Top: The PlayStation 2 logo.
Left: The original design PlayStation 2, with vertical stand. Right: The "slimline" PlayStation 2, with vertical stand, 8 MB memory card and DualShock 2 controller.
|Manufacturer||Sony Computer Entertainment|
|Type||Video game console|
|Units sold||155 million (as of March 31, 2012)|
|CPU||64-bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294.912 MHz (launch), 299 MHz (newer models)|
|Memory||32 MB of Direct RAMBUS or RDRAM
4 MB eDRAM
|Graphics||"Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147.456 MHz|
|Controller input||DualShock 2|
|Connectivity||100 Mbit Ethernet/modem (requires adapter on SCPH-10000-500xx models), 2 × USB 1.1, 1 × IEEE 1394 interface|
|Online services||Dynamic Network Authentication System|
|Best-selling game||Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas: 17.33 million sold (as of February 2009)|
The PlayStation 2 (Japanese: プレイステーション2 Hepburn: Pureisutēshon Tsū , officially abbreviated as PS2) is a video game console manufactured by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of the PlayStation series. It was first released on March 4, 2000, in Japan, October 26, 2000 in North America, and November 24, 2000 in Europe. As part of the sixth-generation of console gaming, its primary competitors were the Dreamcast, Xbox, and GameCube.
The PlayStation 2 is the best-selling video game console of all time to date, having sold over 150 million units as of January 31, 2011. Sony stated in 2011 that 1.52 billion PS2 titles have been sold since launch. With 3,857 games, the PlayStation 2 also has the largest library of games of any console. Succeeded as Sony's flagship console by the PlayStation 3 in 2006, the PlayStation 2 continued to be produced with revisions released in 2006 and 2007.
On January 4, 2013, Sony announced the discontinuation of the PlayStation 2 after 13 years of production. This came just the month before Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 console on February 20, 2013.
The development of the PlayStation 2 was first announced in March 1999, and while it would not be released until 2000, the announcement was enough to slow the momentum for the Sega Dreamcast's North American launch, despite the Dreamcast having a head start over that generation. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over one thousand dollars for a PS2. The PS2 initially sold well partly on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation — another major selling point over the competition. Later, Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality also expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was the same or less than standalone DVD player, making the console a low cost entry into the home theater market.
Although Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, the PS2 would face competition from newer rivals; Microsoft's Xbox and the Nintendo GameCube. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup between the three consoles; the Xbox having the most powerful hardware, while the GameCube was least expensive console and Nintendo changed its policy to encourage third-party developers, and while the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specs of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD video player (the Xbox required an adapter, while the GameCube lacked support entirely). While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals. Sony also countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for highly anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty.
Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast, originally placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs to demonstrate its active support for Internet play. Sony also advertised heavily, and its online model had the support of Electronic Arts (EA); EA did not offer online Xbox titles until 2004. Although Sony and Nintendo both started out late, and although both followed a decentralized model of online gaming where the responsibility is up to the developer to provide the servers, Sony's moves made online gaming a major selling point of the PS2.
In September 2004, in time for the launch of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, Sony revealed a new, slimmer PS2 (see Hardware revisions). In preparation for the launch of the new models (SCPH-700xx-9000x), Sony stopped making the older models (SCPH-3000x-500xx) to let the distribution channel empty its stock of the units. After an apparent manufacturing issue—Sony reportedly underestimated demand—caused some initial slowdown in producing the new unit caused in part by shortages between the time the old units were cleared out and the new units were ready. The issue was compounded in Britain when a Russian oil tanker became stuck in the Suez Canal, blocking a ship from China carrying PS2s bound for the UK. During one week in November, British sales totalled 6,000 units — compared to 70,000 units a few weeks prior. There were shortages in more than 1700 stores in North America on the day before Christmas.
Hardware and software 
PlayStation 2 software is distributed on CD-ROM and DVD-ROM. In addition the console can play audio CDs and DVD movies, and is backwardly compatible with PlayStation games. The PS2 also supports PlayStation memory cards and controllers, although PS1 memory cards only work with PS1 games and the controllers may not support all functions (such as analog buttons) for PS2 games.
The PS2's DualShock 2 controller is essentially an upgraded PlayStation DualShock with analog face, shoulder and D-pad buttons replacing the digital buttons of the original. Like its predecessor, the DualShock 2 controller has force feedback, which is commonly called the "vibration" function.
The standard PlayStation 2 memory card has an 8 MB capacity and uses Sony's MagicGate encryption. This requirement prevented the production of memory cards by third parties who did not purchase a MagicGate license. Memory cards without encryption can be used to store PlayStation game saves, but PlayStation games would be unable to read from or write to the card – such a card could only be used as a backup. There are a variety of non-Sony manufactured memory cards available for the PlayStation 2, allowing for a larger memory capacity than the standard 8 MB. However their use is unsupported and compatibility is not guaranteed. These memory cards can have up to 128 MB storage space.
The console also features USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. Compatibility with USB and IEEE 1394 devices is dependent on the software supporting the device. For example, the PS2 BIOS will not boot an ISO image from a USB flash drive or operate a USB printer, as the machine's operating system does not include this functionality. By contrast, Gran Turismo 4 and Tourist Trophy are programmed to save screenshots to a USB mass storage device and print images on certain USB printers. A PlayStation 2 HDD can be installed in an expansion bay on the back of the console, and was required to play certain games, notably the popular Final Fantasy XI. This was only available on certain models (see "Hardware Revisions" below).
PlayStation 2 users have the option to play select games over the Internet, using a broadband internet connection and a PlayStation 2 Network Adaptor. Instead of having a unified, subscription-based online service like Xbox Live as competitor Microsoft had chosen for its Xbox console, online multiplayer on the PlayStation 2 is the responsibility of the game publisher and is run on third-party servers. Most recent[when?] PlayStation 2 online games have been developed to exclusively support broadband internet access. Xbox Live similarly requires a broadband internet connection. Many games' servers have been shut down, but there are still a few[which?] games out there that are still active and people still play online.
Hardware revisions 
The PS2 has undergone many revisions, some only of internal construction and others involving substantial external changes. These are colloquially known among PS2 hardware hackers as V0, V1, V2, ..., V18. Each region receives a different model number; for example, the V18 was released in North America as SCPH-90001, in Australia as SCPH-90002, and in Hong Kong as SCPH-90006. The final digit is simply a region code and has no bearing on the hardware other than region lock-outs for games and DVDs, and language options within the system software.
The PS2 is primarily differentiated between models featuring the original "fat" case design and "slimline" models, which were introduced at the end of 2004. In 2010, a television incorporating a PS2 was made available to consumers.
The original case design 
Three of the original PS2 launch models (SCPH-10000, SCPH-15000, and SCPH-18000) were only sold in Japan, and lacked the expansion bay of later PS2 models. These models included a PCMCIA slot instead of the expansion bay port of newer models. SCPH-10000 and SCPH-15000 did not have built-in DVD movie playback and instead relied on encrypted playback software that was copied to a memory card from an included CD-ROM (normally, the PS2 will only execute encrypted software from its memory card; see PS2 Independence Exploit). V3 had a substantially different internal structure from the subsequent revisions, featuring several interconnected printed circuit boards. As of V4 everything was unified into one board, except the power supply. V5 introduced minor internal changes, and the only difference between V6 (sometimes called V5.1) and V5 is the orientation of the Power/Reset switch board connector, which was reversed to prevent the use of no-solder modchips. The V5 also introduced a laser that is more reliable than the ones used in previous models. V7 and V8 included only minor revisions to V6.
Beginning with model SCPH-500xx, the i.LINK port was removed. An infrared receiver was added for use with a remote to control DVD playback.
The PS2 standard color is matte black. Several different variations in color were produced in different quantities and regions, including ceramic white, light yellow, metallic blue (aqua), metallic silver, navy (star blue), opaque blue (astral blue), opaque black (midnight black), pearl white, Sakura purple, satin gold, satin silver, snow white, super red, transparent blue (ocean blue), and also Limited Edition color Pink, which was distributed in some regions such as Oceania, and parts of Asia.
The small PlayStation logo on the front of the disc tray could be rotated ninety degrees, in order for the logo to be the right way up in both vertical and horizontal console orientations. This feature is also used on slimline consoles.
The slimline case designs 
Original style PS2 slimline with a DualShock 2 controller.
This was superseded by another slimline design in 2007.
|Manufacturer||Sony Computer Entertainment|
|Type||Video game console|
|Generation||Sixth generation era|
|Retail availability||October 29, 2004 – January 4, 2013|
|Controller input||DualShock 2|
|Connectivity||2 × USB 1.1, Ethernet, IrDA, 2 × controller ports.|
In September 2004, Sony unveiled its third major hardware revision (V12, model number SCPH-700xx). Available in late October 2004, it is smaller, thinner, and quieter than the older versions and includes a built-in Ethernet port (in some markets it also has an integrated modem). Due to its thinner profile, it does not contain the 3.5" expansion bay and therefore does not support the internal hard disk drive. It also lacks an internal power supply, similar to the GameCube, and has a modified Multitap expansion. The removal of the expansion bay has been criticized as a limitation due to the existence of titles such as Final Fantasy XI, which require the use of the HDD.
The official PS2 Linux also requires an expansion bay to function. Currently only the modified Multitap is sold in stores; however, these are also compatible with the older versions, and also added support for multiple memory cards on some games. Third-party connectors can be soldered into the unit giving hard drive support; however, IDE connections were completely removed in the V14 revision, thereby eliminating this option. Certain mod chips enable the use of a USB hard drive or other mass storage device.
There are actually two sub-versions of the SCPH-700xx. One of them includes the old EE and GS chips, and the other contains the newer unified EE+GS chip, but otherwise they are identical. The variations are variously referred to as V11.5 for the older model (with separate EE and GS chips) and V12 for the newer model, and V12 for the older model and V13 for the newer model. Currently, most people use V12 for both models, or V12 for the old model and V13 for the newer one.
The V12 model was first released in black, but a silver edition was available in the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, United Arab Emirates and other GCC Countries, France, Italy, South Africa, and finally, North America. A limited edition pink console also became available after March 2007.
V12 (or V13) was succeeded by V14 (SCPH-7500x), which contains integrated EE and GS chips, and different ASICs compared to previous revisions, with some chips having a copyright date of 2005, compared to 2000 or 2001 for earlier models. It also has a different lens and some compatibility issues with a different number of PlayStation games and even some PS2 games.
In the beginning of 2005 it was found that some black slimline console power transformers manufactured between August and December 2004 were defective and could overheat. The units were recalled by Sony, with the company supplying a replacement model made in 2005.
Later hardware revisions had better compatibility with PlayStation games (Metal Gear Solid: VR Missions operates on most silver models); however, the new Japanese slim models have more issues with playing PlayStation games than the first PS2 revisions.
In 2006, Sony released new hardware revisions (V15, model numbers SCPH-7700xa and SCPH-7700xb). It was first released in Japan on September 15, 2006, including the Silver edition. After its release in Japan, it was then released in North America, Europe and other parts of the world. The new revision uses an integrated, unified EE+GS chip; a redesigned ASIC; a different laser lens; an updated BIOS; and updated drivers.
In July 2007, Sony started shipping a revision of the slimline PlayStation 2 (SCPH-7900x) featuring a reduced weight of 600 grams compared to 900 grams of the SCPH-7700x (with Expansion Bay), achieved through a reduction in parts. The unit also uses a smaller motherboard as well as a custom ASIC which houses the Emotion Engine, Graphics Synthesizer, and the RDRAM. The AC adaptor's weight was also reduced to 250 grams from the 350 grams in the previous revision.
Another refinement of the slimline PlayStation 2 (SCPH-9000x) was released in Japan on November 22, 2007. As well some cosmetic changes, the design of the hardware has been overhauled, incorporating the power supply into the console itself; this also reduces the total weight to 720 grams (25 oz). SCPH-9000x series consoles manufactured after the third quarter of 2008 (indicated by date code 8C) incorporate a revised BIOS, which disables an exploit present in all older models that allowed homebrew applications to be launched from a memory card.
Sony also manufactured a consumer device called the PSX that can be used as a digital video recorder and DVD burner in addition to playing PS2 games. The device was released in Japan on December 13, 2003, and was the first Sony product to include the XrossMediaBar interface. It did not sell well in the Japanese market and was not released anywhere else.
The PSX featured one USB port, a Memory Stick card reader and two PlayStation 2 Memory Card slots.
Sony BRAVIA KDL22PX300 
Released in 2010, the Sony BRAVIA KDL22PX300 is a 22 inch 720p television that incorporates a PlayStation 2 console and 4 HDMI ports. The 720p TV also includes BRAVIA Internet Video Access, allowing users access to streaming services such as YouTube and on-demand television.
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (May 2010)|
|Region||Units sold||First available|
|Japan||21 million (as of October 1, 2008)||March 4, 2000|
|Asia (excluding Japan)||25.42 million (as of March 2007)||March 4, 2000|
|North America||50 million (as of December 2008)||October 26, 2000|
|PAL region||51 million (as of June 2009)||November 24, 2000|
|Worldwide||155 million (as of March 31, 2012)||N/A|
On November 29, 2005, the PlayStation 2 became the fastest game console to reach 100 million units shipped, accomplishing the feat within 5 years and 9 months from its launch. This achievement occurred faster than its predecessor, the PlayStation, which took 9 years and 6 months to reach the same benchmark.
The PS2 has sold over 155 million units worldwide as of March 31, 2012. In Europe, it has sold 48 million units as of May 6, 2008 according to Sony Computer Entertainment Europe, while in North America, it has sold 50 million units as of December 2008. In Japan, the PS2 has sold 21,454,325 units as of October 1, 2008, according to Famitsu/Enterbrain.
In Europe, the PS2 sold 6 million units in 2006 and 3.8 million in 2007, according to estimates by EA. In 2007, the PS2 sold 3.97 million units in the US according to the NPD Group and 816,419 units in Japan according to Enterbrain. In 2008, the PS2 sold 480,664 units in Japan, according to Enterbrain.
Over 150 million units of PS2 hardware had been sold worldwide as of the end of 2010.
In its last week of availability in Japan (December 24 to December 30, 2012), the PlayStation 2 sold 2,078 units in the country - up from 928 units the week before. Remarkably, the PlayStation 2 managed to sell better in Japan that week than the Xbox 360 (1,986 units), as well as the Nintendo DS (704 units).
The PlayStation 2's DualShock 2 controller is largely identical to the PlayStation's DualShock, with the same basic functionality; however, it includes analog pressure sensitivity on the face, shoulder and D-pad buttons, is lighter and includes two more levels of vibration.
Optional hardware includes DualShock or DualShock 2 controllers, a PS2 DVD remote control, an internal or external hard disk drive (HDD), a network adapter, horizontal and vertical stands, PlayStation or PS2 memory cards, the multitap for PlayStation or PS2, a USB motion camera (EyeToy), a USB keyboard and mouse, and a headset.
The original PS2 multitap cannot be plugged into the newer slim models (as the multitap connects to the memory card slot as well as the controller slot and the memory card slot on the slimline is shallower). New slim-design multitaps are manufactured for these models, however third-party adapters also exist to permit original multitaps to be used.
Early versions of the PS2 could be networked via an i.LINK port, though this had little game support and was dropped. Some third party manufacturers have created devices that allow disabled people to access the PS2 through ordinary switches etc. One such device is the PS2-SAP from LEPMIS, another is for example the JPemulator.
Some third-party companies, such as JoyTech, have produced LCD monitor and speaker attachments for the PS2, which attach to the back of the console. These allow users to play games without access to a television as long as there is access to mains electricity or a similar power source. These screens can fold down onto the PS2 in a similar fashion to laptop screens.
There are many accessories for musical games, such as dance pads for Dance Dance Revolution, In the Groove, and Pump It Up titles, Konami microphones for use with the Karaoke Revolution games, dual microphones (sold with and used exclusively for SingStar games), various "guitar" controllers (for the Guitar Freaks series and Guitar Hero series), the drum set controller (sold in a box set (or by itself) with a "guitar" controller and a USB microphone (for use with Rock Band and Guitar Hero series (World Tour and newer)), and a taiko drum controller for Taiko: Drum Master.
Specialized controllers include light guns (GunCon), fishing rod and reel controllers, a Dragon Quest VIII "slime" controller, a Final Fantasy X-2 "Tiny Bee" dual pistol controller, an Onimusha 3 katana controller, and a Resident Evil 4 chainsaw controller.
The PlayStation 2 may natively output video using any of the following standards: composite video, S-Video, SCART, VGA (for progressive scan games and PS2 Linux only), YPBPR component video, and D-Terminal. Cables are available for all of these signal types; these cables also output analog stereo audio. Additionally, an RF modulator is available for the system to connect to older TVs.
Mouse Function 
Unlike the PlayStation, which required the use of an official Sony PlayStation Mouse to play mouse-compatible games, the few PS2 games with mouse support work with a standard USB mouse as well as a USB Trackball.
USB Mouse compatible games include: Age of Empires II, Armored Core 2, Armored Core 3, ATV Quad Power Racing 2, Deus Ex, Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII, EverQuest Online Adventures: Frontiers, Final Fantasy XI, Half-Life, Myst III: Exile, Red Faction 2, Resident Evil 4, Resident Evil: Dead Aim, Sky Odyssey, Soldier of Fortune: Gold Edition, Star Trek Elite Force, Tokyo Xtreme Racer 3, Unreal Tournament.
The official PS2 Linux kit also uses the USB mouse and keyboard.
Homebrew development 
Sony released a Linux-based operating system for the PS2 in a package that also includes a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter and HDD. Currently, Sony's online store states that the Linux kit is no longer for sale in North America. However as of July 2005, the European version was still available. The kit boots by installing a proprietary interface, the run-time environment, which is on a region-coded DVD, so the European and North America kits only work with a PS2 from their respective regions.
In Europe and Australia, the PS2 comes with a free Yabasic interpreter on the bundled demo disc. This allows simple programs to be created for the PS2 by the end-user. This was included in a failed attempt to circumvent a UK tax by defining the console as a "computer" if it contained certain software.
Using homebrew programs (e.g. 'SMS Media Player') it is possible to listen to various audio file formats (MP3, OMA, Ogg Vorbis, AAC, FLAC, AC3), and watch various video formats (DivX/XviD, MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4-ASP in AVI Container) using the console. Media can be played from any device connected to the console i.e. external USB/Firewire thumb drive/hard disk drive (FAT32 only), the internal hard disk on early revision consoles, optical CD-R(W)/DVD±R(W) disks (modded systems or patched disks), or network shares (Windows Network or PS2 host: protocol).
Homebrew programs can be launched directly from a memory card on unmodified consoles by using certain software that takes advantage of a long known and used exploit, dealing with the boot part of the EE/IOP process (Independence).
A more recent development (May 2008) called Free McBoot allows homebrew programs to be launched without a trigger disc required by the older exploit. This also allows use of homebrew on unmodded systems without a functional disc drive. However, installation of the exploit to each individual memory card requires an already exploited/modded system in order to launch the installer. Copying from one memory card to another will not work. This newer exploit will not work on the very newest PS2s (SCPH-9000x model with BIOS 2.30 and up) but will work on all models prior to that.
Homebrew programs can be used to play patched backups of original PS2 DVD games on unmodified consoles, and to install retail discs to an installed hard drive on older models (ESR, HDLoader, USBAdvance).
Homebrew emulators of older computer and gaming systems have been developed for the PS2. Using these homebrew programs the PS2 can emulate the following:
- Atari 2600
- Atari 5200
- BBC Micro
- Commodore 64
- Game Boy
- Mega Drive/Genesis
- Sega Master System
- Neo Geo
- Nintendo Entertainment System
- Super Nintendo Entertainment System
Technical specifications 
The specifications of the PlayStation 2 console are as follows, with hardware revisions:
- CPU: 64-bit "Emotion Engine" clocked at 294.912 MHz (299 MHz on newer versions), 10.5 million transistors
- System memory: 32 MB Direct Rambus or RDRAM
- Memory bus Bandwidth: 3.2 gigabytes per second
- Main processor: MIPS R5900 CPU core, 64-bit, little endian (mipsel).
- Coprocessor: FPU (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 1, Floating Point Divider × 1)
- Vector Units: VU0 and VU1 (Floating Point Multiply Accumulator × 9, Floating Point Divider × 1), 32-bit, at 147.456 MHz.
- VU0 typically used for polygon transformations optionally (under parallel or serial connection), physics and other gameplay based things
- VU1 typically used for polygon transformations, lighting and other visual based calculations (Texture matrix able for 2 coordinates (UV/ST))
- Parallel: Results of VU0/FPU sent as another display list via MFIFO (E.G. complex characters/vehicles/etc.)
- Serial: Results of VU0/FPU sent to VU1 (via 3 methods) and can act as an optional geometry pre-processor that does all base work to update the scene every frame (E.G. camera, perspective, boning and laws of movement such as animations or physics)
- Floating Point Performance: 6.2 GFLOPS (single precision 32-bit floating point)
- FPU 0.64 GFLOPS
- VU0 2.44 GFLOPS
- VU1 3.08 GFLOPS (with Internal 0.64 GFLOPS EFU)
- Tri-Strip Geometric transformation (VU0+VU1): 150 million polygons per second
- 3D CG Geometric transformation with raw 3D perspective operations (VU0+VU1): 66-80+ million polygons per second
- 3D CG Geometric transformations at peak bones/movements/effects (textures)/lights (VU0+VU1, parallel or series): 15–20 million polygons per second
- Actual real-world polygons (per frame):500-650k at 30fps, 250-325k at 60fps
- Compressed Image Decoder: MPEG-2
- I/O Processor interconnection: Remote Procedure Call over a serial link, DMA controller for bulk transfer
- Cache memory: Instruction: 16 KB, Data: 8 KB + 16 KB (ScrP)
- Graphics processing unit: "Graphics Synthesizer" clocked at 147.456 MHz
- Pixel pipelines: 16
- Video output resolution: variable from 256×224 to 1920×1080 pixels
- 4 MB Embedded DRAM video memory bandwidth at 48 gigabytes per second (main system 32 MB can be dedicated into VRAM for off-screen materials)
- Texture buffer bandwidth: 9.6 &GB/s
- Frame buffer bandwidth: 38.4 GB/s
- DRAM Bus width: 2560-bit (composed of three independent buses: 1024-bit write, 1024-bit read, 512-bit read/write)
- Pixel configuration: RGB: Alpha:Z Buffer (24:8, 15:1 for RGB, 16, 24, or 32-bit Z buffer)
- Dedicated connection to: Main CPU and VU1
- Overall pixel fillrate: 16×147 = 2.352 Gpixel/s (rounded to 2.4 Gpixel/s)
- Pixel fillrate: with no texture, flat shaded 2.4 (75,000,000 32pixel raster triangles)
- Pixel fillrate: with 1 full texture (Diffuse Map), Gouraud shaded 1.2 (37,750,000 32-bit pixel raster triangles)
- Pixel fillrate: with 2 full textures (Diffuse map + specular or alpha or other), Gouraud shaded 0.6 (18,750,000 32-bit pixel raster triangles)
- GS effects: AAx2 (poly sorting required), Bilinear, Trilinear, Multi-pass, Palletizing (4-bit = 6:1 ratio, 8-bit = 3:1)
- Multi-pass rendering ability
- Audio: "SPU1+SPU2" (SPU1 is actually the CPU clocked at 8 MHz)
- Sound Memory: 2 MB
- Number of voices: 48 hardware channels of ADPCM on SPU2 plus software-mixed channels
- Sampling Frequency: 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz (selectable)
- Output: Dolby Digital 5.1 Surround sound, DTS (Full motion video only), later games achieved analog 5.1 surround during gameplay through Dolby Pro Logic II
- I/O Processor
- I/O Memory: 2 MB
- CPU Core: Original PlayStation CPU (MIPS R3000A clocked at 33.8688 MHz or 37.5 MHz)
- Automatically underclocked to 33.8688 MHz to achieve hardware backwards compatibility with original PlayStation format games.
- Sub Bus: 32-bit
- Connection to: SPU and CD/DVD controller.
- 2 proprietary PlayStation controller ports (250 kHz clock for PS1 and 500 kHz for PS2 controllers)
- 2 proprietary Memory Card slots using MagicGate encryption (250 kHz for PS1 cards, up to 2 MHz for PS2 cards)
- 2 USB 1.1 ports with an OHCI-compatible controller
- AV Multi Out (Composite video, S-Video, RGsB (SCART and VGA connector†), YPBPR(component), and D-Terminal)
- RFU DC Out
- S/PDIF Digital Out
- Expansion Bay for 3.5" HDD (Network Adaptor required, SCPH-10000 to 500xx only)
- Ethernet port (Slim only)
- PCMCIA for PCMCIA Network Adaptor and External Hard Disk Drive (early models only)
- i.LINK (SCPH-10000 to 3000x only)
- Infrared remote control port (SCPH-500xx and newer)
- Disc Drive type: proprietary interface through a custom micro-controller + DSP chip. 24x speed CD-ROM, 4x speed DVD-ROM — Region-locked with anti-copy protection. Can't read Gold Discs.
- Supported Disc Media: PlayStation 2 format CD-ROM, PlayStation format CD-ROM, CD-DA, PlayStation 2 format DVD-ROM, DVD Video. DVD5 (Single-layer, 4.7 GB) and DVD9 (Dual-layer, 8.5 GB) supported. Later models starting with SCPH-500xx are DVD+RW and DVD-RW compatible.
Disc Read Error (DRE) Lawsuit 
A class action lawsuit was filed against Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc. on July 16, 2002, in the Superior Court of California, County of San Mateo. The lawsuit addresses consumer reports of inappropriate "no disc error" (disc read error) messages and other problems associated with playing DVDs and CDs on the PlayStation 2.
Sony settled its "disc read error" lawsuit by compensating the affected gamers with USD $25, a free game from a specified list, and the reduced cost repair or replacement (at SCEA's discretion) of the damaged system. This settlement was subject to the courts' approval, and hearings began in the US and Canada on April 28, 2006, and May 11, 2006, respectively.
See also 
- HDD Utility Disc
- PCSX2 – PlayStation 2 (PS2) emulator for Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X
- PlayStation Broadband Navigator
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: PlayStation 2|
- US Official PlayStation website
- PlayStation 2 at the Open Directory Project
- US Official PlayStation 2 website