Pleuronectidae

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Righteye flounders
Pleuronectes platessa.jpg
European plaice, Pleuronectes platessa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Pleuronectiformes
Suborder: Pleuronectoidei
Family: Pleuronectidae
G. Cuvier, 1816
Subfamilies & Genera[1]

Subfamily Paralichthodinae

Genus Paralichthodes

Subfamily Pleuronectinae

Genus Acanthopsetta
Genus Atheresthes
Genus Cleisthenes
Genus Clidoderma
Genus Dexistes
Genus Embassichthys
Genus Eopsetta
Genus Glyptocephalus
Genus Hippoglossoides
Genus Hippoglossus
Genus Hypsopsetta
Genus Isopsetta
Genus Kareius
Genus Lepidopsetta
Genus Limanda
Genus Liopsetta
Genus Lyopsetta
Genus Microstomus
Genus Parophrys
Genus Platichthys
Genus Pleuronectes
Genus Pleuronichthys
Genus Psettichthys
Genus Pseudopleuronectes
Genus Reinhardtius
Genus Tanakius
Genus Verasper

Subfamily Poecilopsettinae

Genus Marleyella
Genus Nematops
Genus Poecilopsetta

Subfamily Rhombosoleinae

Genus Ammotretis
Genus Azygopus
Genus Colistium
Genus Oncopterus
Genus Pelotretis
Genus Peltorhamphus
Genus Psammodiscus
Genus Rhombosolea
Genus Taratretis

Righteye flounders are a family, Pleuronectidae, of flounders. They are called "righteye flounders" because most species lie on the sea bottom on their left side, with both eyes on the right side.[1] The Paralichthyidae are the opposite, with their eyes on the left side. A small number of species in Pleuronectidae can also have their eyes on the left side, notably the members of the genus Platichthys.[2][3]

Their dorsal and anal fins are long and continuous, with the dorsal fin extending forward onto the head. Females lay eggs that float in mid-water until the larvae develop, and they sink to the bottom.[4]

They are found on the bottoms of oceans around the world, with some species, such as the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, being found down to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). The smaller species eat sea-floor invertebrates such as polychaetes and crustaceans, but the larger righteye flounders, such as H. hippoglossus, which grows up to 4.7 metres (15 ft) in length,[5] feed on other fishes and cephalopods as well.

They include many important commercially fished species, including not only the various fish called flounders, but also the European plaice, the halibuts, the lemon sole, the common dab, the Pacific Dover sole, and the flukes.

The name of the family is derived from the Greek πλευρά (pleura), meaning "rib" or "side", and νηκτόν (nekton), meaning "swimming".

Classification[edit]

The family has four subfamilies:

In some classifications the last three subfamilies are raised to the level of families.[6][7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Pleuronectidae" in FishBase. October 2012 version.
  2. ^ Eschmeyer W.N.; Herald, E.S.; and Hammann, H. (1983). A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes. Peterson Field Guides. ISBN 978-0618002122
  3. ^ Muus, B.J; Nielsen, J.G.; Dahlstrøm, P.; Nyström, B.O. (1991). Sea Fish. ISBN 978-8790787004
  4. ^ Chapleau, Francois & Amaoka, Kunio (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 224. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  5. ^ "Hippoglossus hippoglossus". Fishbase. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly (editors). 5 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  6. ^ J. A. Cooper and F. Chapleau (1998). "Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification". Fish. Bull. 96 (4): 686–726. 
  7. ^ "Pleuronectidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 April 2006.