Point Hope, Alaska

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For the headland, see Point Hope (cape), Alaska.
Point Hope
Tikiġaq
City
Point Hope is located in Alaska
Point Hope
Point Hope
Location in Alaska
Coordinates: 68°20′49″N 166°45′47″W / 68.34694°N 166.76306°W / 68.34694; -166.76306Coordinates: 68°20′49″N 166°45′47″W / 68.34694°N 166.76306°W / 68.34694; -166.76306
Country United States
State Alaska
Borough North Slope
Incorporated January 5, 1966[1]
Government
 • Mayor Jack Schaefer[2]
Area
 • Total 6.4 sq mi (16.6 km2)
 • Land 6.3 sq mi (16.4 km2)
 • Water 0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation 7 ft (2 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 674
 • Density 110/sq mi (41/km2)
Time zone Alaska (AKST) (UTC-9)
 • Summer (DST) AKDT (UTC-8)
ZIP code 99766
Area code 907
FIPS code 02-61630

Point Hope (Inupiaq: Tikiġaq[pronunciation?]) is a city in North Slope Borough, Alaska, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 674.

Geography and Climate[edit]

Point Hope town is located in the Point Hope landhead, at the NW end of the Lisburne Peninsula, on the Chukchi Sea coast, 40 mi. SW of Cape Lisburne, Arctic Slope at 68°20′49″N 166°45′47″W / 68.34694°N 166.76306°W / 68.34694; -166.76306 (68.347052, -166.762917).[3]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.4 square miles (17 km2), of which, 6.3 square miles (16 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (1.09%) is water.

Climate data for Point Hope
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −16
(3)
−16
(3)
−16
(3)
−8
(18)
0
(32)
6
(43)
11
(52)
10
(50)
7
(45)
0
(32)
−7
(19)
−11
(12)
−3.3
(26)
Average low °C (°F) −21
(−6)
−22
(−8)
−22
(−8)
−14
(7)
−4
(25)
1
(34)
6
(43)
7
(45)
3
(37)
−4
(25)
−12
(10)
−17
(1)
−8.2
(17.1)
 % humidity 77 76 72 71 79 79 76 76 73 80 79 82 76.7
Source: http://www.tititudorancea.com/z/weather_point_hope_alaska_united_states.htm

Demographics[edit]

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 757 people, 186 households, and 151 families residing in the city. The population density was 119.4 people per square mile (46.1/km²). There were 215 housing units at an average density of 33.9 per square mile (13.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 8.72% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 87.05% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.13% from other races, and 3.83% from two or more races. 1.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 186 households out of which 54.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.3% were non-families. 13.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.07 and the average family size was 4.50.

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 42.5% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 14.7% from 45 to 64, and 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females there were 122.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $63,125, and the median income for a family was $66,250. Males had a median income of $41,750 versus $35,625 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,641. About 13.9% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over.

History[edit]

A pile of whale bones in Point Hope where celebrations are held at the conclusion of the whaling season

Before any modern settlement, the Ipiutak lived here.

The descriptive Inuit name of the place, "Tikarakh" or "Tikigaq" commonly spelled "Tiagara", means "forefinger". It was recorded as "Tiekagagmiut" in 1861 by P. Tikhmeniev Wich of the Russian Hydrographic Department and on Russian Chart 1495 it became "Tiekaga". This ancient village site was advantageous, because the protrusion of Point Hope into the sea brought the whales close to the shore. At Tikigaq, they built semi-subterranean houses using mainly whalebone and driftwood. Point Hope is one of the oldest continually occupied sites in North America. While some of the earlier dwellings have been lost to erosion as the point shrinks, it still provides a welter of valuable information to archaeologists on how early Eskimos survived in their harsh environment. The Tikigaq site is "by far the most extensive and complete one-period site yet discovered and described in the entire circumpolar region." - Helge Larsen.[5]

The first recorded Europeans to sight this cape were Russian explorers Mikhail Vasiliev and Gleb Shishmaryov of the Imperial Russian Navy on the ships Otkrietie and Blagonamierennie. Vasiliev and Shishmaryov named this landhead Mys Golovnina, after Vice Admiral Vasily Golovnin (1776–1831).

The cape at Point Hope was renamed by Captain Frederick William Beechey of the Royal Navy, who wrote on August 2, 1826: "I named it Point Hope in compliment to Sir William Johnstone Hope". According to Archdeacon Stuck[6] Hope was from a "well-known house long connected with the sea".[7]

Point Hope residents successfully opposed Operation Chariot (1958), which would have involved buried thermonuclear detonations some 30 miles from the village to create a deep-water artificial harbor, which would only have been usable about three months out of the year.

Basketball[edit]

The high-school boy's basketball team has won three consecutive Class 2-A Alaska championships. Basketball became popular before a gymnasium was built, and passing became important as dribbling was difficult on makeshift courts and on snow. An up-tempo, skillful passing game has characterized play since then by the Harpooners and Harponerettes, as the boys and girls teams are known, enabling them to beat rival schools from districts with much larger population bases.[8]

Native people[edit]

Main article: Tikiġaġmiut

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Directory of Borough and City Officials 1974". Alaska Local Government (Juneau: Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs) XIII (2): 66. January 1974. 
  2. ^ "Community: Point Hope". Community Database Online. Juneau: Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Division of Community and Regional Affairs. February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014. 
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ The Firecracker Boys, O'Neill
  6. ^ 1920, p. 96
  7. ^ USGS
  8. ^ Point Hope Alaska Basketball, NYTimes, 5 Nov 2011