Pleiades in folklore and literature

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Pleiades seen with the naked-eye (upper-left corner).[1]

The high visibility of the star cluster Pleiades in the night sky has guaranteed it a special place in many cultures, both ancient and modern.

The astrological Pleiades was originally described in Three Books of Occult Philosophy by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (Köln, 1533, but published manuscript as early as 1510).

The heliacal rising of Pleiades often marks important calendar points for ancient peoples.[2]

North Africa[edit]

Berber people[edit]

Kabbalistic "Pleiades" symbol from Libri tres de occulta philosophia (1531) by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa.

The Tuareg Berbers living in the desert of North Africa call the Pleiades Cat iheḍ (pronounced: shat ihedd), or Cat ahăḍ (pronounced: shat ahadd). The name means in Berber: "daughters of the night". Other Berbers call this star cluster: Amanar (meaning: "the guide") or Tagemmunt (meaning: "the group").[citation needed]

A Tuareg Berber proverb says:

Cat ahăḍ as uḍănăt, ttukayeɣ ttegmyeɣ, anwar daɣ ttsasseɣ. As d-gmaḍent, ttukayeɣ ttegmyeɣ tabruq ttelseɣ.

Translation: When the Pleiades fall, I wake up looking for my goatskin bag to drink. When (the Pleiades) rise, I wake up looking for a cloth to wear.

Meaning: When the Pleiades "fall" with the sun on the west, it means the hot season is coming, which implies the heat and the thirst of the summer. When the Pleiades rise from the east with the sun, it means the cold and rainy season is coming, and thus one does well to prepare for the cold.[3][4][5]

Middle East[edit]

Bible[edit]

In the Bible, the Pleiades are mentioned as כימה ("Khima") three times, always in conjunction with Orion—Amos 5:8; Job 9:9; and Job 38:31. The first two verses are references about their creation, but the third (taken in the context of the following verses) may be more about their ongoing appearance in the night sky. In Job 38:31, the Lord is speaking directly to Job and challenges him, asking if he can bind the chains of the Pleiades—the implication being that Job cannot, but the Lord can. Talmud (Bavli, Berakhot, 58b) says that it has about 100 stars, understanding the word כימה as כמאה ke' me-ah, "about one hundred" in Hebrew.

They are known as kimah in Jewish culture.

Arabia and the Levant[edit]

In Arabic the Pleiades are known as al-Thurayya الثريا, and mentioned in Islamic literature. Muhammad is noted to have counted 12 stars in the constellation as reported in Ibn Ishaq. During the time before telescopes when most could only see 6. The name was borrowed into Persian and Turkish as a female given name, and is in use throughout the Middle East (for example Princess Soraya of Iran and Thoraya Obaid). It is also the name of the Thuraya satellite phone system based in the United Arab Emirates.

Muhammad made mention of the Pleiades when speaking of the second advent of Jesus in the form of the Promised Messiah of the modern day and age. A Hadith recalled by Imam Bukhari, states:

'A companion of The Holy Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) relates: One day we were sitting with The Holy Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) when this chapter*[6] was revealed. I enquired from Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Who are the people to whom the words "and among others of them who have not yet joined them"** refer? Salman (may Allah be pleased with him), a Persian was sitting among us. The Holy Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) put his hand on Salman (may Allah be pleased with him) and said. If faith were to go up to the Pleiades, a man from among these would surely find it.' (Bukhari).[7]

*The chapter talked about above is Chapter 62[6] - Surah Al-Jummah[8] - from the Qur'an.

**The verse quoted here is verse 4 from the aforementioned chapter.

Turkey[edit]

In Turkish the Pleiades are known as Ülker. According to the Middle Turkic lexicographer Kaşgarlı Mahmud, writing in the 11th century, ülker çerig refers to a military ambush (çerig meaning 'troops in battle formation'): "The army is broken up into detachments posted in various places," and when one detachment falls back the others follow after it, and by this device "(the enemy) is often routed." Thus ülker çerig literally means 'an army made up of a group of detachments', which forms an apt simile for a star cluster.[9]

Iran[edit]

In the Persian language Pleiades is known as "Parvin". Parvin is also a very popular Given name in Iran and neighbouring countries (for example Parvin E'tesami).

Pakistan[edit]

In the Urdu language they are known as "Parvin", and are a symbol of beauty. 'Parvin' also used to be a popular given name for females in Pakistan until some decades ago.

Europe[edit]

The word has acquired a meaning of "multitude", inspiring the name of the French literary movement La Pléiade and an earlier group of Alexandrian poets, the Alexandrian Pleiad.

Greek mythology[edit]

In Greek mythology, the stars of Pleiades represented the Seven Sisters.

Norse mythology[edit]

To the Vikings, the Pleiades were Freyja's hens,[10] and their name in many old European languages compares them to a hen with chicks.[citation needed]

Western astrology[edit]

In Western astrology they represent coping with sorrow[11] and were considered a single one of the medieval fixed stars. As such, they are associated with quartz and fennel.

In esoteric astrology the seven solar systems revolve around Pleiades.[12]

Celtic mythology[edit]

A bronze disk, 1600 BC, from Nebra, Germany, is one of the oldest known representations of the cosmos. The Pleiades are top right. See Nebra sky disk

To the Bronze Age people of Europe, such as the Celts (and probably considerably earlier), the Pleiades were associated with mourning and with funerals, since at that time in history, on the cross-quarter day[dubious ] between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice (see Samhain, also Halloween or All Souls Day), which was a festival devoted to the remembrance of the dead, the cluster rose in the eastern sky as the sun's light faded in the evening. It was from this acronychal rising that the Pleiades became associated with tears and mourning. As a result of precession over the centuries, the Pleiades no longer marked the festival, but the association has nevertheless persisted, and may account for the significance of the Pleiades astrologically.

Ukrainian folklore[edit]

In Ukrainian traditional folklore the Pleiades are known as Стожари (Stozhary), Волосожари (Volosozhary), or Баби-Звізди (Baby-Zvizdy).

'Stozhary' can be etymologically traced to "стожарня" (stozharnya) meaning a 'granary', 'storehouse for hay and crops', or can also be reduced to the root "сто-жар", (sto-zhar) meaning 'hundredfold glowing'.[13]

'Volosozhary' (the ones whose hair is glowing), or 'Baby-Zvizdy' (female-stars) refer to the female tribal deities. Accordingly to the legend, seven maids lived long ago. They used to dance the traditional round dances and sing the glorious songs to honor the gods. After their death the gods turned them into water nymphs, and, having taken them to the Heavens, settled them upon the seven stars, where they dance their round dances (symbolic for moving the time) to this day. (see article in Ukrainian Wikipedia)

In Ukraine this asterism was considered a female talisman until recent times.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas[edit]

(Alphabetical by people)

It was common among the indigenous peoples of the Americas to measure keenness of vision by the number of stars the viewer could see in the Pleiades, a practice which was also used in historical Europe, especially in Greece.[citation needed]

Andean Cultures[edit]

In the ancient Andes, the Pleiades were associated with abundance, because they return to the Southern Hemisphere sky each year at harvest-time. In Quechua they are called Qullqa (storehouse).

Aztec[edit]

The ancient Aztecs of Mexico and Central America based their calendar upon the Pleiades. Their year began when priests first remarked the asterism heliacal rising in the east, immediately before the sun's dawn light obliterated the view of the stars. Aztecs called the Pleiades Tianquiztli (meaning "marketplace").

Blackfoot[edit]

Paul Goble, Native American storyteller, tells a Blackfoot legend that he says is told by other tribes as well. In the story, the Pleiades are orphans ("Lost Boys") that were not cared for by the people, so they became stars. Sun Man is angered by the mistreatment of the children and punishes the people with a drought, causing the buffalo to disappear, until the dogs, the only friends of the orphans, intercede on behalf of the people. Because the buffalo are not available while the Lost Boys are in the skies, the cosmical setting of the Pleaides was an assembly signal for Blackfoot hunter to travel to their hunting grounds to conduct the large-scale hunts, culminating in slaughters at buffalo jumps, that characterized their culture.

Cherokee[edit]

A Cherokee myth (similar to that of the Onondaga people) indicates that seven boys who would not do their ceremonial chores and wanted only to play, ran around and around the ceremonial ball court in a circle, and rose up into the sky. Only six of the boys made it to the sky; the seventh was caught by his mother and fell to the ground with such force that he sunk into the ground. A pine tree grew over his resting place.[14]

Cheyenne[edit]

A Cheyenne myth "The Girl Who Married a Dog", states that the group of seven stars known as the Pleiades originated from seven puppies which a Cheyenne chief's daughter gave birth to after mysteriously being visited by a dog in human form to whom she vowed "Wherever you go, I go".[15]

Hopi[edit]

The Hopi built their underground kivas for multiple utilitarian uses, the most important of which was a ceremonial meeting place. Access was through a ladder in a small hole in the roof of the kiva, and during certain ceremonies, the night passage of the Pleiades over the center of the opening was a direct signal to begin a certain ceremony. Most of the cultures used the angle of the Pleiades in the night sky as a time telling device.

Lakota[edit]

The Lakota Tribe of North America had a legend that linked the origin of the Pleiades to Devils Tower. According to the Seris (of northwestern Mexico), these stars are seven women who are giving birth. The constellation is known as Cmaamc, which is apparently an archaic plural of the noun cmaam "woman".[16]

Mono[edit]

The Monache people tell of six wives who loved onions more than their husbands and now live happily in "sky country".[17]

Monte Alto Culture[edit]

The early Monte Alto Culture and others in Guatemala such as Ujuxte and Takalik Abaj, made its early observatories, using the Pleiades and Eta Draconis as reference, they were called the seven sisters, and thought to be their original land.[18]

Nez Perce[edit]

A Nez Perce myth about this constellation mirrors the ancient Greek myths about the Lost Pleiades. In the Nez Perce version the Pleiades is also a group of sisters, however the story itself is somewhat different. One sister falls in love with a man and, following his death, is so absorbed by her own grief that she tells her sisters about him. They mock her tell her how silly it is of her to feel sad for the human after his death, and she in return keeps her growing sadness to herself, eventually becoming so ashamed and miserable about her own feelings that she pulls the sky over her face like a veil, blocking herself from view. This myth explains why there are only six of the seven stars visible to the naked eye.[19]

Onondaga[edit]

The Onondaga people's version of the story has lazy children who prefer to dance over their daily chores ignoring the warnings of the Bright Shining Old Man.[17]

Shasta[edit]

The Shasta people tell a story of the children of racoon killed by coyote avenging their father's death and then rising into the sky to form the Pleiades. The smallest star in the cluster is said to be coyote's youngest who aided the young racoons.[17]

Asia and Oceania[edit]

Australian mythology[edit]

Depending on the language group or clan, there are several Aboriginal stories regarding the origins of the Pleiades. Some Indigenous Australian peoples believed the Pleiades was a woman who had been nearly raped by Kidili, the man in the moon.

In a legend told by the Wurundjeri people of south-eastern Australia, the Pleiades were represented by the seven Karatgurk sisters. These women were the first to possess the secret of fire and each one carried live coals on the end of her digging stick. Although they refused to share these coals with anybody, they were ultimately tricked into giving up their secret by Crow, who subsequently brought fire to mankind. After this, the Karatgurk sisters were swept into the night sky. Their glowing fire sticks became the bright stars of the Pleiades cluster.[20]

Another version, often painted by Gabriella Possum Nungurayyi as this is her dreaming (or creation story), daughter of the late Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri from the Central desert art movement of Papunya, depicts the story of seven Napaltjarri sisters being chased by a man named Jilbi Tjakamarra. He tried to practice love magic to one of the sisters but the sister did not want to be with him, and ran away from him together with her sisters. They sat down at Uluru to search for honey ants but when they saw Jilbi, they went to Kurlunyalimpa and with the spirits of Uluru, transformed into stars. Jilbi transforms himself into what is commonly known as the Morning Star in Orion's belt[citation needed], thus continuing to chase the seven sisters across the sky.

New Zealand[edit]

Occurring June 20 – June 22 the Maruaroa o Takurua is seen by the New Zealand Maori as the middle of the winter season. It follows directly after the rise of Matariki (Pleiades) which marked the beginning of the New Year and was said to be when the Sun turned from his northern journey with his winter-bride Takurua (the star Sirius) and began his journey back to his Summer-bride Hineraumati.

Ben Raji mythology[edit]

Among the Ban Raji people, who live in semi-nomadic settlements scattered throughout western Nepal and northern India, the Pleiades are called the "Seven sisters-in-law and one brother-in-law" (Hatai halyou daa salla). Ban Rajis note that when the Pleiades rises up over the mountain each night, they feel happy to see their ancient kin (Fortier 2008:in press). On a more practical note, Ban Rajis can tell that evening has arrived, indicating that it is about eight o'clock by local time standards when their star-kin rise above the Nepali mountains bordering the Kali River.

China[edit]

In Chinese constellations, they are 昴 mao, the Hairy Head of the white tiger of the West.

Indian astrology[edit]

In Indian astrology the Pleiades were known as the asterism (nakshatra) Kṛttikā (which in Sanskrit is translated as "the cutters").[21] The Pleiades are called the star of fire, and their ruling deity is the Vedic god Agni, the god of the sacred fire. It is one of the most prominent of the nakshatras, and is associated with anger and stubbornness. The name of the Hindu God Kartikeya means him of the Pleiades.கார்த்திகை (karthigai) in Tamil refers to 6 wives of 6 Rishis the seventh being Arundhati the wife of Vasistha the seventh Sage(Rishi)relate to star Alcyone.

Indonesia[edit]

In Javanese it is known as "Lintang Kartika". This name derived from Sanskrit word "Kṛttikā", one of Nakshatra in Hindu astrology.

Japan[edit]

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Former Subaru logo on a Subaru 360

In Japan, the Pleiades are known as 昴 Subaru which means "coming together" or cluster in Japanese, and have given their name to the car manufacturer whose logo incorporates six stars to represent the five companies that merged into one.[22] Subaru Telescope, located in Mauna Kea Observatory on Hawaii, is also named after the Pleiades.[23]

Philippines[edit]

In the Philippines, the Pleiades is called Moropóro, Molopólo or Mapúlon by various ethnic groups throughout the archipelago. Christian Filipinos know it as either Supot ni Hudas (Judas' pouch) or Rosaryo (rosary). [24]

Polynesian mythologies[edit]

The heliacal rising of the Pleiades (around June) begins the new year for the Māori of New Zealand, who call the Pleiades Matariki. There is an analogous holiday in Hawaiʻi known as Makahiki.[25]

Thailand[edit]

In Thailand, the Pleiades are known as "ดาวลูกไก่" (RTGS: Dao Luk Kai) or the "Chicken Family Stars," from a tale of the Thai folklore:

A poor elderly couple who lived in a forest in Thailand had raised a family of chickens: a mother hen and her six chicks. One day a monk arrived at the couple's home during his Dhutanga journey. Worried that they had no suitable food to offer him, the elderly couple contemplated cooking the mother hen. The hen overheard the conversation, and rushed back to the coop to say farewell to her children. She told them to take care of themselves, and that her death would repay the kindness of the elderly couple, who had taken care of all of them for so long. As the mother hen's feathers were being burned over a fire, the six chicks threw themselves into fire in order to die along with their mother. The deity Indra, impressed by and in remembrance of their love, immortalized the seven chickens as the stars of the Pleiades.[26]

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

In the Swahili language of East Africa they are called "kilimia" (Proto-Bantu *ki-dimida in Bantu areas E, F, G, J, L, and S) which comes from the verb -lima meaning "dig" or "cultivate" as their visibility was taken as a sign to prepare digging as the onset of the rain was near.

In the closely related Sesotho language of the Southern Africa's Basotho people the Pleiades are called "Seleme se setshehadi" ("the female planter"). Its disappearance in April (the 10th month) and the appearance of the star Achernar signals the beginning of the cold season. Like many other Southern African cultures, Basotho associate its visibility with agriculture and plenty.

Modern beliefs[edit]

Theosophy[edit]

In Theosophy, it is believed the Seven Stars of the Pleiades focus the spiritual energy of the Seven Rays from the Galactic Logos to the Seven Stars of the Great Bear, then to Sirius, then to the Sun, then to the god of Earth (Sanat Kumara) and finally through the seven Masters of the Seven Rays to us.[27]

UFOs[edit]

In Ufology some believers describe Nordic alien extraterrestrials (called Pleiadeans) as originating from this system.

New Age[edit]

In New Age lore, some believe that Sun and the Earth will pass through a Photon belt from the Pleiades, causing a cataclysm and/or initiating a spiritual transition (referred to variously as a "shift in consciousness," the "Great Shift," the "Shift of the Ages").

Pleiades in popular culture[edit]

Subaru logo featuring the Pleiades as company a representation of the five companies that merged to form its parent company, Fuji Heavy Industries (FHI).

Literature[edit]

Music[edit]

  • Mentioned in the 311 song "No Control".
  • Mentioned in the Red Hot Chili Peppers song "Can't Stop".
  • Mentioned in the song "Emily" by Joanna Newsom.
  • Seven Sisters Stars is mentioned in the song "You Woke Up My Neighbourhood" by Billy Bragg.
  • There is a song titled "Pleiades" on Gretchen Goes to Nebraska, the sophomore offering from progressive metal band King's X.
  • Mentioned in the Jimmy Buffett song "Desdemonas Building a Rocket Ship".
  • American indie-rock band Correatown has an album titled Pleiades (released September 20, 2011).
  • Mentioned in Celldweller songs "The Seven Sisters" and "Memories of a Girl I Haven't Met", both from the album Wish Upon a Blackstar.
  • There is a goa trance band called "Pleiadians" (formed from the members of Etnica) who have a song called "Seven Sisters".
  • Indie-industrial band Hanzel und Gretyl has a song called "Pleiadian Agenda" .
  • Japanese singer and songwriter Shinji Tanimura wrote a famous song called "Subaru" 《昴》, named after the Pleiades star cluster in Japanese.
  • Japanese singer Subaru Shibutani was named after the star cluster Pleiades in the Japanese language
  • Singer Jon Anderson of the musical group Yes mentions the Pleiades in "Hurry Home (Song for the Pleiades)" and "Top of the World (Glass Bead Game)" from his solo album City of Angels in 1988.
  • Electronic and acoustic music artist Celestial Ceiling frequently references the Pleiades in album and track titles, most notably the record "Daughters of Atlas" (2009), and tracks "Makali'i" and "The Gates of Alcyon." He has also claimed in radio interviews to have been visited by beings from the Pleiades.

Science Fiction[edit]

Video games[edit]

  • The Pleiades are also referenced in Persona 2 with the name of "Seven Sisters High School", which some of the characters attend.
  • In Super Smash Bros. Brawl, the Lylat Cruise stage is situated on an original spacecraft that does not appear in the Star Fox series called Pleiades.
  • One image of the Pleiades was selected for the cover art of the US release of the Xexyz video game.
  • The character Subaru Hidaka from the Japanese Visual Novel "Robotics;Notes" utilizes the pseudonym "Mr. Pleiades" as his name Subaru means Pleiades.

Card games[edit]

  • In Yu-Gi-Oh, there is a card named Constellar Pleiades.

Other[edit]

  • Subaru is the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster, which inspires the logo for the Subaru brand automotive manufacturer.
  • The Pleiades cluster is the destination of the Gall Force in the OVA Gall Force New Era.

Quotations[edit]

Δέδυκε μεν ἀ σελάννα
καὶ Πληΐαδες, μέσαι δὲ
νύκτες πάρα δ᾽ ἔρχετ᾽ ὤρα,
ἔγω δὲ μόνα κατεύδω.

The Moon is set,
And the Pleiades.
Night's half gone,
Time's passing.
I sleep alone now.
 
Sappho
Which maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades,
and the chambers of the south.
 
Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades,
or loose the bands of Orion?
 
Seek him that maketh the seven stars and Orion.
 
It behoveth you to seek agreement and to be united;
it behoveth you to be in close communion one with the other,
at one both in body and soul,
till ye match the Pleiades
or a string of lustrous pearls.
 
'Abdu'l-Bahá, Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, p. 85
Slave of the wheel of labor, what to him
Are Plato and the swing of Pleiades?
 
Many a night I saw the Pleiads, rising thro' the mellow shade,
Glitter like a swarm of fireflies tangled in a silver braid.
 
Alfred Tennyson, Locksley Hall
Can I get two maybe even three of these,
Comin' from a space to teach you of the Pleiades.
 
Pleiades callin' her home
Seven Sisters, she hears her distant Sisters
 
Jimmy Buffett, "Desdemona's Building a Rocket Ship"
Though all I knew of the rote universe were those Pleiades, loosed in December,
I promised you I'd set them to verse, so I'd always remember
 
Joanna Newsom, "Emily"
Our shells clacked on the plates.
My tongue was a filling estuary,
My palate hung with starlight:

As I tasted the salty Pleiades
Orion dipped his foot into the water.

 
Seamus Heaney, "Oysters"
Last night I saw the Pleiades again,
   Faint as a drift of steam
      From some tall chimney-stack;
 
Arthur Adams, "The Pleiades"
The Pleiades are an extraordinarily beautiful and brilliant star cluster in the constellation of Taurus. I have a large picture of them hanging in my recording studio, and sometimes when I look at this picture, I am inspired to compose a certain kind of music, which is very different from the music I usually compose, and very different from anything I have ever heard before. This album is a collection of those pieces.;
 
Gerald Jay Markoe, From the insert of the 1989 album Music From The Pleiades

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ancient Constellations over ALMA". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Brad Schaefer (Yale University). Heliacal Rising: Definitions, Calculations, and some Specific Cases (Essays from Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy News, the Quarterly Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Number 25.)
  3. ^ Étoiles et constellations chez les nomades, Edmond Bernus & Ehya ag-Sidiyene, Awal magazine, 1989, Édition de la maison des sciences de l'homme, Paris, France
  4. ^ Étoiles et constellations chez les nomades, Edmond Bernus & Ehya ag-Sidiyene
  5. ^ Essai sur les origines des Touaregs
  6. ^ a b http://www.alislam.org/quran/tafseer/?page=1135&region=EN
  7. ^ http://www.alislam.org/topics/messiah/index.php
  8. ^ http://www.alislam.org/quran/tafseer/?page=1136&region=EN
  9. ^ Clauson, Gerard (1972). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 143. 
  10. ^ Fred N. Brown (2007). Rediscovering Vinland : evidence of ancient Viking presence in America. New York: iUniverse. p. 128. ISBN 0595436803. 
  11. ^ Morse, Eric (1988). The Living Stars. London: Amethyst Books.
  12. ^ Bailey, Alice (1934). Esoteric Astrology. New York: Lucis Publishing Company.
  13. ^ The Comprehensive Dictionary of the Contemporary Ukrainian Language. Perun Publishers, 2005.
  14. ^ a b Kingsolver, Barbara (1993). Pigs in Heaven. Harper Perennial. pp. 90–91. 
  15. ^ The Girl Who Married A Dog
  16. ^ Moser, Mary B.; Stephen A. Marlett (2005). Comcáac quih yaza quih hant ihíip hac: Diccionario seri-español-inglés (PDF) (in Spanish and English). Hermosillo, Sonora and Mexico City: Universidad de Sonora and Plaza y Valdés Editores. 
  17. ^ a b c Monroe, [compiled by] Jean Guard; Stewart, Ray A. Williamson ; illustrations by Edgar (1987). They dance in the sky : Native American star myths. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 1–14. ISBN 0-395-39970-X. 
  18. ^ Maya Astronomy
  19. ^ Clark, Ella (1953). Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-520-00243-1. 
  20. ^ Mudrooroo (1994). Aboriginal mythology: An A-Z spanning the history of the Australian Aboriginal people from the earliest legends to the present day. London: Thorsons. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-1-85538-306-7. 
  21. ^ Dennis M. Harness. The Nakshatras: The Lunar Mansions of Vedic Astrology. Lotus Press (Twin Lakes WI, 1999.) ISBN 978-0-914955-83-2
  22. ^ Subaru of America, Inc. FAQ
  23. ^ A Brief History of Subaru
  24. ^ http://opinion.inquirer.net/inquireropinion/talkofthetown/view/20080202-116441/Bal%E1tik_and_Morop%F3ro_Stars_of_Philippine_skies
  25. ^ Hawaiian Voyaging Course
  26. ^ Thaiculture.com
  27. ^ Baker, Dr. Douglas The Seven Rays:Key to the Mysteries 1952