Plato Tiburtinus (lat.: Plato Tiburtinus, fl. 12th century : Plato of Tivoli) was a 12th-century Italian mathematician, astronomer and translator who lived in Barcelona from 1116 to 1138. He is best known for translating Hebrew and Arabic documents into Latin, and was apparently the first to translate information on the astrolabe (an astronomical instrument) from Arabic.
Plato of Tivoli translated the Arab astrologer Albohali's "Book of Birth" into Latin in 1136. He translated Claudius Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos from Arabic to Latin in 1138, the astronomical works of al-Battani, Theodosius' Spherics and the Liber Embadorum by Abraham bar Chiia. He has worked with the mathematician jew Savasorda together (Abraham bar Ḥiyya ha-Nasi, Abraham Jew). His manuscripts were widely circulated and were among others used by Albertus Magnus and Fibonacci.
- The Liber Embadorum (“Book of Areas,” or “Practical Geometry”), it was transferred (after a date astronomical specified in the text ) in 1145 from the Hebrew. The book had an influence on the Geometry of Fibonacci book and contains one of the first comprehensive treatments quadratic equations in the Occident.
- The Sphericaby Theodosius of Bithynia,
- Al-Battān,i’s al-Zij (“Astronomical Treatise”)
- The De usu astrolabii of Abu’l-Qāsim Maslama (Ibn al-Sạffār), The manuscript contains information about the first astrolabe in the West.
The translations from the Arabic of seven other works (five astrological, one geomantical, and one medical [now lost]) are ascribed to Plato:
- Ptolemy’s Quadripartitum,
- The Iudicia Almansoris,
- TheDe electionibus horarum of Ali ibn Aḥmad al-Imrani,
- The De nativitatibus or De iudiciis nativitatum of Abu 'Ali al-Khaiyat,
- The De revolutionibus nativitatum by Abū Bakr al-Ḥasan (Albubather),
- The Questiones geomantce or Liber Arenalis scientie by “Alfakini, son of Abizarch” or “son of Abraham”,
- A De pulsibus et urinis by “Aeneas”.
- Baldassare Boncompagni: Delle versioni fatte da platone Triburtino. Atti dell’ Accademia pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei, 4, 1851, S. 249–286
- F. J. Carmody: Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation: A Critical Bibliography. Berkeley, Los Angeles 1956
- Charles Homer Haskins: Studies in History of Medieval Science. Cambridge, Massachusetts 1924
- Charles Homer Haskins: The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1927
- George Sarton: Introduction to the History of Science. Band 2, Teil 1, Baltimore 1931, S. 177–179
- Moritz Steinschneider Die Europäischen Übersetzungen aus dem Arabischen bis Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts. Graz 1956
- Moritz Steinschneider: Abraham Judaeus: Savasorda und Ibn Esra … In: Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik. Band 12, 1867, S. 1–44
- Charles E. Butterworth, Blake Andrée Kessel, The Introduction of Arabic philosophy into Europe, (Brill, 1994), 11.
- Houtsma, p.875
- Jim Tester, Astrology of the Western World, (1987), p. 54
- David Eugene Smith, History of Mathematics, (Dover Publications, Inc, 1951), 201.
- Minio-Paluello, Lorenzo (2008) [1970-80]. "Plato of Tivoli". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com.
- Article in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography by Lorenzo Minio-Paluello
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