|First appearance||The Chain Gang (1930) (unnamed)
The Picnic (1930) (as Rover)
The Moose Hunt (1931) (as Pluto)
|Created by||Walt Disney Productions|
|Voiced by||Pinto Colvig (1931-1961)
Lee Millar (1939-1941)
Bill Farmer (1990-present)
Pluto the Pup
|Significant other(s)||Dinah the Dachshund
Tiki (Pluto's Penthouse Sweet)
|Relatives||Pluto Junior (son)|
Pluto, also called Pluto the Pup, is a cartoon character created in 1930 by Walt Disney Productions. He is a red-colored, medium-sized, short-haired dog with black ears. Unlike most Disney characters, Pluto is not anthropomorphic beyond some characteristics such as facial expression, though he did speak for a short portion of his history. He is Mickey Mouse's pet. Officially a mixed-breed dog, he made his debut as a bloodhound in the Mickey Mouse cartoon The Chain Gang. Together with Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck, and Goofy, Pluto is one of the "Sensational Six"—the biggest stars in the Disney universe. Though all six are non-human animals, Pluto alone is not dressed as a human.
Pluto debuted in animated cartoons and appeared in 24 Mickey Mouse films before receiving his own series in 1937. All together Pluto appeared in 89 short films between 1930 and 1953. Several of these were nominated for an Academy Award, including The Pointer (1939), Squatter's Rights (1946), Pluto's Blue Note (1947), and Mickey and the Seal (1948). One of his films, Lend a Paw (1941), won the award in 1942. Because Pluto does not speak, his films generally rely on physical humor. This made Pluto a pioneering figure in character animation, which is expressing personality through animation rather than dialogue.
Like all of Pluto's co-stars, the dog has appeared extensively in comics over the years, first making an appearance in 1931. He returned to theatrical animation in 1990 with The Prince and the Pauper and has also appeared in several direct-to-video films. Pluto also appears in the television series Mickey Mouse Works (1999–2000), House of Mouse (2001–2003), and Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006–2013).
In 1998, Disney's copyright on Pluto, set to expire in several years, was extended by the passage of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. Disney, along with other studios, lobbied for passage of the act to preserve their copyrights on characters such as Pluto for 20 additional years.
Pluto first appeared as a nameless bloodhound tracking the escaped convict Mickey in the film The Chain Gang (September 1930). A month and a half later, Pluto appeared as Minnie Mouse's dog named Rover who comes along with her and Mickey on a picnic. By his third appearance, in The Moose Hunt (1931), Pluto is Mickey's pet, now named "Pluto".
Several months had passed between the naming of what was believed to have been the ninth planet, Pluto, on March 24, 1930, and the attachment of that name to the dog character. Venetia Burney (later Venetia Phair), who as an eleven-year-old British schoolgirl had suggested the name Pluto for the planet, remarked in 2006: "The name had nothing to do with the Disney cartoon. Mickey Mouse's dog was named after the planet, not the other way around." Although it has been claimed that Disney named the dog after the planet, rather than after the mythical god of the underworld, this has not been verified. Disney animator Ben Sharpsteen said "We thought the name [Rover] was too common, so we had to look for something else. ... We changed it to Pluto the Pup ... but I don't honestly remember why." Disney says they have no documents to support or refute the connection. Unofficially, even Disney's animators believed that Walt Disney chose the name to capitalize on the sensation of the newly named planet.
Pluto was initially a minor character until 1934, when Disney animator Norm Ferguson gave the dog a key role in the cartoon Playful Pluto. Pluto becomes entangled with a sticky piece of flypaper, and Ferguson expanded the sequence significantly. The segment became a classic, demonstrating how Disney artists can take a simple circumstance and build humor through a character.
Unlike Mickey's other animal friends, such as Goofy (who is also a dog), Pluto is not a "funny animal". Pluto does not speak, walk upright, or wear clothing, but rather acts like a normal (if exaggerated) dog. A significant departure from this was his speaking role in The Moose Hunt (1931), which was produced before Pluto's characterization had been clearly defined. As Pluto made more appearances, it became common that he would not speak, but only vocalize in barks and grunts. Other ways of communicating Pluto's thoughts occur through his facial expressions, and sometimes through the use of a shoulder angel/devil who speak directly to Pluto. (Mickey's Elephant, Lend a Paw).
Pluto is generally a cheerful and adventurous dog, although he can be given to sheer panic when confronted with something unknown. Common themes in Pluto's stories involve him becoming jealous of Mickey getting another pet (Mickey's Elephant, Lend a Paw, Mickey and the Seal), Pluto accidentally and unwittingly swallowing something and panicking when he realizes it (Playful Pluto, Donald and Pluto), Pluto getting entangled with something inanimate, or Pluto being pestered by a smaller animal (Private Pluto, Squatter's Rights). In many of his appearances with Mickey, Pluto will get himself into trouble and cause Mickey to get angry at him. Mickey however, often cheers up quickly; often telling Pluto "I can't be mad at ya."
Pluto sometimes appears with other regular animal characters. His friends include Fifi the Peke, Dinah the Dachshund, and Ronnie the St. Bernard Puppy. Other animals he is less friendly with include Salty the Seal, Butch the Bulldog, Figaro the Kitten, Chip 'n Dale, Spike the Bee, Ol' Benttail the Coyote, Milton the cat and other characters. In Disney's 1937 animated short Pluto's Quin-Puplets, Pluto has a son who is simply referred to as "Pluto Junior." In the 1946 animated short Pluto's Kid Brother, Pluto has a younger brother named K.B.
Pluto first and most often appears in the Mickey Mouse series of cartoons. On rare occasions he is paired with Donald Duck ("Donald and Pluto", "Beach Picnic", "Window Cleaners", "The Eyes Have It", "Donald's Dog Laundry", & "Put Put Troubles").
The first cartoons to feature Pluto as a solo star were two Silly Symphonies, Just Dogs (1932) and Mother Pluto (1936). In 1937, Pluto appeared in Pluto's Quin-Puplets which was the first instalment of his own film series, then headlined Pluto the Pup. However, they were not produced on a regular basis until 1940, by which time the name of the series was shortened to Pluto.
His first comics appearance was in the Mickey Mouse daily strips in 1931 two months after the release of The Moose Hunt. Pluto Saves the Ship, a comic book published in 1942, was one of the first Disney comics prepared for publication outside newspaper strips. However, not counting a few cereal give-away mini-comics in 1947 and 1951, he did not have his own comics title until 1952.
In 1936 Pluto got an early title feature in a picture book under title "Mickey Mouse and Pluto the Pup" by Whitman Publishing.
Pluto runs his own neighborhood in Disney's Toontown Online. It's called the Brrrgh and it's always snowing there except during Halloween. During April Toons Week, a weekly event that is very silly, Pluto switches playgrounds with Minnie (all other characters do this as well). Pluto actually talks in Minnie's Melodyland.
Pluto has also appeared in the television series Mickey Mouse Works (1999–2000), Disney's House of Mouse (2001–2003) and Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006–present). Curiously enough, however, Pluto was the only standard Disney character not included when the whole gang was reunited for the 1983 featurette Mickey's Christmas Carol, although he did return in The Prince and the Pauper (1990) and Runaway Brain (1995). He also had a cameo in Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988). In 1996, he made a cameo in the Quack Pack episode "The Really Mighty Ducks".
The following is a list of short films starring Pluto in the Silly Symphonies, Pluto the Pup and Pluto series. It is not a complete filmography for Pluto as he has also appeared extensively in Mickey Mouse or Donald Duck films. Although some of such cartoons are labeled as Mickey cartoons, they are actually officially placed under Pluto's filmography.
- The Prince and the Pauper
- Totally Minnie
- Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988, cameo)
- Mickey's Once Upon a Christmas
- Mickey's House of Villains
- Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse
- Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers
- Mickey's Twice Upon a Christmas
Pluto appeared as a non-playable character in Mickey Mania (1994).
In the Kingdom Hearts video game series, Pluto is still Mickey's pet and acts as somewhat of a messenger, assisting in his master's plans. For most of Kingdom Hearts II, Pluto stays by Kairi's side (even when she has been kidnapped), as he has apparently taken a liking to her. Strangely, throughout the series, Pluto appears and disappears at random moments.
In the various Disney theme park resorts around the world, Pluto is a meetable character just like many of his film co-stars. Pluto however, uncharacteristically walks on two legs in this capacity out of necessity. Adults and children are able to meet, play with, and get autographs and pictures with Pluto and his friends at all Disney parks.
Confusion concerning Pluto and Goofy
||This section possibly contains original research. (November 2013)|
Disney has needed to deal with a certain amount of confusion concerning the fact that Pluto (an ordinary dog) is treated as a household pet while the anthropomorphic Goofy is treated as a human despite being of the same species. On their web site, it stated that "Goofy was originally created as Dippy Dawg" and "was created as a human character, as opposed to Pluto who was a pet, so [Goofy] walked upright and had a speaking voice".
This problem was humorously illustrated in the film Stand By Me in which one of the boys ponders, "Mickey's a mouse, Donald's a duck, and Pluto's a dog. What's Goofy?" There is also an episode of the Disney Channel series Even Stevens called "Scrub Day" where in Louis' rallying-the-troops speech he wonders why Goofy got to walk and talk and Pluto has to eat from a dog bowl. This confusion is also mentioned in the French movie La Cité de la peur. In the Disney's Toontown Online event "April Toons Week," characters switch playgrounds and everything is silly. Pluto switches places with Minnie Mouse, and he speaks. A brief gag in an episode of House of Mouse also acknowledges this. Hades asks Goofy, "Are you a man, are you a dog, are you a man-dog . . . what are you?". Goofy simply replies, "I'm just Goofy." The confusion between Goofy and Pluto is also mentioned in an episode of Full House by Dave Coulier.
Tina Fey used the term "Goofy Pluto" to refer to seemingly disparate roles for guest stars on 30 Rock, namely the mismatch between Jennifer Aniston playing a character in the show in the same episode in which the cast of Night Court appears as themselves in the episode titled "The One with the Cast of Night Court."
- Disney, Walt. Walt Disney's Story of Pluto The Pup. Whitman BLB, 1938.
- Farrell, Ken. Warman's Disney Collectibles Field Guide: Values and Identification. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2011. p. 308.
- Smith, Dave. Disney Trivia from the Vault: Secrets Revealed and Questions Answered. New York: Disney Editions, 2012.
- Smith, Dave. Disney A to Z: The Updated Official Encyclopedia. New York: Hyperion, 1998. Print. ISBN 0-7868-6391-9.
- Stewart, James B. Disney War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. p. 5.
- Griffin, Sean. Tinker Belles and Evil Queens: The Walt Disney Company from the Inside Out. New York: New York UP, 2000. p. 70.
- Pluto at the Internet Movie Database
- Note: Pluto also appears in the Academy Award-nominated films Building a Building (1933) and Runaway Brain (1995), but does not play a significant role in either.
- "The Flypaper Sequence Mystery," essay by Michael Barrier
- Pluto at INDUCKS
- Sprigman, Chris. FindLaw's Writ, March 5, 2002, "THE MOUSE THAT ATE THE PUBLIC DOMAIN: Disney, The Copyright Term Extension Act, And eldred V. Ashcroft". Accessed September 19, 2012.
- Watts, Steven. The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney and the American Way of Life. Columbia, MO: U of Missouri, 2001. p. 132.
- "The little girl who named Pluto". The Sun (England). August 26, 2006.
- Brasch, Walter M. (1983). Cartoon Monickers: An Insight into the Animation Industry. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-87972-244-4.
- Weintraub, David A. Nature 444, December 21, 2006, "BOOK REVIEWED-Is Pluto a Planet? A Historical Journey Through the Solar System", pp 1006-1007, doi:10.1038/4441006a.
- Boyle, Alan. The Case for Pluto: How a Little Planet Made a Big Difference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. p. 49.
- Finch, Christopher, pages 71, 74, 91, 106, 111, and 230. The Art of Walt Disney, 2004