|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Romanian Wikipedia. (October 2013)|
|Nickname(s): Capitala Aurului Negru (Romanian: Capital of Black Gold)|
|• Mayor||Iulian Bădescu (Social Democratic Party)|
|• County seat||58.2 km2 (22.5 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• County seat||209,945|
|• Density||3,394/km2 (8,790/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|1 Ploiești metropolitan area is a proposed project.|
Ploiești (Romanian pronunciation: [ploˈjeʃtʲ]; older spelling: Ploești) is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia in Romania. The city is located 56 km (35 mi) north of Bucharest.
According to the 2011 Romanian census, there were 201,226 people living within the city of Ploiești, making it the 9th most populous city in Romania.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Economy
- 4 Transportation
- 5 Culture and education
- 6 Geology
- 7 Geography
- 8 Politics
- 9 International relations
- 10 Natives
- 11 Gallery
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes and references
- 14 External links
The town originated in 1596, during the reign of Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave), Prince of Wallachia. It rapidly flourished as a center for trade and handicraft manufacturing in the 17th and 18th centuries. The road connecting Ploiești to Brașov opened in 1864, and the railway arrived in 1882. Many schools and hospitals date from this time.
In the mid-19th century the Ploiești region was one of the world's leading oil extraction and refinery sites. The city is also remembered as the site of the self-styled Republic of Ploiești, a short-lived 1870 revolt against the Romanian monarchy.
Ploiești's oil production made it a target during the invasion of Romania by the Central Powers in 1916, but a British Army operation under John Norton-Griffiths destroyed production and sabotaged much of the infrastructure of the industry.
World War II
Although badly damaged after the November 1940 earthquake, the city was a significant1 source of oil for Nazi Germany. The Allies made Ploiești a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II and attacked it repeatedly, such as during the HALPRO raid, and Operation Tidal Wave. Ploieşti was captured by Soviet troops in August 1944.
Following the war, the new Communist regime nationalised the oil industry, which had largely been privately owned, and made massive investments in the oil and petroleum industry in a bid to modernise the country and repair the war damage.
The world's first oil refinery opens at Ploiești, Romania
The world's first large refinery opened at Ploiești in 1856-1857, with US investment. After being taken over by Nazi Germany, the Ploiești refineries were bombed in Operation Tidal Wave by the Allies during the Oil Campaign of World War II.
|Source: Census data|
The population of Ploiești went from 56,460, as indicated by the December 1912 census returns, up to 252,715 in January 1992.
After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Ploiești experienced rapid economic growth due to major investments from foreign companies. The city is situated at just 60 km (37 mi) north from Bucharest, with promising infrastructure projects currently underway. Ploiești is a strong industrial center, focused especially on the oil production and refining industry. Although oil production in the region is declining steadily, there is still a thriving processing industry through four operating oil refineries, linked by pipelines to Bucharest, the Black Sea port of Constanţa and the Danube port of Giurgiu. Ploiești is also a textile manufacturing center. Ploieşti concentrates many foreign investments: OMV-Petrom, Lukoil, Shell Gas, Timken, Yazaki, Coca Cola, Efes Pilsener, British American Tobacco, Interbrew. Many retailers like Carrefour, Metro, Selgros, Kaufland, Billa, Bricostore, Praktiker, Lidl, Obi, Real, Profi, Mega Image found in Ploieşti a continuously growing market. There are also two McDonald's restaurants in Ploieşti and two KFC restaurants - the first opened in 2006 and the last in 2012 in Ploieşti Shopping City.
The German retailer Tengelmann expects to have some 30 stores this year and has set itself a target of 120 stores by 2010, investing €200 million. To facilitate its growth, Tengelmann built a depot in Ploieşti. With its Interex operation, the French independent retailer Intermarché intends to become a distribution leader in the Balkans. In Romania the first Interex store was opened in June 2002 in the city of Ploieşti.
Unilever has a detergent plant in Ploiești. By transferring their food production to Ploiești, the company will concentrate their full activity in Romania to the same location. At the beginning of March 2006, Unilever announced they would invest money to build one production center in Romania, and the construction of the new food plant is part of this plan.
At Ploiești, as a milestone in the development of the petroleum, hydrocarbon processing and petrochemical industries as well as of their related fields, was established in 1950, the Engineering and Design Institute for Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Plants, SC IPIP SA, a Romanian company with a large range of capabilities and experience.
Ploiești is situated on the future highway Bucharest–Brașov, the main path towards the north and west provinces and the Western EU. The Henri Coandă International Airport is just at 45 km (28 mi) distance, and the ski resorts from Prahova Valley can be reached in one hour driving. The scarcity of modern motorways and well-built roads surrounding Ploiești, and Romania in general makes transport a challenge. Under the scrutiny of the EU, the motorway infrastructure will improve substantially over the next few years.
Ploiești is the second railway center in the country after Bucharest, linking Bucharest with Transylvania and Moldavia. The city's public transportation system is run by Transport Călători Express (TCE Ploiești) and includes an extensive network of buses, trolleybuses and trams/streetcars. Ploieşti's distinct yellow bus fleet is one of the most modern in Southeastern Europe, provides connections to all areas within the city, for a daily average of 150,000 passengers. The municipal roads comprise over 800 streets with a total length of 324 km (201 mi). East and West ring belts cannot prevent around 5,300 vehicles transiting Ploieşti each day. The municipal vehicle park comprised 216 buses, 32 trams and 25 trolleybuses carrying about 70 millions passengers annually. There are 33 bus lines having a total length of 415.46 km (258.15 mi); two trolley-bus lines having a total length of 19.9 km (12.4 mi) and two tram lines having a total length of 23.8 km (14.8 mi).
Culture and education
There are many cultural and architectural monuments, including the Cultural Palace; the Clock Museum, featuring a collection of clocks and watches gathered by Nicolae Simache; the Oil Museum; the Art Museum of Ploiești, donated by the Quintus family; and the Hagi Prodan Museum, dating to 1785: the property of a merchant named Ivan Hagi Prodan, it contains elements of old Romanian architecture and for a short time after World War I it hosted the first museum in Ploiești, "Prahova's Museum". In August 2011, Ploiești hosted the Golden Carpathian European Film & Fair and Goran Bregovic concert.
The Mio-Pliocene Zone in the Ploiești region has been exploited for hydrocarbons and coal since the 19th Century. The zone extends from the flysch on the north to the Moesian Platform on the south. The zone is marked by alternating deposits of Clay, Marl, Shale and Sand, conglomerate, Salt and Limestone. Structural traps and stratigraphic traps are formed from Salt Diapirism which gave rise to anticline folds and faulting. There are four major alignments of the anticlines, all parallel to the Carpathian Range. Pliocene sands are the main oil and gas producers, in particular the Meotian (60%) and Dacian (29%), followed by the Miocene Sarmatian (5%) but some oil exists in Miocene Helvetian and Oligocene sandstones. Major producing structures include Moreni-Gura Ocnitei, Baicoi-Tintea and Boldesti.
Stratigraphic column of Eastern Carpathians and Moesian Platform
Cross Section of Carpathian Bend
Geologic features of the Carpathians
The climate is similar to that of the nation's capital, Bucharest. According to the Köppen climate classification, the city falls within the temperate humid continental climate(Dfa) of the hot summer type.
|Climate data for Ploieşti|
|Average high °C (°F)||1
|Average low °C (°F)||−6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||40.6
|Source: Weather Channel|
The Ploiești Municipal Council, elected in the 2008 local elections, is made up of 27 councillors, with the following party composition:
|Democratic Liberal Party||10|
|Social Democratic Party||8|
|National Liberal Party||4|
|New Generation Party||3|
|National Democratic Christian Party||2|
Twin towns - sister cities
Ploieşti is twinned with:
- Sports: Octavian Belu, Leonard Doroftei, Adrian Diaconu, Iulian Ilie, Laurenţiu Toma
- Architecture: Toma T. Socolescu
- Politics: Take Ionescu, Ştefan Gheorghiu (trade unionist), Corneliu Mănescu, Remus Opriş
- Academia: Liviu Librescu, Nicolae Simache
- Literature: Nichita Stănescu, Ion Stratan, Lucian Avramescu
- Science: Carol Nicolae Debie, Basarab Nicolescu
- Music: Leonida Constantin Brezeanu, Ovidiu Bălan, Cezar Ouatu
Notes and references
- ^1 Sources provide differing estimates regarding Romanian production:
- 1942: The Axis Oil Position in Europe, November 1942 by the Hartley Committee estimated that "Romanian oil fields" contributed 33% of Axis supplies.
- 1944: "Ploiești, thirty-five miles (8.0 km) from Bucharest, supplied one-third of all the oil fuel Germany required for war purposes."
- 1999: The fragile, concentrated Bucharest facilities provided "60% of Germany's crude oil supply"
- "2011 Census press release" (in Romanian). INSSE Prahova. February 2, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
- "U.S. Air Force photo" [sic] [diagram] in Gurney, Gene (Major, USAF) (1962). The War in the Air: a pictorial history of World War II Air Forces in combat. New York: Bonanza Books. p. 121.
- Burg, David F. (2010). Almanac of World War I. L. Edward Purcell. University Press of Kentucky. p. 336. ISBN 9780813137711. Retrieved 2012-10-29. "7 December 1916 [...] Falkenhayn's Ninth Army turns to the north in hopes of capturing the oil fields and refineries at Ploesti, but Falkenhayn is too late: John Norton-Griffiths has done his work. The oil fields at Ploesti, Targoviste, and elsewhere are aflame and their refining facilities in ruins - a severe loss to the German war effort, as it will be months before production can be restored."
- Video: American Bombers Smash Axis Oil Fields In Romania Etc. (1943). Universal Newsreel. 1943. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- "WORLD EVENTS: 1844-1856". PBS.org. Retrieved 2009-04-22. "world's first oil refinery"
- 2002 Census
- Bucharest Business Week, Unilever builds factory in Ploieşti, March 10, 2006
- Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploiești District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 401.
- Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploiești District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 399.
- Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploiești District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 425.
- Paraschiv, P., and Olteau, G., Oil Fields of Ploieşti District, Romania, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, AAPG Memoir 14, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1970, p. 415.
- Pawlewicz, M., Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria, US Dept. Interior USGS Bulletin 2204-F, 2007, p. 9
- Pawlewicz, M., Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria, US Dept. Interior USGS Bulletin 2204-F, 2007, p. 6
- Pawlewicz, M., Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria, US Dept. Interior USGS Bulletin 2204-F, 2007, p. 5
- "Radom - Miasta partnerskie" [Radom - Parntership cities]. Miasto Radom [City of Radom] (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Radom - miasta partnerskie" (in Polish). radom.naszestrony.pl. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- US Secretary (January 1943). Casablanca Conference: Papers and Minutes of Meetings. Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library; COMBINED CHIEFS OF STAFF: Conference proceedings, 1941–1945; Box 1: Office of the Combined Chiefs of Staff. pp. 40–43,88,256. "Brehon Somervell[inside front cover] … DECLASSIFIED … 10/29/73 … U.S. SECRET … BRITISH MOST SECRET … COPY NO. 32[inside back cover]"
- Turner, S.J., F. R. G. S -- maps (1944). "Vol. 2 [September 3, 1941—August 15, 1943]". Pictorial History of the Second World War (Wm. H. Wise & Co., Inc.). pp. 519–1020 .
- Modrovsky, Robert J. 1 August 1943 -- Today's Target is Ploesti: A Departure from Doctrine (pdf). p. 4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ploieşti.|
- Website of the town hall of Ploieşti
- RepublicaPloieşti.net is a site specializing in architectural history of the City of Ploieşti. It contains numerous photographs of the city taken between the beginning of the twentieth and 1945.
- Tramway in Ploieşti
- Map of Ploiești with route planning, points of interest, public transport