9): 675–676. doi:10.1038/nmat1723. PMID 16946723.
- Nelson J. (2002). "Organic photovoltaic films". Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 6: 87–95. Bibcode:2002COSSM...6...87N. doi:10.1016/S1359-0286(02)00006-2.
- Halls J.J.M., Friend R.H. (2001). Archer M.D., Hill R.D., ed. Clean electricity from photovoltaics. London: Imperial College Press. pp. 377–445. ISBN 1860941613.
- H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci (2004). "Organic solar cells: An overview". J. Mater. Res. 19 (7): 1924–1945. Bibcode:2004JMatR..19.1924H. doi:10.1557/JMR.2004.0252.
- Kearns D., Calvin M. (1958). "Photovoltaic Effect and Photoconductivity in Laminated Organic Systems". J. Chem. Phys. 29 (4): 950–951. doi:10.1063/1.1744619.
- Ghosh A.K. et al. (1974). "Photovoltaic and rectification properties of Al∕Mg phthalocyanine∕Ag Schottky-barrier cells". J. Appl. Phys. 45: 230–236. doi:10.1063/1.1662965.
- Weinberger B.R. et al. (1982). "Polyacetylene photovoltaic devices". Synth.Metals 4 4 (3): 187–197. doi:10.1016/0379-6779(82)90012-1.
- Glenis S. et al. (1986). "Influence of the doping on the photovoltaic properties of thin films of poly-3-methylthiophene". Thin Solid Films 139 (3): 221–231. doi:10.1016/0040-6090(86)90053-2.
- Karg S. et al. (1993). "Electrical and optical characterization of poly(phenylene-vinylene) light emitting diodes". Synthetic Metals 54: 427–433. doi:10.1016/0379-6779(93)91088-J.
- Sariciftci N.S. et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1993). "Semiconducting polymer-buckminsterfullerene heterojunctions: Diodes, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells". Applied Physics Letters 62 (6): 585–587. doi:10.1063/1.108863.
- Halls J.J.M. et al. (1996). "Exciton diffusion and dissociation in a poly(p-phenylenevinylene)/C60 heterojunction photovoltaic cell". Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 (22): 3120–3122. doi:10.1063/1.115797.
- Tang C.W. (1986). "Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell". Appl. Phys. Lett. 48 (2): 183–185. doi:10.1063/1.96937.
- Halls J.J.M. et al. (1997). "The photovoltaic effect in a poly(p-phenylenevinylene)/perylene heterojunction". Synth. Metals 85: 1307–1308. doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(97)80252-4.
- Yang F. et al. (2005). "Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell". Nature Materials 4: 37–41. doi:10.1038/nmat1285.
- Yu G. et al. (1995). "Polymer Photovoltaic Cells: Enhanced Efficiencies via a Network of Internal Donor-Acceptor Heterojunctions". Science 270 (5243): 1789–1791. doi:10.1126/science.270.5243.1789.
- Yu G. et al. (1998). "Large-Area, Full-Color Image Sensors Made with Semiconducting Polymers". Advanced Materials 10 (17): 1431–1434. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199812)10:17<1431::AID-ADMA1431>3.0.CO;2-4.
- Kaneko, Masao and Okura, Ichiro (2002). Photocatalysis: Science and Technology. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-43473-3.
- Halls J.J.M. et al. (1995). "Efficient photodiodes from interpenetrating polymer networks". Nature 376 (6540): 498–500. doi:10.1038/376498a0.
- Seraphin B.O., ed. (1979). "Solar energy conversion: solid-state physics aspects". Topics in applied physics 31. doi:10.1007/3-540-09224-2. ISBN 978-3-540-35369-0.
- Pandey, Richa; Holmes, Russell J. (2010). "Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on Continuously Graded Donor–Acceptor Heterojunctions". IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 16 (6): 1537. doi:10.1109/jstqe.2010.2049256.
- "Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells using Graded Heterojunction Technology". University of Minnesota.
- Holmes, Russel; Pandey, Richa (2010). "Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on Continuously Graded Donor–Acceptor Heterojunctions". IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 16 (6): 7. doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2010.2049256.
- Glöcklhofer F. et al. (2015). "Towards continuous junction (CJ) organic electronic devices: Fast and clean post-polymerization modification by oxidation using dimethyldioxirane (DMDO)". Reactive and Functional Polymers 86: 16–26. doi:10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2014.10.006.
- Chiu, S.W.; Lin, L.Y.; Lin, H.W.; Chen, Y.H.; Huang, Z.Y.; Lin, Y.T.; Lin, F.; Liu, Y.H.; Wong, K.T. (2012). "A donor-acceptor-acceptor molecule for vacuum-processed organic solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 6.4%". Chemical Communications 48. doi:10.1039/C2CC16390J. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Li B. et al. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells (2006). "Review of recent progress in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells". Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 90 (5): 549–573. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2005.04.039.
- Peumans P. et al. (2003). "Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films". Nature 425 (6954): 158–162. doi:10.1038/nature01949. PMID 12968174.
- Forrest S.R. (2004). "The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic". Nature 428 (6986): 911–918. doi:10.1038/nature02498. PMID 15118718.
- Olson, Syanne (2 June 2010) Plextronics announces developments in organic photovoltaics. PV-Tech. Retrieved on 2013-05-31.
- Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals and Polymers, 2 ed. by Martin Pope and Charles E. Swenberg, Oxford University Press (1999), ISBN 0-19-512963-6
- Organic Photovoltaics by Christoph Brabec, Vladimir Dyakonov, Jürgen Parisi and Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci (eds.), Springer Verlag (Berlin, 2003), ISBN 3-540-00405-X
- Organic Photovoltaics: Mechanisms, Materials, and Devices (Optical Engineering) by Sam-Shajing Sun and Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci (eds.), CRC Press (2005), ISBN 0-8247-5963-X
- Handbook of Organic Electronics and Photonics (3-Volume Set) by Hari Singh Nalwa, American Scientific Publishers. (2008), ISBN 1-58883-095-0
- Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Volume 18, Issue 5, Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (version 36), Wiley 2010
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Organic solar cell.|
- "Electron ‘spin’ key to solar cell breakthrough" (University of Cambridge)
- "Organic Solar Cells - Theory and Practice" (Coursera)
- "Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology" (Travis L. Benanti & D. Venkataraman)