Pliosauridae

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Pliosauridae
Temporal range: 199.6–89.3Ma
Liopleurodon ferox 2.jpg
Liopleurodon ferox skull
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Sauropterygia
Order: Plesiosauria
Node: Neoplesiosauria
Suborder: Pliosauroidea
Family: Pliosauridae
Seeley, 1874

Pliosauridae is a family of pliosauroid plesiosaurs from the Earliest Jurassic to the early Late Cretaceous (Hettangian to Turonian stages) of Australia, Europe, North America and South America. Past the Turonian, these animals may have been replaced by the mosasaurs. It was formally named by Harry G. Seeley in 1874.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

Pliosauridae is a stem-based taxon defined in 2011 (and earlier in other studies) as "all taxa more closely related to Pliosaurus brachydeirus than to Leptocleidus superstes, Polycotylus latipinnis or Meyerasaurus victor".[1] The family Brachauchenidae has been proposed to include pliosauroids which have very short necks and may include Brachauchenius and Kronosaurus.[2] However, modern cladistic analyses found that this group is actually a subfamily of pliosaurids,[3] and possibly even the "crown group" of Pliosauridae.[4] The cladogram below follows a 2011 analysis by paleontologists Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson, and reduced to genera only.[5]

Pliosauroidea

Rhomaleosauridae


Pliosauridae

Thalassiodracon




Hauffiosaurus




Attenborosaurus





BMNH R2439



Marmornectes





"Pliosaurus" andrewsi





OUMNH J.02247



Peloneustes





Simolestes




Liopleurodon




Pliosaurus


Brachaucheninae

Megacephalosaurus[6]




Brachauchenius



Kronosaurus














References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ketchum, H.F.; Benson, R.B.J. (2010). "Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 85 (2): 361–392. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00107.x. PMID 20002391. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Gasparini, Zulma (2009). "A New Oxfordian Pliosaurid (Plesiosauria, Pliosauridae) in the Caribbean Seaway" (pdf). Palaeontology 52 (3): 661–669. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00871.x. 
  4. ^ Ketchum, H.F.; Benson, R.B.J. (2011). "The cranial anatomy and taxonomy of Peloneustes philarchus (Sauropterygia, Pliosauridae) from the Peterborough Member (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of the UK". Palaeontology 54 (3): 639–665. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01050.x. 
  5. ^ Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson (2011). "A new pliosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Oxford Clay Formation (Middle Jurassic, Callovian) of England: evidence for a gracile, longirostrine grade of Early-Middle Jurassic pliosaurids". Special Papers in Palaeontology 86: 109–129. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01083.x. 
  6. ^ Schumacher, B. A.; Carpenter, K.; Everhart, M. J. (2013). "A new Cretaceous Pliosaurid (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Carlile Shale (middle Turonian) of Russell County, Kansas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (3): 613. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.722576.  edit