Plug-in hybrids in California
California has been a leader in the promotion of plug-in hybrids (PHEVs). California is the largest U.S. car market and also the leading plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in the country with about 40% of all new PEVs sold nationwide during 2011 and 2012, while the state represents about 10% of all new car sales in the country. As part of the state's government incentives, in addition to the existing federal tax credit, plug-in hybrids are eligible for a US$1,500 purchase rebate. Also the first 55,000 applicants that purchase or lease a PHEV meeting California’s Enhanced Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (Enhanced AT PZEV) are entitled to a green clean air sticker that allows the vehicle to be operated by a single occupant in California's carpool or high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV).
As of December 2013[update], over 36,700 plug-in hybrids have been sold in California. The market share of PHEVs in the state climbed from 0.1% of new car sales in 2011 to 1.0% in 2012 to 1.2% in 2013. As of March 2014[update], a total of 24,657 plug-in hybrid owners have benefited with the state's Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP), representing 47.2% of all clean vehicle rebates issued since January 2011. By early March 2014, and based on CVRP's databse, the counties with the highest adoption of plug-in hybrids in the state are Los Angeles (8,015), Orange (3,622) and Santa Clara (3,080). As of January 2014[update], California leads the country with 5,749 public charging points, representing 26.7% of the U.S total.
- 1 Charging infrastructure
- 2 Government incentives
- 3 Market outlook
- 4 Organizations
- 5 Electric utilities
- 6 PHEV Research Center
- 7 San Francisco Bay Area
- 8 Plug-in Conference
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
As of March 2013[update], the United States had 5,678 charging stations across the country, a third of which were located in the three westernmost continental states. Deployments are led by California with 1,207 stations (21.3%), Texas with 432 stations (7.6%), Florida with 352 (6.2%), Washington with 326 (5.7%), and Oregon with 310 stations (5.5%). As of October 2013[update], there were 378 DC quick charging stations across the country.
As of 21 January 2014[update], the United States had 21,548 public charging points available across the country, with California leading with 5,749 charging points (26.7%), followed by Texas with 1,704 (7.9%), Washington state with 1,412 (6.6%), and Florida with 1,064 (4.9%).
In addition to the federal tax credit of up to US$7,500 depending on battery size, California established the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) in order to promote the production and use of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including plug-in electric and fuel cell vehicles. The program was created from Assembly Bill 118 that was signed by Governor Schwarzenegger in October 2007. The funding is provided on a first-come, first-served basis, and the project is expected to go through 2015.
Eligible vehicles include only new California Air Resources Board-certified or approved zero-emission or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. A list of eligible vehicles can be found on the California Center for Sustainable Energy web site. Among the eligible vehicles are neighborhood electric vehicles, battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles including cars, trucks, medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicles, and zero-emission motorcycles. Vehicles must be purchased or leased on or after March 15, 2010. Initially, the CVRP offered rebates of up to US$5,000 per light-duty vehicle, available for individuals and business owners who purchase or lease new eligible vehicles. Once the initial funding was exhausted, the program offered a lower rebate of up to US$2,500.
As of March 2014[update], the following six plug-in hybrids are eligible for a US$1,500 rebate in California: Cadillac ELR, Chevrolet Volt, Ford C-Max Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid, and Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. Only 2012 Volts manufactured after February 6, 2012, and later model year, are fitted with the low emission package that qualifies the plug-in hybrid as qualify as a California AT-PZEV.
As of early March 2013, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 9,559 all-electric vehicle and 8,842 plug-in hybrid owners had applied for the state's Clean Vehicle Rebate since January 2011. However, about 2,300 Chevrolet Volts were sold in California before the Volt became eligible for the rebate in February 2012, and therefore, are not accounted in the CVRP database. According to these figures plug-in hybrid electric vehicles were outselling pure electric vehicles in California by early 2013.
As of 10 March 2014[update], a total of 52,264 clean vehicle rebates have been issued, for a total of US$110,222,866 disbursed, with only US$3.8 million remaining for fiscal year 2013-2014. The distribution of the rebates issued correspond to 27,210 zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs); 24,657 plug-in hybrids (PHEVs); 49 commercial zero-emission vehicles (CZEVs); 210 zero-emission motorcycles (ZEMs); and 138 neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs). Not all plug-in electric vehicles sold in California are captured in the CVRP database because not every PEV owner applies for the rebate. In terms of market share, and without accounting for the 2,300 Volts sold before February 2012, as of early March 2014, plug-in hybrids represented 47.2% of all clean vehicle rebates, while ZEVs, predominantly all-electric cars, represented 52.11% of all rebates issued. Accounting for sales of the 2,300 Volts, the distribution becomes 49.9% for ZEVs and 49.4% for PHEVs, therefore, plug-in hybrids are no longer outselling all-electric cars in California.
As of April 2014[update], the CVRP is facing an estimated US$30 million funding shortfall for the 2013-14 fiscal year, and uncertainty about increases for the 2014-15 fiscal year. CARB staff presented a proposal to the board to overcome the funding shortage and also to facilitate the rebates to benefit buyers in disadvantaged communities who live in areas with bad air quality or who can’t afford high-end electric cars. The options being considered are to reduce the rebate by US$500 and to set a US$60,000 cap to the manufacturer’s suggested retail price of the vehicles, which would exclude the Cadillac ELR and the Tesla Model S from benefiting from the rebate.
The following table presents the geographical distribution of the rebates by county and by type of vehicle (ZEV or PHEV) for the top 15 counties. Based on the CVRP database, Southern California is the leading region in plug-in hybrid adoption, with over 15,200 rebates issued for PHEVs, while the San Francisco Bay Area has benefited with over 7,200 rebates. The top five counties in the state by early March 2014 are Los Angeles (8,015), Orange (3,622), Santa Clara (3,080), San Diego (1,563), and Alameda (1,552).
|California Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP)
beneficiaries by county with over 500 rebates issued as of 10 March 2014[update]
|Top counties Southern California|
|Top counties SoCal||28,595||13,200||15,201||$58,562,638||54.7%|
|Top counties San Francisco Bay Area|
|Top counties Bay Area||18,387||10,992||7,249||$40,364,866||35.2%|
|Other top counties|
|Total Top 15 counties||48,586||25,156||23,081||$102,394,013||93.0%|
(1) Total includes ZEVs (both BEVs and FCVs), PHEVs, CZEVs, ZEMs and NEVs. (2) About 2,300 Chevrolet Volts sold in
California before the car became eligible for the rebate in February 2012 are not included. (3) Not all plug-in electric vehicles
sold in California are captured in the CVRP database as not every PEV owner applies for the rebate.
In California a vehicle that meets specified emissions standards may be issued Clean Air Vehicle (CAV) decals that allow the vehicle to be operated by a single occupant in California's high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV), or carpool or diamond lanes. The green CAV stickers are available to the first 55,000 applicants that purchased or leased cars meeting California’s Enhanced Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (Enhanced AT PZEV) or Transitional Zero-Emission Vehicle (TZEV) requirements. The number of green stickers available was increased from 40,000 to 55,000 in July 2014. Plug-in hybrids qualify as Enhanced AT PZEV. Initially, the green and white clean air sticker were set to expire on January 1, 2015, but in 2013 the expiration date for the green stickers was extended to January 1, 2019.
The number of green clean air stickers issued grew from about 10,900 in March 2013 to 28,739 by the end of 2013. As a result, by mid March 2014 the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) suspended the program allowing new car dealers to purchase and install green CAV stickers on eligible vehicles before they are sold. The DMV decided to reserve all remaining green stickers from the original 40,000 limit for individual consumer applications. As of 9 May 2014[update], the initial 40,000 green stickers were issued. The Assembly Bill 2013 introduced into the California State Legislature sought to increase the number of green stickers that the DMV is authorized to issue to 85,000. The green sticker limit was increased by 15,000 beginning July 1, 2014, through the budget trailer bill SB 853.
The San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission is opposing the bill to expand the green stickers on the grounds that they "are concerned about further erosion of HOV lane capacity to vehicles that are neither reducing the number of trips on the road nor paying a toll. With congestion levels shooting up again, especially in the prosperous South Bay of the region where the purchase of such vehicles is more likely, we do not believe it is appropriate to give access to the region’s HOV lanes or express lanes away for free."
California, the largest United States car market, is also the leading plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in the country with about 40% of all new PEVS sold nationwide during 2011 and 2012, while the state represents about 10% of all new car sales in the country. As of December 2013[update], over 36,700 plug-in hybrids have been sold in California. Sales increased from 97 units in 2010, to 1,682 in 2011 to 14,701 in 2012, and reached 20,235 in 2013. The market share of PHEVs in the state climbed from 0.1% of new car sales in 2011 to 1.0% in 2012 and 1.2% in 2013. During 2013 all-electric cars outsold plug-in hybrids. The market share of all-electric vehicles in 2013 was 1.3%, up from 0.4% in 2012. Together, conventional hybrid electric cars and plug-in electric cars reached a 9.3% market share of new vehicle sales in California during 2013, while the national average was 3.82%.
As of mid 2013, 52% of American plug-in electric car registrations are concentrated in five metropolitan areas, two of which are in California: San Francisco and Los Angeles. The others are Seattle, New York and Atlanta. California is the leading Chevrolet Volt market and accounted for almost 23% of Volt sales during the second quarter of 2012, followed by Michigan with 6.3% of national sales. The leading regional markets in California are San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego, all metropolitan areas notorious for their high congestion levels and where free access to high-occupancy lanes for solo drivers has been a strong incentive to boost Volt sales in the state. According to a Navigant Research report published in April 2014, the Los Angeles metropolitan area is the world's largest PEV city market.
According to a 2011 study by Pike Research, annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the U.S. were predicted to reach 360,000 vehicles by 2017. The study projected that the highest sales between 2011 and 2017 would take place in California, New York and Florida. In 2012, and as sales have fallen short of projections, Pike Research projected that annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the U.S. will reach 400,073 units in 2020, with California as the state with the highest PEV sales over the remainder of this decade, with nearly 25% of all PEVs sold in the United States between 2012 and 2020. In terms of market share, California will be followed by New York, Florida, Texas, and Washington, but Hawaii is expected by 2020 to have the highest penetration rate of PEVs as a percentage of all light duty vehicle sales. California is predicted to have four of the top ten metropolitan areas for PEV sales: Los Angeles–Long Beach, San Francisco Bay Area, Silicon Valley, and Greater Sacramento. Pike Research forecasts that cumulative sales of PEVs in the largest 102 American cities will reach more than 1.8 million from 2012 through 2020, with a share of more than 25% of all annual sales concentrated in the top five metropolitan areas for PEV sales: New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland.
In a report published in April 2014, Navigant Research forecasts that the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the largest PEV city market in the world, will have over 15,000 PEV sales in 2014, and its PEV stock will grow from over 36,000 in 2014 to over 250,000 by 2023. Navigant predicts annual PEV sales in the Greater Tokyo Area will surpass Los Angeles by 2020, and Tokyo is expected to become the world's largest PEV city market with a PEV stock of around 260,000 in 2023.
CalCars (also known as The California Cars Initiative) is a charitable, non-profit organization founded in 2002 to promote plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as a key to addressing global warming both nationally and internationally. CalCars envisions millions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, charged by off-peak electricity from renewable energy sources, and with their internal combustion engines powered by low-carbon alternative fuels, as a way to significantly reduce greenhouse gases that come from transportation.
In September 2004, the California Cars Initiative (CalCars) converted a 2004 Toyota Prius into a prototype of what it called the PRIUS+. With the addition of 130 kg (300 lb) of lead-acid batteries, the PRIUS+ achieved roughly double the fuel economy of a standard Prius and could make trips of up to 15 km (9 mi) using only electric power. The vehicle, which is owned by CalCars technical lead Ron Gremban, is used in daily driving, as well as a test bed for various improvements to the system.
RechargeIT is an effort within Google.org, the charitable arm of Google, that aims to reduce CO2 emissions, cut oil use, and stabilize the electrical grid by accelerating the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles.
The program began in 2007, and by 2010 Google's Mountain View campus has 100 available charging stations for its share-use fleet of converted plug-ins available to its employees through a free car-sharing program. Solar panels are used to generate the electricity, and this pilot program is being monitored on a daily basis and performance results are published in RechargeIT website. In addition to the data collected for two years when the converted plug-ins were driven by Google employees, RechargeIT set up a controlled test using plug-in converted Ford Escape Hybrids and Toyota Prius. The results of the seven-week driving experiment showed an average fuel economy of 93 mpg average across all trips, and 115 mpg for city trips. Consistently the converted Prius obtained a higher mileage then the Ford Escape.
Southern California Edison
Ford Motor Company CEO Alan Mulally said he expects Ford to sell plug-in hybrids in five to ten years, the launch date depending on advances in lithium-ion battery technology. Ford will provide Southern California Edison with 20 Ford Escape Hybrid sport utility vehicles reconfigured to work as plug-ins by 2009, with the first by the end of 2007.
PHEV Research Center
The PHEV Research Center in the University of California, Davis, administered by ITS-Davis, was launched in 2007 with fundings from the California Air Resources Board and the California Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.
Its goals are to provide technology and policy guidance to the state, and to help solve research questions and address commercialization issues for PHEVs.
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom, San Jose Mayor Chuck Reed and Oakland, California Mayor Ron Dellums announced a nine-step policy plan for transforming the Bay Area into the "Electric Vehicle (EV) Capital of the U.S." and of the world.
By early 2010, San Francisco and other cities in the San Francisco Bay Area and Silicon Valley, as well as some local private firms such as Google and Adobe Systems, already have deployed charging stations and have expansion plans to attend both plug-ins and all-electric cars.
- Better Place
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- Plug In America
- Plug-in hybrids in the Netherlands
- Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States
- Plug-in hybrids in New York
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- RechargeIT Driving Experiment - RechargeIT is a program sponsored by Google.org, a non-profit created by Google.
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