|Cultural origins||Puerto Rico|
|Typical instruments||güícharo, cuatro, bass, trombone, sax|
|Music of Puerto Rico|
|You may listen to a "Potpourri of Plenas" interpreted by Rene Ramos here.|
|Music of Puerto Rico|
|Nationalistic and patriotic songs|
|National anthem||La Borinqueña|
Plena is a genre of music, chant and dance native to Puerto Rico.
The plena originated in Ponce around 1900. It was first heard in the neighbourhood Barriada de la Torre, whose population consisted mostly of immigrants from St. Kitts, Tortola, and St. Thomas, who had settled on the island since the late 1800s.
At the beginning, sung texts were not associated with the plena, which was rendered by guitar, accordion and pandero; eventually, in 1907, singing was added.
The music is generally folkloric. The music's beat and rhythm are usually played using hand drums called panderetas, but also known as panderos. The music is accompanied by a scrape gourd, the guiro. Pleneras resemble tambourines but without the jingles. These are handheld drums with stretched animal skins, usually goat skin, covering a round wooden frame. They are three different sizes of pandereta used in plena: the Tumbador (the largest of the three), the Seguidor (the medium-sized drum), and the Requinto. An advantage of this percussion arrangement is its portability, contributing to the plena's spontaneous appearance at any social gathering. Other instruments commonly heard in plena music are the cuatro, the maracas, and accordions.
The fundamental melody of the plena, as in all regional Puerto Rican music, has a decided Spanish strain; it is marked in the resemblance between the plena Santa María and a song composed in the Middle Ages by Alfonso the Wise, King of Spain. The lyrics of plena songs are usually octosyllabic and assonant. Following the universal custom the theme touches upon all phases of life—romance, politics, and current events—in fact, anything which appeals to the imagination of the people, such as the arrival of a personage, a crime, a bank moratorium, or a hurricane.
Plena was often called the periodico cantado or "sung newspaper" for the lower classes because it spread messages among people, similar to the corridos in Mexico. The traditional center of plena was probably San Antón, a barrio of Ponce, although the black neighborhood of Loíza is also mentioned as the heartland for the genre. Its popularity peaked in the 1920s.
Plena is played throughout Puerto Rico especially during special occasions such as the Christmas season, and as the musical backdrop for civic protests, due to its traditional use as a vehicle for social commentary. Whenever plena is played the audience also joins in the singing, clapping, and dancing.
As a folk genre, there have been many good composers, some well known in their day and into the present. Perhaps one of the genre's most celebrated composers and performers was Manuel Jiménez, known as 'El Canario'. Certainly, there were many others, including such greats as Ramito, Ismael Rivera, Mon Rivera (the Younger), and Rafael Cortijo. The genre has had a revival recently, as evident by the emergence of many plena bands (such as Plena Libre, Atabal , and Viento de agua) and its use in various songs, such as Ricky Martin's recent song "Pégate" and Ivy Queen's "Vamos A Celebrar".
- Aparicio, Frances R., "Listening to salsa: gender, Latin popular music, and Puerto Rican cultures", Wesleyan University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-8195-6308-8. Cf. Chapter Two: A Sensual Mulatta Called the Plena, pp. 27–44.
- Welcome to Puerto Rico: Music - see Bomba y Plena