Plato's tripartite theory of soul
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Plato from The School of Athens by Raphael, 1509
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According to Plato in his Republic, Socrates asserted that the ψυχή is composed of three parts; the λογιστικός (logical), the θυμός (high-spirited) and the ἐπιθυμία (appetitive). These three parts of the ψυχή also correspond to the three classes of a society. Whether in a city or an individual, δικαιοσύνη (justice) is declared to be the state of the whole in which each part fulfills its function without attempting to interfere in the functions of others. The function of the ἐπιθυμία is to produce and seek pleasure, often being linked to φιλοχρήματος (the love of money). The function of the λογιστικός is to gently rule through the love of learning. The function of the θυμός is to obey the directions of the λογιστικός while ferociously defending the whole from external invasion and internal disorder. Whether in a city or an individual, ἀδικία (injustice) is the contrary state of the whole, often taking the specific form in which the θυμός listens instead to the ἐπιθυμία, while they together either ignore the λογιστικός entirely or employ it in their pursuits of pleasure.
In the Republic
In Book IV of the Republic Socrates and his interlocutors are attempting to answer whether the soul is one or made of parts. Socrates states that, "It is clear that the same thing will never do or undergo opposite things in the same part of it and towards the same thing at the same time; so if we find this happening, we shall know it was not one thing but more than one." (This is an example of Plato's Principle of Non-Contradiction.) For instance, it seems that, given each person has only one soul, it should be impossible for a person to simultaneously desire something yet also at that very moment be averse to the same thing, as when one is tempted to commit a crime but also averse to it. Both Socrates and Glaucon agree that it should not be possible for the soul to at the same time both be in one state and its opposite. From this it follows that there must be at least two aspects to soul.
In the Phaedrus
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The logistikon (from Logos) is the thinking part of the soul which loves the truth and seeks to learn it. Socrates originally identifies the soul dominated by this part with the Athenian temperament. The logistikon discerns what is real and not merely apparent, judges what is true and what is false and wisely makes just decisions in accordance with its love for goodness.
Socrates makes the point that the logistikon would be the smallest part of the soul (as the guardians would be the smallest population within the Republic) but nevertheless a soul can only be declared just if all three parts are in agreement that the logistikon should rule.
According to Socrates, the spirited (θυμός) is the part of the soul by which we are angry or get into a temper. He also calls this part 'high spirit' and initially identifies the soul dominated by this part with the Thracians, Scythians and the people of 'northern regions.' In the just soul, the spirited aligns with the logistikon and resists the desires of the appetitive, becoming manifested as 'indignation' and in general the courage to be good. In the unjust soul, the spirited ignores the logistikon and aligns with the desires of the appetitive, manifesting as the demand for the pleasures of the body.
The appetitive is the part of the soul by which we experience carnal erotic love, hunger, thirst and in general the desires opposed to the logistikon. (The appetitive is in fact labelled as being 'a-logical') Socrates also identifies this part of the soul with the pleasure involved in human reproduction. He further relates this part to the love of money-making, which he mentions as being the particular mark of the Phoenicians and Egyptians.
- "Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved August 29, 2009
- Plato Republic IV (433a)
- Republic IV: 436 B6-C1 (W. H. D. Rouse translation)
- "Ancient Theories of Soul" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved August 29, 2009
- Republic IV 435 E8-9
- Republic IV 442 A
- Republic IV 439 E3-4
- Republic IV 435 E4-8
- Republic 439 D5-7
- Republic 439 D7
- Republic 436 A1-3
- "Plato" at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- "Plato" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy