Player preferences among new and old violins
In 2010, Claudia Fritz, a researcher from the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris, and the violinmaker Joseph Curtin organized a double-blind study, which was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in which 21 professional violinists tried to identify which violins were old (including 2 Stradivarius and a Guarneri 'del Gesu'), which were new, and which they preferred.
Fritz and Curtin performed the experiment at the Eighth International Violin Competition of Indianapolis (IVCI), selecting participants for the experiment from the competitors and judges. The experiment was held in a dim room, with the participants wearing welding goggles so they could not identify the instruments. Additionally, perfume was placed on the chin rest of the violins to avoid identification through smell.
Three tests were performed :
- Head-to-head challenge - 10 pairs (one old, one new) of violins were each played for one minute per instrument, but the subjects were not told that the pairs contained one old and one new violin. Then, each subject judged both instruments on tonal color range, projection, playability, and response.
- Pick-one challenge - All six instruments were available to be played however desired for 20 minutes, with the subject instructed to "pick one to take home".
- Concert challenge - Zack DePue, the concertmaster of the violin competition, played the instruments on stage in front of the 1500 participants of the violin competition.
A total of six violins were tested, three old and three new. The combined value of the old violins was approximately $10,000,000 USD. This was roughly 100 times the value of the new violins.
The three new violins were each made by a different luthier and were from several days to several years old. "They were chosen from a pool of violins assembled by the authors, who then selected the three they felt (i) had the most impressive playing qualities and (ii) contrasted with each other in terms of character of sound."
The number of violins tested was small due to time constraints and the difficulty in obtaining multimillion dollar instruments to be played by blindfolded strangers.
The older violins were loaned to the experiment by those in attendance at the IVCI, with the stipulation that they not be modified in any way (strings, sound post placement, etc.) and with the additional restriction that the lender and the violins not be individually identified.
|O1||Antonio Stradivari (c.1700)||"...once the principal instrument of a well-known 20th century violinist, and currently belongs to an institution that loans it to gifted violinists. It came to us from a soloist who had used it for numerous concerts and several commercial recordings in recent years."|
|O2||Guarneri ‘del Gesu’ (c.1740)||"...from the maker’s late period, during which he made some of his most celebrated violins."|
|O3||Antonio Stradivari (c.1715)||"...from the maker’s ‘Golden Period,’ and has been used by a number of well-known violinists for concerts and recordings."|
Twenty one violin players were used as subjects in the experiment. Four subjects were contestants in the IVCI competition, two were jury members. The others were members of the Indianapolis Symphony. Two of the contestants were eventually selected by the IVCI competition as "competition laureates".
All of the players played all of the violins, using their own bow. Four of the subjects did not bring a bow and were provided a "high quality" bow by the experiment's organizers.
- the most-preferred violin was new;
- the least-preferred was by Stradivari;
- there was low correlation between an instrument's age and monetary value and its perceived quality;
- most players seemed unable to tell whether their most-preferred instrument was new or old.
13 of the 21 violinists preferred the new violins. Only eight subjects chose an old violin to take home. The violinists could not reliably identify which instruments were old and which were new.
The study revealed that there was not a statistical correlation between the age of an instrument and whether it was preferred in the head-to-head competition.
Earl Carlyss, a member of the Juilliard String Quartet, was critical of the study, saying it used totally inappropriate methods of evaluating the quality of the instruments. He said that what makes the older violins better is how they sound to an audience in a concert hall and that it is irrelevant whether a violinist prefers a certain violin in a hotel room. He felt the test was as valid as comparing a Ford and a Ferrari in a parking lot.
Samuel Zygmuntowicz, a noted violin maker, however said the study is "highly credible" and that it "puts cold water on some old myths and should certainly be good news to young musicians who yearn for violins that they will never afford."
Some commenters (including participants in the study) have criticized that the old violins may not have been recently adjusted or may have had older strings, while the new violins were adjusted by the study organizers.
John Soloninka, who was one of the violinists who played in the study, said "It was fascinating. I too, expected to be able to tell the difference, but could not" and that "If, after this, you cling to picayune critiques and dismiss the study, then I think you are in denial. If 21 of us could not tell in controlled circumstances and 1500 people could not tell any differences in a hall, and this is consistent with past studies…then it is time to put the myths out to pasture."
Ariane Todes, editor of The Strad magazine and one of the participants in the study, reported "It's a stretch to get to the myth-busting generalisation that violinists can't tell a Strad from a modern instrument. There are too many philosophical issues and variables to be definitive about that. However the data clusters around a popular modern instrument and an unpopular Stradivari force one to consider the preconceptions that are so hardwired. Although of course, here at The Strad, it comes as no surprise to us that modern instruments can sound fantastic."
Another participant, Laurie Niles, has criticized the characterization of the study - stating that she wasn't asked to identify old vs new violins, only state what her preferences were. She also noted that the new violins were adjusted by the organizers, while the old violins were in whatever state the lender had them. Her overall conclusion was "I think we can conclude that, with a very limited amount of playing time and under circumstances that are a lot like those in a violin shop (a dry room, lots of testing), we are just as impressed with the tonality of great new instruments as with the tonality of great old ones." She added: "Honestly, I have no issue with the idea that a well-made modern can sound as good as an $8 million Strad. The moderns I played under these odd circumstances were just beautiful-sounding. The old Italians were, too. This is good news for us violinists, because virtually none of us can afford a multi-million dollar Strad. "
There have been many comparisons of Stradivarius and other old violins with more recent violins since 1817. They generally have not found differences in either subjective impressions or acoustic analysis. However, the tests have been criticized on various grounds. In a well-known 1977 experiment, Isaac Stern and Pinchas Zukerman and a classical violin dealer, Charles Beare, listened to a Stradivarius, a Guarneri, and a 1976 British violin. They were also unable to identify which instrument was which, and two of them mistakenly identified the 1976 violin as the Stradivarius.
- Article about this study in Claudia Fritz's official website
- Science vs The Strad - A BBC radio program comparing old instruments to new with sound tests
The experience of three participants in the study:
- Fritz, Claudia; Joseph Curtin, Jacques Poitevineau, Palmer Morrel-Samuels, and Fan-Chia Tao (3). "Player preferences among new and old violin". PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109. doi:10.1073/pnas.1114999109.
- "Double-Blind Violin Test: Can You Pick The Strad?". NPR. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- Shea, Christopher (January 3, 2012). "Are ‘Old Italian’ Violins Overrated?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Study shows even professional musicians can't tell old master violins from new". PhysOrg.com. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Stradivariusa po dźwięku nie poznacie...". Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Stradivari – voller Klang oder nur klangvoller Name?". Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Double-blind violin test: Pick out the Stradivarius. Study finds classic instruments not always the best.". Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- Fritz et al. "Supporting Information (to the Study)". Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- Wade, Nicholas (January 2, 2012). "In Classic vs. Modern Violins, Beauty Is in Ear of the Beholder". NY Times. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Violinists can’t tell the difference between Stradivarius violins and new ones". Discover Magazine. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- Soloninka, John & Lebrecht, Norman. "Exclusive: how I blind-tested old violins against new". ArtsJournal.com. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Todes,Ariane. "Double blind tests – the inside story What really happened in an Indianapolis hotel room with six top violins? Ariane Todes reveals all". The Strad. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Niles, Laurie. "What Really Happened in that Double-Blind Violin Sound Test". violinist.com. Retrieved January 8, 2012.
- Beamen, John (2000). The Violin Explained: Components, Mechanism, and Sound. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-19-816739-3. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
- Coggins, Alan (Feb. 2007). "Blind Listening Tests". The Strad: 52–55. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- "Million-dollar Stradivarius loses out in play-off with modern violin". Sydney Morning Herald. January 4, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2012.