Baya weaver

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Baya weaver
Baya Weaver Gobi.jpg
Male of race philippinus
Baya Weaver (Female) I IMG 9727.jpg
Female of race philippinus
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Ploceidae
Genus: Ploceus
Species: P. philippinus
Binomial name
Ploceus philippinus
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Baya Weaver.jpg
Approximate distribution of the baya weaver

The baya weaver (Ploceus philippinus) is a weaverbird found across the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Flocks of these birds are found in grasslands, cultivated areas, scrub and secondary growth and they are best known for their hanging retort shaped nests woven from leaves. These nest colonies are usually found on thorny trees or palm fronds and the nests are often built near water or hanging over water where predators cannot reach easily. They are widespread and common within their range but are prone to local, seasonal movements mainly in response to rain and food availability.

Male of burmanicus race with the bright yellow crown

Among the population variations, three subspecies are recognized. The nominate race philippinus is found through much of mainland India while burmanicus is found eastwards into Southeast Asia. The population in southwest India is darker above and referred to as subspecies travancoreensis.[2]

Description[edit]

These are sparrow-sized (15 cm) and in their non-breeding plumage, both males and females resemble female house sparrows. They have a stout conical bill and a short square tail. Non-breeding males and females look alike, dark brown streaked fulvous buff above, plain (unstreaked) whitish fulvous below, eyebrow long and buff coloured, bill is horn coloured and no mask. Breeding males have a bright yellow crown, dark brown mask, blackish brown bill, upper parts are dark brown streaked with yellow, with a yellow breast and cream buff below.[3][4]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Baya Weaver flock in urban area, palm plantation behind where they make their nests; from Kolkata outskirt, West Bengal, India.

Baya weavers are social and gregarious birds. They forage in flocks for seeds, both on the plants and on the ground. Flocks fly in close formations, often performing complicated manoeuvres. They are known to glean paddy and other grain in harvested fields, and occasionally damage ripening crops and are therefore sometimes considered as pests.[5] They roost in reed-beds bordering waterbodies. They depend on wild grasses such as Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) as well as crops like rice for both their food (feeding on seedlings in the germination stage as well as on early stages of grain[6]) and nesting material. They also feed on insects (including butterflies[7]), sometimes taking small frogs,[8] geckos[9] and molluscs, especially to feed their young.[10] Their seasonal movements are governed by food availability. Their calls are a continuous chit-chit-... sometimes ending in a wheezy cheee-eee-ee that is produced by males in a chorus. A lower intensity call is produced in the non-breeding season.[11]

A flock in Hyderabad, India

They are occasionally known to descend to the ground and indulge in dust bathing.[12]

In captivity, individuals are known to form stable peck orders.[13]

Breeding[edit]

Male of race philippinus displaying at nest

The breeding season of the baya weavers is during the monsoons.[2] The breeding condition is initiated by environmental characters such as day length and comes to an end after summer although this termination is not influenced by short day length as in temperate birds.[14] They nest in colonies typically of up to 20-30, close to the source of food, nesting material and water. Baya weavers are best known for the elaborately woven nests constructed by the males. These pendulous nests are retort-shaped, with a central nesting chamber and a long vertical tube that leads to a side entrance to the chamber. The nests are woven with long strips of paddy leaves, rough grasses and long strips torn from palm fronds. Each strip can be between 20 and 60 cm in length. A male bird is known to make up to 500 trips to complete a nest. The birds use their strong beaks to strip and collect the strands, and to weave and knot them while building their nests. The nests are often built hanging over water[15] from palm trees[16] and often suspended from thorny Acacias and in some cases from telephone wires.[17][18][19][20][21] Although the birds prefer thorny trees, they sometimes use avenue trees in urban areas.[22] Nests are often located on the eastern side of the tree, where they are believed to provide shelter from the Southwest Monsoon; however, late breeders are more likely to build their nests in other orientations relative to the trunk of the nest tree.[23] Abandoned nests are sometimes used by mice (Mus booduga)[24] and other birds such as munias.[25][26]

Male burmanicus at half-built nest in "helmet stage" without the entrance funnel
Female (burmanicus race) feeding juvenile in Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Nests are built mainly in colonies but isolated nests are not unknown.[27] Nests are often built from thorny Acacia or palm trees ( mainly Phoenix sylvestris[28]) and hang over open water.[13] Young males may build experimental nests among reeds.[29] In Burma, birds often build nests under the eaves of buildings, but this habit is uncommon in India.[30] The males take about 18 days to construct the complete nest with the intermediate "helmet stage" taking about 8 days.[31] The nests are partially built before the males begin to display to passing females by flapping their wings and calling while hanging from their nests. The females inspect the nest and signal their acceptance of a male. Once a male and a female are paired, the male goes on to complete the nest by adding the entrance tunnel. Males are almost solely in charge of nest building, though their female partners may join in giving the finishing touches, particularly on the interiors. Females may modify the interiors or add blobs of mud.[32] A study has found that nest location is more important than nest structure for the female when it selects the nest and mate.[33] Females prefer nests high in trees, those over dry land, and those on thin branches.[34]

Both males and females are polygamous. Males build many partial nests and begin courting females. The male finishes the nest only after finding a mate. The female lays about 2 to 4 white eggs and incubates them for about 14 to 17 days.[35] Males may sometimes assist in feeding the chicks. The chicks leave the nest after about 17 days.[11] After mating with a female the male typically court other females at other partially constructed nests. Intraspecific brood parasitism is known, that is, females may lay their eggs in the nests of others.[36]

Young birds leave the nest in a juvenal plumage which is replaced in their first moult after about four to six months. The young disperse to new locations not far from their nest and young have been located up to two kilometres away from their origin.[37] Females are capable of breeding after a year while males take half a year longer. Prior to breeding they go through a prenuptial moult. Adults also go through a second moult after breeding and thus there are two moults each year.[38] Histochemical studies have shown increased lipid metabolism in the crown region of male Baya during the breeding season. Lipids are known to be involved in the transport of the yellow carotenoid pigments that form the crown and are subsequently metabolized.[39]

The nest, being suspended from thorny trees and overhanging water, is protected from many predators, but nest predation by crows is not unusual. Brood may also be destroyed by lizards such as Calotes versicolor[35] or rodents such as Vandeleuria oleracea which may take over the nest.[13] Nests may sometimes be taken over and used for nesting by Indian silverbills (Euodice malabarica).[40]

In culture[edit]

A widespread folk belief in India is that the baya sticks fireflies with mud to the nest walls to light up the interior of the nest at night.[41] Clay, however is known to be used in the nests of baya weavers. Males alone have been seen to add blobs of mud and dung to the nest chamber prior to pairing with a female.[41] It has been theorized that the clay helps to stabilise the nests in strong winds.[42]

In earlier times, the baya weaver was trained by street performers in India for entertainment. They were trained to fire toy cannons, string beads, pick up coins and other objects. These uses have been noted from the time of Akbar.

The baya is like a wild sparrow but yellow. It is extremely intelligent, obedient and docile. It will take small coins from the hand and bring them to its master, and will come to a call from a long distance. Its nests are so ingeniously constructed as to defy the rivalry of clever artificers.

—Āīn (trans. Jarrett), iii. 122. (ca. 1590) quoted in the Hobson Jobson[43]

Local names[edit]

Tokora, tokora chorai (Assamese); baya, son-chiri (Hindi); bayya chirya (Urdu: بیّا چڑیا ); baya chadei (Oriya); sugaran (Marathi); tempua (Malay); sughari (Gujarati); babui (Bengali); parsupu pita, gijigadu/gijjigadu (Telugu); gijuga (Kannada); thukanam kuruvi (Malayalam); thukanan-kuruvi (Tamil); wadu-kurulla, tatteh-kurulla, goiyan-kurulla (Sinhala); sa-gaung-gwet, mo-sa (Myanmar); bijra (Hoshiarpur); suyam (Chota Nagpur), bagra(Maithili).[44]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Ploceus philippinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Rasmussen, P.C. & Anderton, J.C. (2005). The Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Edition and Lynx Edicions. p. 579. 
  3. ^ Salim, Ali (2002). The Book of Indian Birds, Third Edition. Oxford University Press. pp. 64, 283. ISBN 0-19-566523-6. 
  4. ^ Compilers: Stuart Butchart, Jonathan Ekstrom (2008). "Baya Weaver-Fact Sheet". Evaluators: Jeremy Bird, Stuart Butchart. BirdLife International . Retrieved May 20, 2009. 
  5. ^ Sengupta, S (1974). "The Common Baya (Ploceus philippinus) - a serious pest of agriculture". Current Science 43 (4): 24–125. 
  6. ^ Ali, Mir Hamid; Singh, T.G. Manmohan; Banu, Aziz; Rao, M. Anand; Janak, A.T. Sainath (1978). "Observations on the food and feeding habits of Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75: 1198–1204. 
  7. ^ Ambedkar, V. C. (1972). "The Baya [Ploceus philippinus (Linn.)] feeding nestlings with butterflies". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 69 (3): 653–654. 
  8. ^ George, N.J. (1973). "Baya (Ploceus philippinus) feeding on frogs". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. (2): 381–382. 
  9. ^ Varu, SN (2002). "Food habits of the Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus (Linn.)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 99 (2): 320. 
  10. ^ Mukherjee, A.K.; Saha, B.C. (1974). "Study on the stomach contents of Common Baya, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 71 (2): 308. 
  11. ^ a b Ali S & S D Ripley (1999). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan 10 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 92–97. ISBN 0-19-562063-1. 
  12. ^ Ganguli, Usha (1968). "Dust bathing by Common Baya (Ploceus philippinus)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 65 (3): 780. 
  13. ^ a b c Crook, John Hurrell (1960). "Studies on the reproductive behaviour of the Baya Weaver". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 57 (1): 1–44. 
  14. ^ Bisht, M.; Chandola-Saklani, A. (1992). "Short-day experience is not a preprequisite for the termination of photorefractoriness in the reproductive cycle of Baya Weaver, Ploceus philippinus". Journal of Biosciences (Bangalore) 17 (1): 29–34. doi:10.1007/BF02716770. 
  15. ^ Borkar, M.R., Komarpant, N. (2003). "Observations on the nesting ecology of Baya Weaver bird (Ploceus philippinus, Linn.) in South Goa, with notes on aberrant nest designs Ecology". Environment and Conservation 9 (2): 217–227. 
  16. ^ Davis, T.A. (1985). "Palms are preferred hosts for Baya Weaverbird colonies". Principes 29: 115–123. 
  17. ^ Davis, T. Antony (1974). "Selection of nesting trees and the frequency of nest visits by Baya weaverbird". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 71 (3): 356–366. 
  18. ^ Venkataramani,K (1981). "Nests of Weaver Birds on telegraph wires". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 21 (9–10): 18. 
  19. ^ Subramanya, S (1982). "Baya nests on telegraph wires". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 22 (3–4): 6–7. 
  20. ^ Ambedkar, V.C. (1969). "Nests of the Baya, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus) on telegraph wires". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 66 (3): 624. 
  21. ^ Kirkpatrick, K.M. (1952). "Baya (Ploceus philippinus Linn.) nests on telegraph wires". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 50 (3): 657. 
  22. ^ Gupta, K.K. (1995). "A note on Baya, Ploceus philippinus nesting on Krishnachuda (Delonix regia) tree". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 92 (1): 124–125. 
  23. ^ Sharma, Satish Kumar (1990). "Orientation of nest colonies by Baya Weaver Birds". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87 (3): 454–455. 
  24. ^ Akhtar, S Asad; Tiwari, JK (1992). "Brood of the Indian Field Mouse Mus booduga in an abandoned Baya nest". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 89 (2): 245. 
  25. ^ Mishra,Veer Vaibhav (2001). "Munias accept abandoned nest of Baya". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 41 (1): 13. 
  26. ^ Regupathy, D.; Davis,T.A. (1984). "Mouse, a nest-parasite of Baya Weaver Bird (Ploceus philippinus L.)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81 (1): 200–202. 
  27. ^ Pandey, Deep Narayan (1991). "Nest site selection by Baya Ploceus philippinus (Linn.)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 88 (3): 458. 
  28. ^ Sharma, Satish Kumar (1989). "Host plants used by Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus (L.) for nesting in Udaipur District, Rajasthan". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 86 (3): 453–454. 
  29. ^ Abdulali, Humayun; Ambedkar, V. C. (1984). "Some notes on the breeding of the Common Baya (Ploceus philippinus)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81 (3): 701–702. 
  30. ^ Davis, T.A. (1971). "Baya Weaverbird nesting on human habitations". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 68 (1): 246–248. 
  31. ^ Asokan, S., Mohamed Samsoor Ali, A., Nagarajan, R. (2008). "Studies on nest construction and nest microclimate of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linn.)". Journal of Environmental Biology 29 (3): 393–396. PMID 18972698. 
  32. ^ Ali, S. (1931). "The nesting habits of the Baya (Ploceus philippinus)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 34 (4): 947–964. 
  33. ^ Quader, Suhel (2006). "What makes a good nest? Benefits of nest choice to female Baya weavers (Ploceus philippinus)". The Auk 123 (2): 475–486. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2006)123[475:WMAGNB]2.0.CO;2. 
  34. ^ Quader, Suhel (2003). "Nesting and Mating Decisions and their Consequences in the Baya Weaverbird Ploceus philippinus". Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Florida. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  35. ^ a b Ali, Salim; Ambedkar, Vijaykumar C (1957). "Further notes on the Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus Linn". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 54 (3): 491–502. 
  36. ^ Dhindsa,M.S. (1990). "Intraspecific brood parasitism in the Baya Weaverbird (Ploceus philippinus)". Bird Behaviour 8 (2): 111–113. doi:10.3727/015613890791784326. 
  37. ^ Mathew, D.N. (1972). "The ecology of the Baya in Rajampet, Cuddapah Dt., Andhra Pradesh". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 69 (1): 188–191. 
  38. ^ Mathew, D.N. (1977). "Moult in the Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 74 (2): 233–245. 
  39. ^ Narasimhacharya, A. V. R. L. and Kotak, V. C. (1989). "Histochemical observations on the crown skin of male baya: Lipids, lipase and phosphomonoesterases". J. Biosci. 14 (4): 385–390. doi:10.1007/BF02703424. 
  40. ^ Dhindsa, M. S.; Sandhu, P. S. (1988). "Response of the Baya Weaverbird (Ploceus philippinus) to eggs of the White-throated Munia (Lonchura malabarica): relation to possible incipient brood parasitism". Zoologischer Anz. 220: 216–222. 
  41. ^ a b Davis,T. Antony (1973). "Mud and dung plastering in Baya nests". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 70 (1): 57–71. 
  42. ^ Wood, C. A. (1926). "The nest of the Baya weaver bird". The Auk 43 (3): 295–302. doi:10.2307/4075422. 
  43. ^ Yule, Henry, Sir (1903). William Crooke, ed. Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. J. Murray, London. 
  44. ^ Anonymous (1998). "Vernacular Names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent" (PDF). Buceros 3 (1): 53–109. 

Other sources[edit]

  • Alexander, Horace (1972) Nest building of the Baya Weaver Bird. Newsletter for Birdwatchers . 12(9):12.
  • Ali, Salim; Ambedkar, Vijaykumar C. (1956) Notes on the Baya Weaver Bird, Ploceus philippinus Linn. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 53(3):381-389.
  • Ambedkar, V.C. (1978) Abnormal nests of the Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus (Linn.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75(Supp):1205-1211.
  • Ambedkar, V. C. (1958) Notes on the Baya: Breeding season 1957. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 55(1):100-106.
  • Anon. (1981) Multiple Baya nests. Newsletter for Birdwatchers . 21(1):2-4.
  • Davis, T. A. (1985) "Blind" or "closed" nests of Baya Weaverbird. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 82(3):658-660.
  • Davis, T. A. (1966) Nesting Behaviour of the Baya (Ploceus philippinus, L.). (Technical Report No. Nat 4/66.) Research and Training School, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. 28 pages.
  • Dewar, Douglas (1909) The nesting habits of the Baya. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 19(3):627-634.
  • Edwards, O. C. (1983) The nest of the Baya Weaver-Bird (Ploceus philippinus): Architect supreme. Mayura 4(3):17-19.
  • Khacher, Lavkumar (1977) Note on the Baya Weaver bird Ploceus philippinus (Linn.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 74(3):533-534.
  • Mathew,DN (1971) Ecology and biology of the Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Bombay, Bombay.
  • Mohan, D. (1991) Common baya weaver bird - nest building habits. Newsletter for Birdwatchers . 31(9-10):2-4.
  • Punde, A.B. (1912) Migration of the Baya (Ploceus baya). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 21(2):675-676.
  • Serrao, J.S. (1971) Nesting of the Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus. Newsletter for Birdwatchers . 11(10):11.
  • Sharma, S.K. (1995) Nests of Baya used as filling fibre in southern Rajasthan. Newsletter for Birdwatchers . 35(3):57-58.
  • Sharma, Satish Kumar (1987) Host plants used by Baya Weaver Bird (Ploceus philippinus Linn.) for nesting in eastern Rajasthan (Breeding period 1982). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 84(1):218-220.
  • Sharma, Satish Kumar (1988) Buttressed nests of Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus (Linn.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 85(2):432.
  • Sharma, Satish Kumar (1985) A study of qualitative aspect of abnormal nesting in Baya Weaver Bird the Ploceus philippinus and P. benghalensis. J. Southern Forest Ranger's College 61:50-54.
  • Sharma, Satish Kumar (1991) Nests of Baya Weaver Birds Ploceus philippinus and wintering Arthropods. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 88(2):289-290.
  • Sharma, Satish Kumar (1995) A study of abnormal nests of Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus (Linn.) in Rajasthan. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 92(1):67-76.
  • Sidhartha, D. (1981) Baya nests in October. Newsletter for Birdwatchers . 21(1):8.
  • Singh, T. G. M. (1980) An observation on the behaviour of Indian Baya (Ploceus phillipinus) in captivity during solar eclipses. Mayura 1(2):20-21.
  • Stairmand, D.A. (1971) Pre-monsoon breeding of the Baya Ploceus philippinus. Newsletter for Birdwatchers . 11(9):12.
  • Thapliyal, J. P.; Tewary, P. D. (1964) Effect of light on the pituitary, gonad and plumage pigmentation in the Avadavat (Estrilda amandava) and Baya Weaver (Ploceus philippinus). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 142, 67-71.
  • Vardhani, B. P.; Rao, P. S.; Srimannarayana,G. (1992) The efficacy of certain plant extracts as repellents against House Sparrow, Passer domesticus and Baya Weaver Bird Ploceus philippinus. J. Appl. Zool. Res. 3(2):193-194.

External links[edit]