Point-of-care documentation

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Clinical documentation is a record of the critical thinking and judgment of a health care professional, facilitating consistency and effective communication among clinicians.[1] Point of care (POC) documentation is the ability for clinicians to document clinical information while interacting with and delivering care to patients.[2] The increased adoption of electronic health records (EHR) in healthcare institutions and practices creates the need for electronic POC documentation through the use of various medical devices.[3] POC documentation is meant to assist clinicians by minimizing time spent on documentation and maximizing time for patient care.[4] The type of medical devices used is important in ensuring that documentation can be effectively integrated into the clinical workflow of a particular clinical environment.[5]

Examples[edit]

Mobile technologies such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptop computers and tablets enable documentation at the point of care. The selection of a mobile computing platform is contingent upon the amount and complexity of data.[6] To ensure successful implementation, it is important to examine the strengths and limitations of each device. Tablets are more functional for high volume and complex data entry, and are favoured for their screen size, and capacity to run more complex functions.[7] PDAs are more functional for low volume and simple data entry and are preferred for their lightweight, portability and long battery life.[8]

History[edit]

One of the major responsibilities for nurses in healthcare settings is to forward information about the patient's needs and treatment to other healthcare professionals.[9] Traditionally, this has been done verbally. However, today information technology has made its entrance into the healthcare system whereby verbal transfer of information is becoming obsolete.[10] In the past few decades, nurses have witnessed a change toward a more independent practice with explicit knowledge of nursing care.[11] The obligation to point of care documentation not only applies to the performed interventions, medical and nursing, but also impacts the decision making process; explaining why a specific action has been prompted by the nurse.[12] The main benefit of point of care documentation is advancing structured communication between healthcare professionals to ensure the continuity of patient care.[13] Without a structured care plan that is closely followed, care tends to become fragmented.[14]

Advantages[edit]

Workflow[edit]

The use of POC documentation devices changes clinical practice by affecting workflow processes and communication.[15][16] With the availability of POC documentation devices, for example, nurses can avoid having to go to their deskspace and wait for a desktop computer to become available. They are able to move from patient to patient, eliminating steps in work process altogether. Furthermore, redundant tasks are avoided as data is captured directly from the particular encounter without the need for transcription.

Safety[edit]

A delay between face-to-face patient care and clinical documentation can cause corruption of data, leading to errors in treatment.[17] Giving clinicians the ability to document clinical information when and where care is being delivered allows for accuracy and timeliness, contributing to increased patient safety in a dynamic and highly interruptive environment.[18] Point of care documentation can reduce errors in a variety of clinical tasks including diagnostics, medication prescribing and medication administration.[19][20]

Collaboration and communication[edit]

Ineffective communication among patient care team members is a root cause of medical errors and other adverse events.[21] Point of care documentation facilitates the continuity of high quality care and improves communication between nurses and other healthcare providers. Proper documentation at the point of care can optimize flow of information among various clinicians and enhances communication. Clinicians can avoid going to a workstation and can access patient information at the bedside. It will also enable the timeliness of documentation, which is important to prevent adverse events.[22]

Nurse-patient time[edit]

Literature from various studies show that approximately 25-50% of a nurse’s shift is spent on documentation.[23][24] As most documentation is done in the traditional manner, that is using paper and pen, enabling a POC documentation device could potentially allow 25-50% more time at the bedside.

Disadvantages[edit]

Complexities[edit]

Numerous point of care documentation systems produce data redundancies, inconsistencies and irregularities of charting.[25] Some electronic formats are repetitious and time-consuming.[26] Moreover, some point of care documentation from one setting to another without a standardized pattern, and there are no guidelines for standards to documenting.[27] Inaccessibility also causes time to be lost in searching for charts.[28] These issues all lead to wasted time, increasing costs and uncomfortable charting.[29] A study adopted both qualitative and quantitative methods have confirmed complexities in point of care documentation. The study has also categorized these complexities into three themes: disruption of documentation; incompleteness in charting; and inappropriate charting.[30] As a result, these barriers limit nurses competence, motivation and confidence; ineffective nursing procedures; and inadequate nursing auditing, supervision and staff development.[31]

Privacy and security[edit]

When examining the use of any type of technology in healthcare its important to remember that technology holds private personal health information. As such, security measures need to be in place to minimize the risk for breaches of privacy and patient confidentiality. Depending on the country you live in its important to ensure that legislation standards are met. According to Collier in 2012, privacy and confidentiality breaches are rising largely attributed to the lack of appropriate encryption technology.[32] For successful implementation of any health technologies it is vital to ensure adequate security measures are used such as strong encryption technology.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MARSH. (2006). Clinical Documentation - Putting the House in Order. Marsh’s Risk Consulting Practicing. Retrieved from http://www.usask.ca/nursing/docs/news/HC_Clinical_Documentation.pdf
  2. ^ Kohle-Ersher, A., Chatterjee, P., Osmanbeyoglu, H. U., Hochheiser, H., & Bartos, C. (2012). Evaluating the Barriers to Point-of-Care Documentation for Nursing Staff. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 30(3), 126–33. doi:10.1097/NCN.0b013e3182343f14
  3. ^ Carlson, E., Catrambone, C., Oder, K., Nauseda, S., Fogg, L., Garcia, B., Brown, F. M., et al. (2010). Point-of-Care Technology Supports Bedside Documentation. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 40(9), 360–5. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181ee4248
  4. ^ Lee, T.-T. (2007). Patients’ Perceptions of Nurses' Bedside Use of PDAs. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 25(2), 106–11. doi:10.1097/01.NCN.0000263980.31178.bd
  5. ^ Smith, K., Smith, V., Krugman, M., & Oman, K. (2005). Evaluating the Impact of Computerized Clinical Documentation. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 23(3), 132–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15900170
  6. ^ Silvey, G. M., Macri, J. M., Lee, P. P., &Lobach, D. F. (2005). Direct Comparison of a Tablet Computer and a Personal Digital Assistant for Point-of-Care Documentation in Eye Care. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2005, 689–693. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560810/
  7. ^ Silvey, G. M., Macri, J. M., Lee, P. P., &Lobach, D. F. (2005). Direct Comparison of a Tablet Computer and a Personal Digital Assistant for Point-of-Care Documentation in Eye Care. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2005, 689–693. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560810/
  8. ^ Silvey, G. M., Macri, J. M., Lee, P. P., &Lobach, D. F. (2005). Direct Comparison of a Tablet Computer and a Personal Digital Assistant for Point-of-Care Documentation in Eye Care. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2005, 689–693. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560810/
  9. ^ Caruso, E. M. (2007). The Evolution of Nurse-to- Nurse Bedside Report on a Cardiology Unit, 16(1), 17–22.
  10. ^ Cheevakasemsook, A., Chapman, Y., Francis, K., & Davies, C. (2006). The study of nursing documentation complexities. International journal of nursing practice, 12(6), 366–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00596.x
  11. ^ Hellesø, R., & Ruland, C. M. (2001). Developing a module for nursing documentation integrated in the electronic patient record. Journal of clinical nursing, 10(6), 799–805. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11822852
  12. ^ Hellesø, R., & Ruland, C. M. (2001). Developing a module for nursing documentation integrated in the electronic patient record. Journal of clinical nursing, 10(6), 799–805. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11822852
  13. ^ Wu, M.-W., Lee, T.-T., Tsai, T.-C., Lin, K.-C., Huang, C.-Y., & Mills, M. E. (2012). Evaluation of a Mobile Shift Report System on Nursing Documentation Quality. Computers, informatics, nursing : CIN, 00(0). doi:10.1097/NXN.0b013e318266cac3
  14. ^ Wu, M.-W., Lee, T.-T., Tsai, T.-C., Lin, K.-C., Huang, C.-Y., & Mills, M. E. (2012). Evaluation of a Mobile Shift Report System on Nursing Documentation Quality. Computers, informatics, nursing : CIN, 00(0). doi:10.1097/NXN.0b013e318266cac3
  15. ^ Courtney, K. L., Demiris, G., & Alexander, G. L. (2005). Information Technology, 29(4), 315–322.
  16. ^ Duffy, W. J., Kharasch, M., & Hongyan, D. (2010). Point of Care Documentation Impact on the Nurse-Patient, 34(1)
  17. ^ Kohle-Ersher, A., Chatterjee, P., Osmanbeyoglu, H. U., Hochheiser, H., & Bartos, C. (2012). Evaluating the Barriers to Point-of-Care Documentation for Nursing Staff. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 30(3), 126–33. doi:10.1097/NCN.0b013e3182343f14
  18. ^ Kohle-Ersher, A., Chatterjee, P., Osmanbeyoglu, H. U., Hochheiser, H., & Bartos, C. (2012). Evaluating the Barriers to Point-of-Care Documentation for Nursing Staff. Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN, 30(3), 126–33. doi:10.1097/NCN.0b013e3182343f14
  19. ^ Schiff, G. D., & Bates, D. W. (2010). Can Electronic Clinical Documentation Help Prevent Diagnostic Errors? The New England Journal of Medicine, 362(12), 1066–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0911734
  20. ^ Briggs, B. (2004). Patient Safety Driving Point-of-Care I.T. Plans. Health Data Management, 12(10), 56, 58, 60 passim. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15536825
  21. ^ Mendoca, E. A., Chen, E. S., Stetson, P. D., McKnight, L. K., Lei, J., &Cimino, J. J. (2004). Approach to mobile information and communication for health care. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 73, 631–638.doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2004.04.013
  22. ^ Yeung, M. S., Lapinsky, S. E., Granton, J. D., Doran, D. M., &Cafazzo, J. A. (2012). Examining nursing vital signs documentation workflow: barriers and opportunities in general internal medicine units. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(7-8), 975–982.
  23. ^ Duffy, W. J., Kharasch, M., & Hongyan, D. (2010). Point of Care Documentation Impact on the Nurse-Patient, 34(1)
  24. ^ Yeung, M. S., Lapinsky, S. E., Granton, J. D., Doran, D. M., &Cafazzo, J. A. (2012). Examining nursing vital signs documentation workflow: barriers and opportunities in general internal medicine units. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(7-8), 975–982.
  25. ^ Cheevakasemsook, A., Chapman, Y., Francis, K., & Davies, C. (2006). The study of nursing documentation complexities. International journal of nursing practice, 12(6), 366–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00596.x
  26. ^ Whittaker, A. a, Aufdenkamp, M., & Tinley, S. (2009). Barriers and facilitators to electronic documentation in a rural hospital. Journal of nursing scholarship : an official publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing / Sigma Theta Tau, 41(3), 293–300. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01278.x
  27. ^ Cheevakasemsook, A., Chapman, Y., Francis, K., & Davies, C. (2006). The study of nursing documentation complexities. International journal of nursing practice, 12(6), 366–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00596.x
  28. ^ Cheevakasemsook, A., Chapman, Y., Francis, K., & Davies, C. (2006). The study of nursing documentation complexities. International journal of nursing practice, 12(6), 366–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00596.x
  29. ^ Cheevakasemsook, A., Chapman, Y., Francis, K., & Davies, C. (2006). The study of nursing documentation complexities. International journal of nursing practice, 12(6), 366–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00596.x
  30. ^ Cheevakasemsook, A., Chapman, Y., Francis, K., & Davies, C. (2006). The study of nursing documentation complexities. International journal of nursing practice, 12(6), 366–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00596.x
  31. ^ Cheevakasemsook, A., Chapman, Y., Francis, K., & Davies, C. (2006). The study of nursing documentation complexities. International journal of nursing practice, 12(6), 366–74. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00596.x
  32. ^ Collier, R. (2012). Medical Privacy Breaches Rising. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(4)